A—Á. 1

A. is the first letter in all the alphabets of Phenician extraction. The Runic alphabet, being confused and arbitrary, makes the sole exception to this rule.

A. Pronunciation: it is either simple (a) or diphthongal (á). The simple a is pronounced long or short; when long it is sounded like the long Italian a as in padre, or as in Engl. father; when short, like the short Italian a as in cambio, or as in Engl. marry. The á—though in grammars commonly called a long vowel—is phonetically diphthongal (a + u), and sounds like Engl. ou or ow: Engl. thou and Icel. þá, now and ná, have almost the same sound. Again a and á have, like all other vowels, diphthongs or simple, a deep, full chest-sound if followed by a single consonant, or by more than one weak consonant (a liquid followed by a media). They sound short if followed by two or more strong consonants (a double mute or liquid): thus the a and á sound long in tál, sermo; sát, sedebat; mán, mancipium; tál, dolus; ár, remits; sát, sessio, hátr, odium; hárðr, durus; káldr, frigidus; vándr, difficilis; támdr, domitus, etc. But short in hátt, pileum; hátt, modum; mánn, bominem; bánn, interdictum; háll, lubricus; kált, frigidum; rámt, acidum; hárt, durum; vánt, assuetum, etc.; the consonants shortening the sound of the preceding vowel. The a is also short in all endings, verbal or nominal, tala, talar, talaða, dixi; talast, dicitur; vaka, vigilia; fagran, pulchrum, etc. Etymologically a distinction must be made between the primitive á, as in sátu (sedebant), átu (edebant), gátu (poterant), and the á produced by suppressing consonants; either nasals, as in á, ást, áss, báss, gás, = an, anst, ans, bans, gans; or gutturals, h, g, k, as in á (aqua), sá (videbat), lá (jacebat), má (debet), nátt (nox), dráttr (tractus), and a great many others; or labials, v, f, as in á = af, áir = afr, hár but háfan; or dentals, as in nál (acus) [Goth. nepla, Engl. needle], vál (ambitus, mendicitas) [A. S. vädl], etc. In very early times there was no doubt an audible distinction between these two kinds of á, which however is not observed even by the earliest poets, those of the 10th century. The marking of the diphthongal vowels with an acute accent is due to the Icelandic philologist Thorodd (circa 1080-1140), and was probably an imitation of Anglo-Saxon. The circumflex, applied by Jacob Grimm, is unknown to Icel. authors of whatever age. Thorodd, in his treatise on the vowels (Skálda, pp. 160 sqq.), distinguishes between three kinds of vowels, viz. short, long (i. e. diphthongal), and nasal. The long ones he proposes to mark with an acute (ꜵ́); the nasals by a dot above the line (•). The vowels of his alphabet are thirty-six in number. According to his rule we should have to write, af (ex), át (esus), ä (in). No doubt the a was also nasal in the verbs and the weak nouns, komå (= koman), augä (gen.); and also when followed by an n, e. g. vänr (assuefactus). The distinctive marking of the nasals never came into practice, and their proper sound also disappeared; neither is this distinction observed by the poets in their rhymes. The marking of the diphthongal vowels—either the primitive vowels or those formed by agglutination—by an acute accent, according to the rule of Thorodd, is indeed used in a very few old Icel. parchment fragments of the 12th century. The only MS. of any considerable length which strictly observes this distinction is the Ann. Reg. Ísl. 2087. 4b. Royal Libr. Copenhagen, written in Icel. at the end of the 13th century. In the great bulk of MSS. both kinds of vowels are treated alike, as in Latin. About the middle of the 14th century the doubling of vowels, especially that of aa (symbol) = á, came into use, and was employed through more than three centuries, until about 1770 the Icelanders resumed the spelling of Thorodd, marking diphthongal vowels by an acute accent, but following the rules of modern pronunciation. The diphthong au—in Norse freq. spelt ou— has at present in Icel. a peculiar sound, answering to äu or eu in German, and nearly to Engl. oi. The Norse pronunciation is different and perhaps more genuine.

B. Changes.  I. a changes into e, á into æ: this change—a part of a more general transformation, by Grimm termed umlaut, 'vowel-change'—is common to all the Teutonic idioms, except the Gothic (v. letter E and Æ).  II. a changes into ö (ꜵ), á into ꜵ́: this transformation is peculiar to the Scandinavian branch, esp. the Icelandic idiom, where it is carried on to the fullest extent—in old Swedish and Danish its use was scanty and limited. It takes place,  1. in monosyllabic nouns with a for their radical vowel,  α. feminines, öld, periodus; önd, anima; örk, arca; för, iter; höll, aula; hönd, manus; sök, causa, etc.  β. adjectives in fem. sing. and in neut. pl., öll, tota; fögr, pulchra; hörð, dura; hölt, clauda; sönn, vera; from allr, etc.  γ. in plur. neut., bönd, vincula; börn, τέκνα; lönd, terrae; from band, etc.  δ. in singular masculines with a suppressed u in the root, hjörtr, cervus; fjörðr, sinus; björn, ursus; örn, aquila, etc.  2. in dissyllables a radical a, when followed by a final u (-u, -ur, -um, etc.), in Icel. constantly changes into ö,— öllum, cunctis; mönnum, hominibus; köllum, vocamus; vökum, vigiliis and vigilamus; vökur, vigiliae, etc. Danes and Swedes here retained the a; so did a great part of Norway. The change only prevailed in the west of Norway and the whole of Iceland. Some Norse MSS. therefore constantly keep a in those cases, e. g. Cd. Ups. De la Gard. 8 (Ed. C. R. Unger, 1849), which spells allum, cunctis; hafuð, caput; jafur, rex; andverðr, adversus; afund, invidia, etc. (v. Pref. viii.) Other Norse MSS. spell a and ö promiscuously; allum or öllum, kallum or köllum. In Icel. this change prevailed about the year 1000. Even at the end of the 10th century we still frequently meet with rhymes such as barð—jarðu, þang—langu, etc.  3. a in inflexions, in penultimate syllables, if followed by u, changes into u (or ö); thus keisurum, caesaribus; vitrurum, sapientioribus; hörðurum, durioribus; hörðustum, durissimis: pret. pl., sköpuðu, creabant; töluðu, dicebant; orrustu, pugnam. In part. pass. fem. sing. and neut. pl., sköpuð, creata; töluð, dicta; töpuð, perdi/ a. Neut. pl. in words, as sumur, aestates; heruð, pagi. This change is peculiar to Iceland, and is altogether strange to Norse MSS., where we constantly find such forms as ætlaðu, putabant; gnagaðu, mordebant; aukaðu, augebant; skapað, creata; kallað, dicta; skaparum, tapaðum, ágætastum, harðarum, skínandum; kunnastu, artem, etc. This difference, as it frequently occurred at early times, soon gave the Icel. idiom a peculiar and strange sound,—amarunt would, in Icelandic, be ömurunt. Norse phrases—as með bænum ok fastu (fostu) hafðu (höfðu) með sér vaxljós, ok dýrkaðu (dýrkuðu) þa hælgu hátíð með fastu (föstu) ok vaktu (vöktu) þar um nóttina með margum (mörgum) aðrum (öðrum) vanfærum mannum (monnum), O. H. L. 87—sound uncouth and strange to Icel. ears; and so no doubt did the Icel. vowel transformations to Norse ears.  4. endings in -an, -all, e. g. feminines in -an, as hugsan, ætlan, iðran, frequently change into -un,—hugsun, ætlun, iðrun, and are now always used so: gamall, vetus, f. gömul; einsamall, solus, f. einsömul. In modern Norse, gomol, eismol (Ivar Aasen); atall, atrox; ötull, strenuus; svikall, perfidus, and svikull; þrifnaðr, mundities, and þrifnuðr, etc.  5. in the cases correlative to II. 1, 2, the á in its turn changes into a vowel, by Thorodd marked ꜵ́; this vowel change seems to have been settled about the beginning of the 11th century, and prevailed in Iceland during the 12th, being constantly employed in MSS. of that time; about the end of that century, however, and the beginning of the next, it fell off, and at last became extinct. Its phonetical value, therefore, cannot now be precisely stated: it no doubt had an intermediate sound between á and ó, such as ö (oo) has between a and o. Thorodd proposed to mark the short 'umlaut' ö by ꜵ; and the vowel change of á by ꜵ́ (in the MSS. however commonly written ǫ). Instances: fem., ꜵ́, amnis; ꜵ́st, amor; ꜵ́l, funis; ꜵ́r, remits; lꜵ́g, lignum; skrꜵ́, libellus; sꜵ́tt, pax; sꜵ́l, anima; nꜵ́l, acus; vꜵ́n, spes: masc., hꜵ́ttr, modus; þrꜵ́ðr, filum; þꜵ́ttr, funis; mꜵ́ttr, vis; ꜵ́ss, deus; ꜵ́rr, nuntius: neut. pl., sꜵ́r, vulnera; tꜵ́r, δάκρυα; mꜵ́l, dicta; rꜵ́ð, consilia; vꜵ́r, vera: adj. fem, and neut., koát, læta; fꜵ́, pauca; smꜵ́, parva; hꜵ́, alta; fꜵ́m, paucis; hꜵ́m, altis: verbs, sꜵ́, videbant (but sá, videbat); gꜵ́tu, capiebant; ꜵ́tu, edebant (but at, edebat), etc.: v. Frump. 26-28: e. g. sár (vulnus) veitti maðr mer eitt (unum), sꜵ́r mörg (multa vulnera) veitta ek hánum, Skálda (Thorodd), 162; ꜵ́l (= öl, cerevisia) er drykkr, ꜵ́l er band (vinculum), id. 163; tungan er málinu vꜵ́n (= vön, assuefacta), en at tönnunum er bitsins vꜵ́n (morsils exspectatio), id.: frequently in the Grágás, lýsa sár sitt (vulnus) eðr sꜵ́r (vulnera) ef fleiri eru, Eb. i. 151; sꜵ́r en minni (vulnera leviora), 170; en meire sꜵ́r (graviora), 174; síðan es sꜵ́r eða ben voru lýst, 175; engi sꜵ́r (nulla vulnera), sꜵ́r, and rꜵ́ð, 176, 177; mꜵ́l, ii. 51; vꜵ́r, 158,

2 A.

C. Other changes:—in modern Icel. the old syllable va has changed into vo; vó of the 14th century being an intermediate form: thus von, spes; votr, madidus; vor, ver; vorr, noster; voði, periculum; koma, adventus; voru, erant, etc.: so also the á in the dat. hánum, illi, now honum, which is also employed in the editions of old writings; kómu = kvámu = kvómu, veniebant, etc. In Norway a was often changed into æ in the pronominal and adverbial forms; as hæna, illam; þær, þænn, þæt, ibi, ilium, illud; hence originate the mod. Dan. hende, der, den, det; in some Norse dialects even still dar, dat. The short a in endings in mod. Dan. changed into e (æ), e. g. komme, uge, talede, Icel. koma, vika; whereas the Swedes still preserve the simple a, which makes their language more euphonious than the mod. Dan. In most districts of Icel. an a before ng, nk, has changed into á, thus langr (longus), strangr (durus), krankr (aegrotus) are spelt lángr, kránkr, etc. In the west of Iceland however we still say langr, strangr, etc., which is the pure old form. The a becomes long when followed by lf, lm, lp, thus álfr, genius; álpt, cygnus; hálfr, dimidius; kálfr, vitulus; sjálfr, ipse; this is very old: the fem. hꜵ́lf, dimidia, which occurs in the 12th century, points to an á, not a; já = ja in hjálpa, skjálfa, etc. The lengthening before lm is later,—álmr, ulmus; hálmr, calamus; sálmr, psalmus; hjálmr, galea; málmr, metallum, etc. In all these cases the á is not etymological. Also before ln in the plur. of alin, álnar not alnar: lk, alka = alka, alca; bálkr = balkr; fálki = falki, falco: háls = hals; frjáls = frjals; járn = jarn; skáld = skald; v. those words: aarni, dat. of arinn, v. that word: the proper name Árni, properly Arni: abbati, abbas, ábóti: Adám, on the contrary, changed into Adam; Máría into Maria, Mary. The old spelling is still kept in máriatla, motacilla pectore albo, etc. In the 1st pers. pret. indic., and in the pres. and pret. conj. we have a changed into i, e. g. talaða to talaði, locutus sum; sagða, dixi, vilda, volui, hafða, habui, to sagði, vildi, hafði: in the 1st pers. pres. and pret. conj., hefða, haberem, hafa, habeam, to hefði, hafi. These forms occur as early as the beginning of the 13th century (e. g. in the Hulda, Cd. A. M. 66, fol. = Fms. vi. and vii). In the south of Iceland however (Reykjavik, the Árnes and Gullbringusýsla) the old forms are still frequently heard in bisyllabic preterites, esp. ek vilda, sagða, hafða, and are also employed in writing by natives of those districts.

D. a answers to Goth. a; A. S. ea (a, ä); allr, totus; Goth. alls; A. S. eall: the primitive á to Goth. ê, sátu, Goth. sêtun, sedebant; gráta, grétun, lacrymari; láta, lêtan; vápn, vêpn, arma; vagr, vêgs, fluctus. The Icel. secondary á, on the contrary, must in the kindred Teutonic idioms be sought for under a vowel plus a consonant, such as an, ah, or the like. A. S. æ commonly answers to Icel. á, láta, A. S. lætan; dáð, A. S. dæð; þráðr, A. S. þræð, Engl. thread; mál (καιρός), A. S. mæl, cp. Engl. meal. The A. S. â, on the contrary, etymologically answers to Icel. ei. The diphthong au answers to Goth. au, A. S. eâ,—rauðr, Goth. rauds, A. S. reað, Engl. red. In English the a seems at very early times to have assumed its present ambiguous sound; this we may infer from A. S. words introduced into Icelandic. The river Thames in Icel. is spelt, as it is still pronounced in England, as Tems, which form occurs in a poem of the year 1016. E. The Runic character for a was in the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Runes (so termed by P. A. Munch) [A. S. ]; so in the Golden horn, on the stone in Thune in Norway (Ed. by P. A. Munch, 1857), and in the Bracteats. The Saxons called it ôs = áss, deus. In the Runes it was the fourth letter in the first group (fuþork). The Scandinavians in their Runes used this character for o, and called it óss, ostium, probably misled by the A. S. pronunciation of the homely word áss. This character, however, occurs only a few times in the common Runes, which in its stead used the A. S. Rune j, gér, annona, which is the fourth Rune in the second group (hnias, A. S. hnijs), called according to the northern pronunciation ár, annona: this letter, or has the form, as well as the name and place, of the A. S. j, .

A

-A or -AT or -T, a negative suffix to verbs, peculiar to Iceland and a part, at least, of Norway. Occurs frequently in old Icelandic poetry and laws, so as almost to form a complete negative voice. In the 1st pers. a personal pronoun k (g) = ek is inserted before the negative suffix, in the 2nd pers. a t or tt. As a rule the pron. as thus repeated; má-k-at-ek, non possum; sé-k-at-ek, non video; hef-k-at-ek, non habeo; skal-k-at-ek; vil-k-at-ek, nolo; mon-k-at-ek, non ero, etc.: 2nd pers. skal-t-at-tu; mon-t-at-tu; gaf-t-at-tu, non dabas: and after a long vowel a tt, mátt-at-tu, sátt-at-tu; so almost invariably in all monosyllabic verbal forms; but not so in bisyllabic ones, máttir-a-þú, non poteras: yet in some instances in the 1st pers. a pronominal g is inserted, e. g. bjargi-g-a-k, verbally servem ego non ego; höggvi-g-a-k, non cædam; stöðvi-g-a-k, quin sistam; vildi-g-a-k, nolui; hafði-g-a-k, non babui; mátti-g-a-k, non potui; görði-g-a-k, non feci: if the verb has gg as final radical consonants, they change into kk, e. g. þikk-at-ek = þigg-k-at-ek, nolo accipere. In the 3rd pers. a and at or t are used indifferently, t being particularly suffixed to bisyllabic verbal flexions ending in a vowel, in order to avoid an hiatus,—skal-at or skal-a, non erit; but skolo-t, non sunto: forms with an hiatus, however, occur,—bítí-a, non mordat; renni-a, ne currat; skríði-a, id.; leti-a, ne retardet; vaeri-a, ne esset; urðu-a, non erant; but bíti-t, renni-t, skríði-t, urðu-t are more current forms: v. Lex. Poët. The negative suffix is almost peculiar to indic., conj., and imperat. moods; the neg. infin. hardly occurs. Nothing analogous to this form is to be found in any South-Teutonic idiom; neither do there remain any traces of its having been used in Sweden or Denmark. A single exception is the Runic verse on a stone monument in Öland, an old Danish province, now Swedish, where however the inscriptions may proceed from a Norse or Icel. hand. The Runic inscriptions run thus, sár aigi flo, who did not fly, old Icel. 'flo-at,' Baut. 1169. Neither does it occur in any Norse prose monuments (laws): but its use may yet be inferred from its occurrence in Norse poets of the 10th century, e. g. the poets Eyvind and Thiodolf; some of which instances, however, may be due to their being transmitted through Icel. oral tradition. In Bragi Gamli (9th century) it occurs twice or thrice; in the Haustlöng four times, in Ynglingatal four times, in Hákonarmál once (all Norse poems of the 10th century). In Icel. the suffixed negation was in full force through the whole of the 10th century. A slight difference in idioms, however, may be observed: Völuspá, e. g., prefers the negation by (using vas-at only once, verse 3). In the old Hávamal the suffix abounds (being used thirty-five times), see the verses 6, 10, 11, 18, 26, 29, 30, 34, 37-39, 49, 51, 52, 68, 74, 88, 113-115, 126-128, 130, 134, 136, 147, 149, 151, 153, 159. In Skírnismál, Harbarðsljóð, Lokasenna—all these poems probably composed by the same author, and not before the 10th century—about thirty times, viz. Hbl. 3, 4, 8, 14, 26, 35, 56; Skm. 5, 18, 22; Ls. 15, 16, 18, 25, 28, 30, 36, 42, 47, 49, 56, 60, 62. Egil (born circa 900, died circa 990) abounds in the use of the suffixed neg. (he most commonly avails himself of -at, -gi, or né; so, too, does Hallfred (born circa 968, died 1008), Einar Skálaglam in Vellekla (circa 940-995), and Thorarin in the Máhlíðingavísur (composed in the year 981); and in the few epigrams relating to the introduction of Christianity in Icel. (995-1000) there occur mon-k-að-ek, tek-k-at-ek, vil-k-at-ek, hlífði-t, mon-a, es-a; cp. the Kristni S. and Njala. From this time, however, its use becomes more rare. Sighvat (born circa 995, died 1040) still makes a frequent but not exclusive use of it. Subsequent poets use it now and then as an epic form, until it disappeared almost entirely in poetry at the middle or end of the 13th century. In the Sólarljóð there is not a single instance. The verses of some of our Sagas are probably later than the Sagas themselves; the greatest part of the Völsungakviður are scarcely older than the 11th century. In all these -at and conj. eigi are used indifferently. In prose the laws continued to employ the old forms long after they were abolished in common prose. The suffixed verbal negation was used, a. in the delivering of the oath in the Icel. Courts, esp. the Fifth Court, instituted about the year 1004; and it seems to have been used through the whole of the Icel. Commonwealth (till the year 1272). The oath of the Fifth (High) Court, as preserved in the Grágás, runs in the 1st pers., hefka ek fé borit í dóm þenna til liðs mér um sök þessa, ok ek monka bjóða, hefka ek fundit, ok monka ek finna, hvárki til laga né ólaga, p. 79; and again p. 81, only different as to ek hefka, ek monka (new Ed.): 3rd pers., hefirat hann fé; borit í dóm þenna ok monat hann bjóða, ok hefirat hann fundit, ok monat hann tinna, 80, 81; cp. also 82, and Nj. l. c. ch. 145, where it is interesting to observe that the author confounds the ist and 3rd persons, a sign of decay in grammatical form.  β. the Speaker (lögsögumaðr), in publicly reciting and explaining the law, and speaking in the name of the law, from the Hill of Laws (lögberg), frequently employed the old form, esp. in the legal words of command es and skal (yet seldom in plur.): erat in the dictatorial phrases, erat skyldr (skylt), non esto obligatus; erat landeigandi skyldr, Grág. (Kb.) i. 17; erat hinn skyldr, 21; yngri maðr era skyldr at fasta, 35; enda erat honum þá skylt at ..., 48; erat þat sakar spell, 127; era hinn þá skyldr at lýsa, 154; erat hann framar skyldr sakráða, 216; ok erat hann skyldr at ábyrgjask þat fé, 238; ok erat hann skyldr, id.; ok erat sakar aðili ella skyldr, ii. 74; erat hinn skyldr við at taka, 142; erat manni skylt at taka búfé, 143; enda erat heimting til fjár þess, 169; era hann þá skyldr at taka við í öðru fé nema hann vili, 209; ok erat þeim skylt at tíunda fé sitt, 211; ok erat hann skyldr at gjalda tíund af því, 212; erat kirkjudrottinn þá skyldr, 228; ef hann erat landeigaadi, i. 136. Skalat: skalat maðr eiga fó óborit, i. 23; skalat homum þat verða optar en um siun, 55; skalat maðr ryðja við sjálfan sik, 62; skalat hann þat svá dvelja, 68; skalat hann til véfangs ganga, 71; skalat aðilja í stefnuvætti hafa, 127; ok skala hann gjalda fyrir þat, 135; ok skalat hann með sök fara, 171; enda skalat hann fleirum baugum bœta, 199; skalat hann skilja félagit, 240; skalat hann meiri skuld eiga en, ii. 4; skalat þeim meðan á brott skipta, 5; skalat hann lögvillr verða, svá, 34; skalat hon at heldr varðveita þat fé, 59; í skalat enn sami maðr þar lengr vera, 71; ok skala honum bæta þat, 79; skalat fyl telja, 89; skalat hann banna fiskför, 123; skalat hann lóga

ABBADIS—AF. 3

fé því á engi veg, 158; skalat drepa þá menn, 167; skalat svá skipta manneldi, 173; skalat maðr reiðast við fjórðungi vísu, 183. Plur.: skolut menn andvitni bera ok hér á þingi, i. 68; skolut mál hans standast, 71; skolut þeir færi til vefangs ganga en, 75, etc. etc. Other instances are rare: tekrat þar fé er eigi er til (a proverb), i. 9; ok um telrat þat til sakbóta, ok of telrat þá til sakbóta (it does not count), 178; ef hann villat (will not) lýsa sár sitt, 51; ok ræðrat hann öðrum mönnum á hendr þann úmaga, 248; ræðrat sá sínum ómögum á hendr, ii. 18; verðrat honum at sakarspelli and verðrat honum þat at s., i. 63; verðrat honum þat at sakarvörn, 149; kömrat hann öðru við, ii. 141; þarfat hann bíða til þess, i. 70; ok skilrat hann frá aðra aura, ii. 141, i. 136. Reflexive form: kömskat hann til heimtingar um þat fé, he loses the claim to the money, ii. 180, etc. All these instances are taken from the Eb. (Ed. 1853). Remarkable is also the ambiguity in the oath of Glum (see Sir Edm. Head, Viga-Glum, pp. 102, 103, note, l. c.), who, instead of the plain common formal oath—vask-at-ek þar, vák-at-ek þar, rauðk-at-ek þar odd ok egg—said, vask at þar, vák at þar, rauðk at þar. He inverted the sense by dropping the intermediate pronominal ek between the verb and þar, and pronouncing symbol instead of symbol. It further occurs in some few proverbs: varat af vöru, sleikði um þvöru, Fs. 159; veldrat sá er varir, Nj. 61 (now commonly ekki veldr sá er v., so in Grett.); erat héra at borgnara þótt hœna beri skjöld, Fms. vii. 116; era hlums vant kvað refr, dró hörpu á ísi, 19: also in some phrases, referred to as verba ipsissima from the heathen age—erat vinum líft Ingimtmdar, Fs. 39; erat sjá draumr minni, Ld. 128. Thorodd employs it twice or thrice: því at ek sékk-a þess meiri þörf, because í do not see any more reason for this, Skálda 167; kannka ek til þess meiri ráð en lítil, I do not know, id.; mona (will not) mín móna (my mammy) við mik göra verst hjóna, 163. In sacred translations of the 12th century it occurs now and then. In the Homilies and Dialogues of Gregory the Great: monatþu í því flóði verða, thou shalt not; esa þat undarligt þótt, it is not to be wondered at; hann máttia sofna, he could not sleep; moncaþ ek banna, I shall not mind, Greg. 51, 53; vasal kall heyrt á strætum, was not, Post. 645. 84; nú mona fríðir menn hér koma, Niðrst. 623. 7. In later writers as an archaism; a few times in the Al. (MS. A. M. 519), 3, 5, 6, 44, 108; and about as many times in the MS. Eirspennill (A. M. 47, fol.) [Etymon uncertain; that at is the right form may be inferred from the assimilation in at-tu, and the anastrophe in t, though the reason for the frequent dropping of the t is still unexplained. The coincidence with the Scottish dinna, canna is quite accidental.]

abbadís, f. abbess. Hkr. iii. 398, Fms. vii. 239, Gþl. 365.

abbast, að, dep. (= amast), to be incensed at, vex, molest; a-við e-t, Clem. 50, Fms. vii. 166; a-uppá e-t, Nj. 194.

abbindi = af-bindi, n. tenesmus, Hm. 140; cp. Fél. ix. 185, where it is spelt afbendi.

= at, v. that word.  að- in compds, v. at-.  -að, suff. neg., v. -a.

AÐA, u, f. (and COMPD öðu-skel, f.)  α. mytulus testa planiuscula, a shell.β. fem. pr. n., Edda.

AÐAL, [O. H. G. adal, genus; cp. also A. S. éðele, nobilis; Old Engl. and Scot. ethel; Germ. edel; eðla- and eðal- came from mod. Dan. into Icel. aðall, nobility. It does not occur in old writings in this sense.]  I. n. nature, disposition, inborn native quality, used only in poetry; jóðs a., childish, Ýt. 13; ósnotrs aðal, foolish, insipid, Hm. 106; args a., dastardly, Ls. 23, 24; drengs a., noble, Km. 23; ódyggs a., bad, Hsm. 19.  2. in the sense of offspring; aðul Njarðar (where it is n. pl.?), the gods, the offspring of Njord, Hallfred in a poem, vide Fs. 59.  II. used in a great many COMPDS, chief-, head-. aðal-akkeri, n. sheet-anchor, Fms. x. 130:  β. metaph., Bs. i. 756.  aðal-bjórr, s, m. prime beaver skin, Eb. (in a verse).  aðal-borinn, part., v. óðalborinn.  aðal-ból, n. a manor-house, farm inhabited by its master, opp. to tenant farms, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 150; also the name of a farm, Hrafn. 4.  aðal-festr, f., v. alaðsfestr.  aðal-fylking, f. main force, main body, Hkr. ii. 361.  aðal-haf, n. the main, Fms. iv. 177. aðal-henda, u, f., v. alhenda.  aðal-hending, f. full, complete rhymes, such as allhall, opp. to skot-hending, q. v., Edda (Ht.)  aðal-hendr, adj. verse in full rhyme, Edda, id.  aðal-kelda, u, f. chief well, Karl. 442.  aðal-kirkja, ju, f. chief part of a church, viz. choir and nave, opp. to forkirkja, Sturl. ii. 59. aðalliga, adv. completely, thoroughly; a. dauðr, quite dead, 656 C. 31, Fms. ii. 313; a. gamall, quite old, iii. 171.  aðal-mein, n. great pain, Fms. vi. (in a verse).  aðal-merki, n. the head-standard, Pr. 177.  aðal-ritning, f. chief writing, Sks. 13. aðal-skáli, a, m. the chief apartment of a skáli, the hall, as distinguished from a forhús, Eb. 43.  aðal-tré, n. trunk of a tree; eigi munu kvistir betri en a. (a proverb), Fms. iv. 33.  aðal-troll, n. downright ogre, Fas. iii. 179.  aðal-túlkr, s, m. chief advocate, Bs. i. 445.  aðal-túpt, f. esp. in pl. ir = óðals-toptir, the ground on which a manor-bouse is built, toft of an allodial farm (Norse), flytja hús af aðaltóptum, remove it, N. G. L. i.

aðild, older form aðilð, pl. ir, f. [root aðal], v. the following word aðili. It doubtless originally meant chiefdom, headship, but it only occurs in the limited legal sense of chief-prosecutorship or defendantship, and this only, as it seems, in Icel. not in Norse law. It is a standing word in the Icel. codes and histories of the Commonwealth. It became obsolete after the year 1272, and does not occur in the codes Jb. or Js. In early times there were no public prosecutions or lawsuits; the aðild devolved together with the erfð (heirship) on the principal male heir, if of age; erfð and aðild go together, the first as a right, the last as an incumbent duty, like an English trusteeship; til erfðar ok aðildar, Eb. ch. 38. In the year 993 a law was passed to the effect that male heirs under sixteen years of age should be exempted from aðild, neither should heiresses ever be aðili. In such cases the aðild devolved on the next male heir above sixteen years of age, who then got a fee for executing this duty, Bs. i. 675. The aðild also could be undertaken by a delegate, called at fara með handselda sök, sök handseld, vörn handseld, fara með sök, carry on a suit, etc., v. Grágás Vs. ch. 35, (of aðild in a case of manslaughter,) and in many other places; Eb. ch. 38, Bs. i. 675 (Rs. in fine), Bjarn. (in fine), Njála, and many others: v. Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal.  COMPD: aðilðar-maðr, m. = aðili, Sturl. iii. 240, Orkn. 212.

aðili, ja, m. the chief-defendant or prosecutor in an Icel. lawsuit in the time of the Commonwealth. It seems to have meant originally head, chieftain, princeps. A standing word in the Grágás and the Sagas. As to the form, the older one is that which preserves the j in the terminations, gen. dat. acc. aðilja, plur. -jar, acc. -ja, dat. -jum. The Grágás constantly employs this form. The Njála and some of the Sagas drop the j and write aðila etc. In the Grágás aðilja seems to occur as an indecl. word—at least four times in the Kb.—used as nom. pl.: but as -ar in old MSS. is frequently marked by a single 'a' with a little stroke (symbol), this may be a misinterpretation. The indeclinable form occurs in the Kb. (Þ. Þ.) 25 and 109 (only preserved in the Kb.); Kb. 147, 170 has aðilja, where the Sb. has in both passages aðiljar: cp. however guðsifja and -bræðra. There is a distinction between a sóknar-aðili or sakar-aðili, prosecutor, and a varnar-aðili, defendant. Either with gen. or prep. at, varnar-a., sóknar-a., sakar-a; or inversely, a. sakar, a. varnar, a. frumsakar, Kb. 42, 124; a. máls, 126; a. vígsakar, in a case of manslaughter, 167; or vígsakar a. (often); a. fésakar, in a lawsuit about compensation, 123; a. legorðssakar, case of legorð, 194: with at, varnir þaer er hann er aðili at, 175; aðili at legorðs sekt, App. iv. 46, Grág. Kb. 15, 211; cp. also § 58, p. 103: hann er aðili at sök, bæði sækjandi ok seljandi, chief-plaintiff, either for carrying it on himself or by a delegate, Kb. 208. In the case of a delegate being the aðili, the challenge of jurors and judges on account of relationship was to be made in respect to the chief aðili, not the delegate, Kb. 127.

AF, prep. often used elliptically by dropping the case, or even merely adverbially, [Ulf. af; A. S. and Engl. of, off; Hel. ab; Germ. ab; Gr. ἀπό; Lat. a, ab.] With dat. denoting a motion a loco; one of the three prepp. af, ór, frá, corresponding to those in locoá, í, við, and ad locumá, í, at. It in general corresponds to the prepp. in locoa, or in locumtil, whilst ór answers more to í;—but it also frequently corresponds to yfir, um or í. It ranges between ór and fra, generally denoting the idea from the surface of, while ór means from the inner part, and frá from the outer part or border. The motion from a hill, plain, open place is thus denoted by af; by ór that from an enclosed space, depth, cavity, thus af fjalli, but ór of a valley, dale; af Englandi, but ór Danmörk, as mörk implies the notion of a deep wood, forest. The wind blows af landi, but a ship sets sail frá landi; frá landi also means a distance from: af hendi, of a glove, ring; ór hendi, of whatever has been kept in the hand (correl. to á hendi and í hendi). On the other hand af is more general, whilst fra and ór are of a more special character; frá denoting a departure, ór an impulse or force; a member goes home af þingi, whereas ór may denote an inmate of a district, or convey the notion of secession or exclusion from, Eb. 105 new Ed.; the traveller goes af landi, the exile ór landi: taka e-t af e-m is to take a thing out of one's hand, that of taka frá e-m to remove out of one's sight, etc. In general af answers to Engl. of, off, ór to out of, and frá to from: the Lat. prepp. ab, de, and ex do not exactly correspond to the Icelandic, yet as a rule ór may answer to ex, af sometimes to ab, sometimes to de. Of, off, from among; with, by; on account of, by means of, because of, concerning, in respect of.

A. Loc.I. WITH MOTION, off, from:1. prop. corresp. to á,α. konungr dró gullhring af hendi sár (but á hendi), Ld. 32; Höskuldr lætr bera farm af skipi, unload the ship (but bera farm á skip), id.; var tekit af hestum þeirra, they were unsaddled, Nj. 4; Gunnarr hafði farit heiman af bæ sínum, he was away from home, 82; Gunnarr hljóp af hesti sínum, jumped off his horse (but hl. á hest), 83; hlaupa, stökkva af baki, id., 112, 264; Gunnarr skýtr til hans af boganum, from the bow, where af has a slight notion of instrumentality, 96; flýja af fundinum, to fly from off the battle-field, 102; riða af Þríhyrningshálsum, 206; út af Langaholti, Eg. 744; sunnan ór Danmörk ok af Saxlandi, 560; ganga af mótinu, to go from the meeting, Fms. vii. 130; af þeirra fundi reis María upp ok fór, 625. 85; Flosi kastaði af sér skikkjunni, threw his cloak off him (but kasta á sik), Nj. 176; taka Hrungnis fót af honum, of a load, burden, Edda 58; land þat er hann fiskði af, from which he set off to fish, Grág. i. 151, is irregular, frá would suit better; slíta af baki e-s, from off one's back, ii. 9; bera af borði, to clear the table, Nj. 75.  β. where it more nearly answers to í; þeir koma af hafi, of sailors coming in (but leggja í haf), Nj. 128; fara til Noregs af Orkneyjum (but í or til O.), 131; þeim Agli fórst vel ok komu af hafi í Borgarfjörð, Eg. 392; hann var utlagi (outlawed)

4 AF.

af Noregi, where ór would be more regular, 344; af Islandi, of a traveller, Fms. x. 3; búa her af báðum ríkjunum, to take a levy from, 51; hinir beztu bændr ór Norðlendingafjórðungi ok af Sunnlendingafjórðungi, the most eminent Southerners and Northerners, 113; Gizzurr gékk af útsuðri at gerðinu, from south-west, Sturl. ii. 219; prestar af hvárutveggja biskupsdæmi, from either diocess, Dipl. ii. 11; verða tekinn af heimi, to be taken out of the world, 623. 21; gruflar hon af læknum, scrambles out of the brook, Ísl. ii. 340; Egill kneyfði af horninu í einum drykk, drained off the horn at one draught, literally squeezed every drop out of it, Eg. 557; brottuaf herbúðunurn, Fms. x. 343.  γ. of things more or less surrounding the subject, corresp. to yfir or um; láta þeir þegar af sér tjöldin, break off, take down the tents in preparing for battle, Eg. 261; kyrtillinn rifnaði af honum, his coat burst, caused by the swollen body, 602; hann hafði leyst af sér skúa sína, he untied his shoes (but binda á sik), 716; Steinarr vildi slíta hann af sér, throw him off, of one clinging to one's body, 747; tók Gísli þá af sér vápnin, took off his arms, Fms. vii. 39. Of putting off clothes; fara af kápu, Nj. 143; far þú eigi af brynjunni, Bs. i. 541; þá ætlaði Sigurðr at fara af brynjunni, id.; þá var Skarphóðinn flettr af klæðunum, Nj. 209: now more usually fara or klæðum, fötum, exuere, to undress.δ. connected with út; föstudaginn for út herrinn af borginni, marched out of the town, Nj. 274; ganga út af kirkjunni, to go out of the church, now út úr, Fms. vii. 107: drekki hann af þeirri jörðunni, of something impregnated with the earth, Laekn. 402.  ε. more closely corresponding to frá, being in such cases a Latinism (now frá); bréf af páfa, a pope's bull, Fms. x. 6; rit af hánum, letter from him, 623. 52; bréf af Magnúsi konungi, a letter from king Magnus, Bs. i. 712; farið þér á brautu af mér í eilífan eld, Hom. 143; brott af drottins augliti, Stj. 43.  ζ. denoting an uninterrupted continuity, in such phrases as land aflandi, from land to land, Eg. 343, Fas. ii. 539; skip af skipl. from ship to ship, Fms. v. 10; brann hvat af öðru, one after another, of an increasing fire, destroying everything, i. 128; brandr af brandi brenn, funi kveykist af funa, one from another, Hm. 56; hverr af öðrum, one after another, in succession, also hverr at öðrum, Eb. 272, 280 (where at in both passages).  2. metaph., at ganga af e-m dauðum, to go from, leave one dead on the spot, of two combatants; en hann segiz bani hins ef hann gekk af dauðum manni, Grág. ii. 88, Hkr. 1. 327; undr þykir mér er bróðir þinn vildi eigi taka af þér starf þetta, would not take this toil from thee, Nj. 77; þegnar hans glöddust af honum, were fain of him, Fms. x. 380; at koma þeim manni af sér er settr var á fé hans, to get rid of, Ld. 52; vil ek þú vinriir af þér skuldina, work off the debt, Njarð. 366; reka af sér, to repel, Sturl. ii. 219; hann á þá sonu er aldri munu af oss ganga, who will never leave us, whom we shall never get rid of, Fas. i. 280; leysa e-n af e-u, to relieve, 64; taka e-n af lífi, to kill, Eg. 48, 416, Nj. 126; af lífdögum, Fms. vii. 204; ek mun ná lögum af því máli, get the benefit of the law in this case, Eg. 468; muntu enga sætt af mér fá, no peace at my hand, 414; rísa af dauða, to rise from death, Fms. ii. 142; guð bætti honum þó af þessi sótt, healed him of this sickness, ix. 390; vakna af sýn, draumi, svefni, to awaken from a vision, dream, sleep, 655 xxxii. 1, Gísl. 24, Eb. 192, Fas. i. 41. Rather with the notion out of, in the phrase af sér etc., e. g. sýna e-t af scr, to shew, exhibit a disposition for or against, Ld. 18; gera mikit af sér, to shew great prowess, Ísl. ii. 368; éf þú gerir eigi meira af þér um aðra leika, unless you make more of thyself, Edda 32; Svipdagr hafði mikit af sér gert, fought bravely, Fas. i. 41; góðr (illr) af sér, good (bad) of oneself, by nature; mikill af sjálfum sér, proud, bold, stout, Nj. 15; ágætastr maðr af sjálfum sér, the greatest hero, Bret.: góðr af ser, excellent, Hrafn. 7; but, on the contrary, af sér kominn, ruinous, in decay; this phrase is used of old houses or buildings, as in Bs. i. 488 = Sturl. l. c.; af sér kominn af mæði can also be said of a man fallen off from what he used to be; kominn af fotum fram, off his legs from age, Sturl. i. 223, Korm. 154 (in a verse).  II. WITHOUT MOTION:  1. denoting direction from, but at the same time continuous connection with an object from which an act or thing proceeds, from; tengja skip hvárt fram af stafni annars, to tie the ships in a line, stem to stern, Fms. i. 157, xi. 111; svá at þeir tóku út af borðum, jutted out of the boards, of rafters or poles, iv. 49; stjarna ok af sem skaft, of a comet, ix. 482; lúka upp af hrossi, to open a gate from off a horse, Grág. ii. 264; hon svarar af sínu sæti sem álpt af baru, Fás. i. 186; þar er sjá mátti utau af firði, af þjóðleið, that might be seen from the fareway on the sea when sailing in the firth, Hkr. ii. 64; þá mun hringt af (better at) Burakirkju, of bells rung at the church, Fms. xi. 160; gengr þar af Meðalfellsströnd, projects from, juts out, of a promontory, Ld. 10.  2. denoting direction alone; upp af víkinni stóð borg mikil, a burg inland from the inlet, Eg. 161; lokrekkja innar af seti, a shut bed inward from the benches in the hall, Ísl. ii. 262; kapella upp af konungs herbergjum, upwards from, Fms. x. 153; vindr stóð af landi, the wind stood off the land, Bárð. 166.  β. metaph., stauda af e-u, vide VI. 4.  γ. ellipt., hallaði af norðr, of the channel, north of a spot, Boll. 348; also, austr af, suðr af, vestr af, etc.  3. denoting absence; þingheyendr skulu eigi vera um nótt af þingi (away from the meeting), eðr lengr, þá eru þeir af þingi (away from (be meeting) ef þeir eru or (out of) þingmarki, Grág. i. 25; vera um nótt af várþingi, 115; meðan hann er af landi héðan, abroad, 150.  β. metaph., gud hvíldi af öllum verkum sínum á sjaunda degi, rested from his labours, Ver. 3.  4. denoting distance; þat er komit af þjóðleið, out of the high road, remote, Eg. 369; af þjóðbraut, Grág. ii. 264, i. 15; Otradalr (a farm) var mjök af vegi, far out of the way, Háv. 53.

B. Temp. past, from, out of, beyond:1. of a person's age, in the sense of having past a period of life; af ómaga aldri, of age, able to support oneself, Grág. i. 243; af aeskualdri, stricken in years, having past the prime of life, Eg. 202; lítið af barnsaldri, still a child, Ld. 74; ek em nú af léttasia skeiði, no longer in the prime of life, Háv. 40.  2. of a part or period of time, past; eigi síðar en nótt er af þingi, a night of the session past, Grág. i. 101; þá er sjau vikur eru af sumri, seven weeks past of the summer, 182; tíu vikur af sumri, Íb. 10; var mikit af nótt, much of the night was past, Háv. 41; mikið af vetri, much of the winter was past, Fas. ii. 186; þriðjungr af nótt, a third of the night past, Fms. x. 160; stund af degi, etc.; tveir mánoðr af sumri, Gþl. 103.  3. in adverbial phrases such as, af stundu, soon; af bragði, at once; af tómi, at leisure, at ease; af nýju, again; af skyndingu, speedily; af bráðungu, in a hurry, etc.

C. In various other relations:  I. denoting the passage or transition of an object, concrete or abstract, of, from.1. where a thing is received, derived from, conferred by a person or object; þiggja lið af e-m, to derive help from, Edda 26; taka traust af e-m, to receive support, comfort from, Fms. xi. 243; taka mála af e-m, to be in one's pay, of a soldier, Eg. 266; halda land af e-m, to hold land of any one, 282; verða viss af e-m, to get information from, 57, Nj. 130; taka við sök af manni (a law term), to undertake a case, suit, Grág. i. 142; hafa umboð af e-m, to be another's deputy, ii. 374; vera góðs (ills) maklegr af e-m, to deserve good (bad) of, Vd. 88 (old Ed., the new reads frá), Fs. 45; afla matar af eyjum, to derive supplies from, Eb. 12.  2. where an object is taken by force:α. prop. out of a person's hand; þú skalt hnykkja smíðit af honum, wrest it out of his hand, Nj. 32; cp. taka, þrífa, svipta e-u (e-t) af e-m, to wrest from.β. metaph. of a person's deprival of anything in general; hann tók af þér konuna, carried thy wife off, Nj. 33; tók Gunnarr af þér sáðland þitt, robbed thee of seedland, 103; taka af honum tignina, to depose, degrade him, Eg. 271; vinna e-t af e-m, to carry off by force of arms, conquer, Fms. iii. 29; drepa menn af e-m, for one, slay one's man, Eg. 417; fell þar lið mart af Eyvindi, many of Eyvind's people fell there, 261.  γ. in such phrases as, hyggja af e-u (v. afhuga), hugsa af e-u, to forget; hyggja af harmi; sjá af e-u, to lose, miss; var svá ástúðigt með þeim, at livargi þóttist mega af öðrum sjá, neither of them could take his eyes off the other, Sturl. i. 194; svá er mörg við ver sinn vær, at varla um sér hon af hoiuun nær, Skálda 163.  3. denoting forfeiture; þá eru þeir útlagir, ok af goðorði sínu, have forfeited their priesthood, Grág. i. 24; telja hann af ráðunum fjár síns alls, to oust one, on account of idiocy or madness, 176; verða af kaupi, to be off the bargain, Edda 26; þá skalt þú af allri fjárheimtunni, forfeit all the claim, Nj. 15; ek skal stefna þér af konunni, summon thee to forfeit, a case of divorce, id.; ella er hann af rettarfari um hana, has forfeited the suit, Grág. i. 381.  β. ellipt., af ferr eindagi ef, is forfeited, Grág. i. 140.  II. denoting relation of a part to a whole, off, of, Lat. de; höggva hönd, höfuð, fót af e-um, to cut one's hand, head, foot off, Nj. 97, 92, Bs. i. 674; höggva spjót af skapti, to sever the blade from the shaft, 264; hann lét þá ekki hafa af föðurarfi sínum, nothing of their patrimony, Eg. 25; vil ek at þú takir slíkt sem þér líkar af varningi, take what you like of the stores, Nj. 4; at þú eignist slíkt af fé okkru sem þú vili, 94.  β. ellipt., en nú höfum vér kjörit, en þat er af krossinum, a slice of, Fms. vii. 89; þórðr gaf Skólm frænda sínum af landnámi sínu, a part of, Landn. 211; hafði hann þat af hans eigu er hann vildi, Sturl. ii. 169; þar lá forkr einn ok brotið af endanum, the point broken off, Háv. 24, Sturl. i. 169.  γ. absol. off; beit hann höndina af, þar sem nú heitir úlfliðr, bit the hand off, Edda 17; fauk af höfuðit, the head flew off, Nj. 97; jafnt er sem þér synist, af er fótrinn, the foot is off, id.; af bæði eyru, both ears off, Vm. 29.  2. with the notion of = among; mestr skörungr af konum á Norðrlöndum, the greatest heroine in the North, Fms. i. 116; hinn efniligasti maðr af ungum mönnum í Austfjörðum, the most hopeful of youths in the Eastfirths, Njarð. 364; af (among) öllurn hirðmönnuni virði konungr mest skáld sín, Eg. 27; ef hann vildi nokkura kaupa af þessum konum, Ld. 30; ör liggr þar útiá vegginum, ok er sú af þeirra örum, one of their own arrows, Nj. 115.  β. from, among, belonging to; guð kaus hana af ollum konum sér til móður, of the Virgin Mary, Mar. A. i. 27.  γ. metaph., kunna mikit (lítið) af e-u, to know much, little of, Bragi kann mest af skáldskap, is more cunning of poetry than any one else, Edda 17.  δ. absol. out of, before, in preference to all others; Gunnarr bauð þér góð boð, en þú vildir eingi af taka, you would choose none of them, Nj. 77; ráða e-t af, to decide; þó mun faðir minn mestu af ráða, all depends upon him, Ld. 22; konungr kveðst því mundu heldr af trúa, preferred believing that of the two, Eg. 55; var honum ekki vildara af ván, he could expect nothing better, 364.  3. with the additional sense of instrumentality, with; ferma skip af e-u, to freight a ship

AF—AFARILLA. 5

with, Eg. 364; hlaða mörg skip af korni, load many ships with corn, Fms. xi. 8; klyfja tvá hesta af mat, Nj. 74; var vágrinn skipaðr af herskipum, the bay was covered with war ships, 124; fylla ker af glóðum, fill it with embers, Stj. 319; fylla heiminn af sínu kyni, to fill the world with his offspring, Ver. 3.  III. denoting the substance of which a thing is made, of; used indifferently with ór, though ór be more frequent; þeir gerðu af honum jörðina, af blóði hans sæinn ok vötnin, of the creation of the world from the corpse of the giant Ymir; the poem Gm. 40, 41, constantly uses ór in this sense, just as in modern Icelandic, Edda 5; svá skildu þeir, at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nokkru efni, 147 (pref.); húsit var gert af timbrstokkum, built of trunks of timber, Eg. 233; hjöhin vóru af gulli, of gold, golden, Fms. i. 17; af osti, of cheese, but in the verse l. c. ór osti, Fms. vi. 253; línklæði af lérepti, linen, Sks. 287.  2. metaph. in the phrases, göra e-t af e-ti (to dispose of), verða af (become of), hvat hefir þú gört af Gunnari, what hast thou done with Gunnar? Njarð. 376; hvat af motrinuni er orðit, what has become of it? of a lost thing, Ld. 208; hverfr Óspakr á burt, svá eigi vita menn hvat af honum er orðit, what has become of him? Band. 5.  IV. denoting parentage, descent, origin, domicile, abode:1. parentage, of, from, used indifferently with frá; ok eru af þeim komnir Gilsbekkingar, descend from them, but a little below—frá honum eru konmir Sturlungar, Eb. 338, cp. afkvæmi; af ætt Hörðakára, Fms. i. 287; kominn af Trojumönnum, xi. 416; af Ása-ætt (Eb. wrongly at), Edda  I.β. metaph., vera af Guði (theol.), of God, = righteous, 686 B. 9; illr ávöxtr af íllri rót, Fms. ii. 48; Asia er kölluð af nafni nokkurar konu, derives her name from, Stj. 67; af honum er bragr kallaðr skáldskapr, called after his name, Edda 17.  2. of domicile; af danskri tungu, of Danish or Scandinavian origin, speaking the Danish tongue, Grág. ii. 73; hvaðan af löndum, whence, native of what country? Ísl.  β. especially denoting a man's abode, and answering to á and í, the name of the farm (or country) being added to proper names, (as in Scotland,) to distinguish persons of the same name; Hallr af Síðu, Nj. 189; Erlingr af Straumey, 273; Ástríðr af Djúpárbakka, 39; Gunnarr af Hlíðarenda (more usual frá); þorir haklangr konungr af Ögðum, king of Agdir, Eg. 35, etc.; cp. ór and frá.  V. denoting a person with whom an act, feeling, etc. originates, for the most part with a periphrastic passive:  1. by, the Old Engl. of; as, ek em sendr hingað af Starkaði ok sonum hans, sent hither by, Nj. 94; inna e-t af hendi, to perform, 257; þó at alþýða væri skírð af kennimönnum, baptized of, Fms. ii. 158; meira virðr af mönnum, higher esteemed, Ld. 158; ástsæll af landsmönnum, beloved, íb. 16; vinsæll af mönnum, Nj. 102; í allgóðu yfirlæti af þeim feðgum, hospitably treated by them, Eg. 170; var þá nokkut drukkið af alþjóð, there was somewhat hard drinking of the people, Sturl. iii. 229; mun þat ekki upp tekið af þeim sükudólgum mínum, they will not clutch at that, Nj. 257; ef svá væri í hendr þér búit af mér, if í had so made everything ready to thy hands, Ld. 130; þá varð fárætt um af föður hans, his father said little about it, Fms. ii. 154.  2. it is now also sometimes used as a periphrase of a nom., e. g. ritað, þýtt af e-m, written, translated, edited by, but such phrases scarcely occur in old writers.  VI. denoting cause, ground, reason: 1. originating from, on account of, by reason of; af frændsemis sökum, for kinship's sake, Grág. ii. 72; ómáli af áverkum, speechless from wounds, 27; af manna völdum, by violence, not by natural accident, of a crime, Nj. 76; af fortölum Halls, through his pleading, 255; af ástsæld hans ok af tölum þeirra Sæmundar, by his popularity and the eloquence of S., Íb. 16; af ráðum Haralds konungs, by his contriving, Landn. 157; úbygðr af frosti ok kulda, because of frost and cold, Hkr. i. 5.  β. adverbially, af því, therefore, Nj. 78; af hví, why? 686 B. 9; þá verðr bóndi heiðinn af barni sínu, viz. if he does not cause his child to be christened, K. Þ. K. 20.  2. denoting instrumentality, by means of; af sinu fé, by one's own means, Grág. i. 293; framfæra e-n af verkum sinum, by means of one's own labour, K. Þ. K. 42; draga saman auð af sökum, ok vælum ok kaupum, make money by, 623. I; af sínum kostnaði, at his own expense, Hkr. i. 217.  β. absol., hún fellir á mik dropa svá heita at ek brenn af öll, Ld. 328; hann fékk af hina mestu sæmd, derived great honotur from it, Nj. 88; elli sótti á hendr honum svá at hann lagðist í rekkjn af, he grew bedridden from age, Ld. 54; komast undan af hlaupi, escape by running, Fms. viii. 58; spinna garn af rokki, spin off a wheel (now, spinna á rokk), from a notion of instrumentality, or because of the thread being spun out (?), Eb. 92.  3. denoting proceeding, originating from; lýsti af höndum hennar, her hands spread beams of light, Edda 22; allir heimar lýstust (were illuminated) af henni, id.; en er lýsti af degi, when the day broke forth, Fms. ii. 16; lítt var lýst af degi, the day was just beginning to break, Ld. 46; þá tók at myrkja af nótt, the 'mirk-time' of night began to set in, Eg. 230; tók þá brátt at myrkva af nótt, the night grew dark, Hkr. ii. 230.  4. metaph., standa, leiða, hljótast af, to be caused by, result from; opt hlýtst íllt af kvenna hjali, great mischief is wrought by women's gossip (a proverb), Gísl. 15, 98; at af þeim mundi mikit mein ok úhapp standa, be caused by, Edda 18; kenna kulda af ráðum e-s, to feel sore from, Eb. 42; þó mun her hljótast af margs manns bani, Nj, 90.  5. in adverbial phrases, denoting state of mind; af mikilli æði, in fury, Nj. 116; af móð, in great emotion, Fms. xi. 221; af áhyggju, with concern, i. 186; af létta, frankly, iii. 91; af viti, collectedly, Grág. ii. 27; af heilu, sincerely, Eg. 46; áf fári, in rage; af æðru, timidly, Nj. (in a verse); af setning, composedly, in tune, Fms. iii. 187; af mikilli frægð, gallantly, Fas. i. 261; af öllu afli, with all might, Grág. ii. 41; af riki, violently, Fbr. (in a verse); af trúnaði, confidently, Grág. i. 400.  VII. denoting regard to, of, concerning, in respect of, as regards:1. with verbs, denoting to tell of, be informed, inquire about, Lat. de; Dioscorides segir af grasi því, speaks of, 655 xxx. 5; er menn spurðu af landinu, inquired about it, Landn. 30; halda njósn af e-u, Nj. 104; er þat skjótast þar af at segja, Eg. 546, Band. 8.  β. absol., hann mun spyrja, hvárt þér sé nokkut af kunnigt hversu for með okkr, whether you know anything about, how, Nj. 33; halda skóla af, to hold a school in a science, 656 A. i. 19 (sounds like a Latinism); en ek gerða þik sera mestan mann af öllu, in respect of all, that you should get all the honour of it, Nj. 78.  2. with adjectives such as mildr, illr, góðr af e-u, denoting disposition or character in respect to; alira manna mildastr af fo, very liberal, often-banded, Fms. vii. 197; mildr af gulli, i. 33; góðr af griðum, merciful, Al. 33; íllr af mat en mildr af gulli, Fms. i. 53; fastr af drykk, close, stingy in regard to, Sturl. ii. 125; gat þess Hildigunnr at þú mundir góðr af hestinum, that you would be good about the horse, Nj. 90, cp. auðigr at, v. at, which corresponds to the above phrases; cp. also the phrase af sér above, p. 4, col. 1, ll. 50 sqq.  VIII. periphrasis of a genitive (rare); provincialis af öllum Predikaraklaustrum, Fms. x. 76; vera af hinum mesta fjandskap, to breathe deep hatred to, be on bad terms with, ix. 220; af hendi, af hálfu e-s, on one's behalf, v. those words.  IX. in adverbial phrases; as, af launungu, secretly; at" hljóði, silently; v. those words.  β. also used absolutely with a verb, almost adverbially, nearly in the signification off, away; hann bað þá róa af fjörðinn, pass the firth swiftly by rowing, row the firth off, Fms. ix. 502; var pá af farit þat seni skerjóttast var, was past, sailed past, Ld. 142; ok er þeir höfðu af fjórðung, past one fourth of the way, Dropl. 10: skína af, to clear up, of the skv, Eb. 152; hence in common language, skína af sér, when the sun breaks forth: sofa af nóttina, to sleep it away, Fms. ii. 98; leið af nóttin, the night past away, Nj. 53; dvelja af stundir, to kill the time, Band. 8; drepa af, to kill; láta af, to slaughter, kill off;γ. in exclamations; af tjöldin, off with the awnings, Bs. i. 420, Fms. ix. 49.  δ. in the phrases, þar af, thence; hér af, hence, Fms. ii. 102; af fram, straight on, Nj. 144; now, á fram, on, advance.X. it often refers to a whole sentence or to an adverb, not only like other prepp. to hér, hvar, þar, but also redundantly to héðan, ru'-ðan, þaðan, whence, hence, thence.2. the preposition may sometimes be repeated, once elliptically or adverbially, and once properly, e. g. en er af var borit at borðinu, the cloth was taken off from the table, Nj. 176; Guð þerrir af (off, away) hvert tár af (from) augum heilagra manna, God wipes off every tear from the eyes of his saints, 655 xx. vii. 17; skal þó fyrst bætr af lúka af fé vegaiula, pay off, from, Gþl. 160, the last af may be omitted—var þá af borið borðinu—and the prep. thus be separated from its case, or it may refer to some of the indecl. relatives er or sem, the prep. hvar, hér, þar being placed behind them without a case, and referring to the preceding relative, e. g. oss er þar mikit af sagt auð þeim, we have been told much about these riches, Band. 24; er þat skjótast þar af at segja, in short, shortly. Eg. 546; þaðan af veit ek, thence í infer, know, Fms. i. 97.  XI. it is moreover connected with a great many verbs besides those mentioned above, e. g. bera af, to excel, whence afbragð, afbrigði; draga af, to detract, deduct, hence afdráttr; veita ekki af, to be hard with; ganga at, to be left, hence afgangr; standast af um e-t, to stand, how matters stand; sem af tekr, at a furious rate; vita af, to be conscious, know about (vide VII).

D. As a prefix to compounds distinction is to be made between:  I. af privativum, denoting diminution, want, deduction, loss, separation, negation of, etc., answering indifferently to Lat. ab-, de-, ex-, dis-, and rarely to re- and se-, v. the following COMPDS, such as segja, dicere, but afsegja, negare; rækja, colere, but afrækja, negligere; aflaga, contra legem; skapligr, normalis, afskapligr, deformis; afvik, recessus; afhús, afhellir, afdalr, etc.  II. af intensivum, etymologically different, and akin to of, afr-, e. g. afdrykkja = ofdrykkja, inebrietas; afbrýði, jealously; afbendi, tenesmus; afglapi, vir fatuus, etc. etc. Both the privative and the intensive af may be contracted into á, esp. before a labial f, m, v, e. g. á fram = af fram; ábrýði = afbrýði; ávöxtr = afvöxtr; áburðr = afburðr; ávíta = afvíta (?). In some cases dubious. With extenuated and changed vowel; auvirðiligr or övirðiligr, depreciated, = afv- etc., v. those words.

afa, u, f. overbearing. Am. 1, Ls. 3, Bk. 2, 31, = afaryrði.

afar- and avar- [cp. Ulf. afar = μετά, ὀπίσω; Germ. aber, esp. in compounds: v. Grimm Gr. ii. 709], only used as a prefix in compounds, very much, very. Now often pronounced æfar, which form occurs esp. in MSS. of the 14th and 15th centuries, e. g. Fms. i. 150, xi. 249, Ísl. ii. 131; cp. also æfr, adj. iracundus.COMPDS: afar-auðigr, adj. very rich, Lex. Poët.  afar-breiðr, adj. very broad, Edda 10.  afar-fagr, adj. very fair, Edda (Ub.) 360.  afar-hreinn, adj. very clean, Lex. Poët.  afar-illa, adv. very

6 AFARKAUP—AFHLUTR.

badly, Hkr. i. 226.  afar-kaup, n. hard bargain, Sturl, (in a verse).  afar-kostir, m. pl. hard condition, Eg. 14, 353, Hkr. i. 144, Ld. 222.  afarkosta-laust, n. adj. on fair terms, Jb. 361, Sturl. ii. 79.  afarligr, adj. immense, huge, Nj. 183, v. l.  afar-lítill, adj. very small, Merl. 2. 46.  afar-menni, n. an overpowering man, Orkn. 256 old Ed., Landn. 124, Ísl. ii. 190.  afar-orð, n. overbearing words, Bs. ii. 9.  afar-stórr, adj. big, Lex. Poët.  afar-sætr, adj. very sweet, Sks. 534.  afar-úðigr, adj. [hugð], overbearing, of violent temper, Fms. vii. 20.  afar-vel, adv. very well, Hkr. i. 204, Ísl. ii. 140; cp. ofa.  afar-yrði, n. = afarorð, Orkn. 274.  afar-þungr, adj. heavy, Edda (Ht.) 46.

af-auðit, part. pass.; verða a. e-s, to fail, have bad luck, Gísi. 61.

af-át = ofát, over-eating, gluttony, gormandizing.

af-blómgaðr, part. pass. 'off-bloomed,' deflowered, 655 xxxii. 3.

af-boð, n. threats, high words, Fms. x. 199; ofboð, n., is used of panic, fear, agony, and as a prefix in compds of boðs = exceedingly. So now the modern verb ofbjóða, mostly used impers., e-m ofbýðr, to be shocked at, etc.

af-bragð, n. used of persons, a superior, excellent person; hann var a. í vizku sinni, wonderfully clever, Fms. x. 397; a. annarra manna, man of mark, vi. 144. 2. gen. afbragðs is now frequently used as a prefix to nouns to express something surpassing—a. fagr, góðr, fríðr, etc.—a. vænleikr, surpassing beauty, Stj. 195.  COMPD: afbragðs-maðr, m. a great man, Fms. x. 293 (where spelt abb-).

afbragðliga, adv. surpassingly, Fas. i. 220.

afbragðligr, adj. surpassing, Eb. 256, Fms. ix. 535, x. 230 (where spelt abb-), xi. 335.

af-brigð and rarely afbrigði, n.—the compound afbrigðar-tré points to a fem.—deviation, transgression, offence, (cp. bregða af, to deviate from) esp. in pl., þeir sökuðu hann um nokkuð afbrigð þinga sinna, Post. 645. 97; sættarof ok afbrigð við guð, trespasses, 671. i; afbrigð, wrongs, Ld. 66; í afbrigðum boðorða Guðs, transgressions against the commandments of God, 671. 3; þórðr afsakar sik um öll afbrigði við þik, for having wronged thee, Sturl. ii. 132, Fms. vii. 24, Ísl. ii. 201.  COMPD: afbrigðar-tré, ii. tree of transgression, Niðrst. 623. 7.

af-brot, n. pl. trespasses, sin, K. Á. 36, Fms. xi. 443; very frequent in religious writings after the Reformation.

af-brugðning, f. deviation from, 656 B. 7.

af-brúðigr and ábrúðigr, adj. jealous, Str. 5, 75; v. the following.

af-brýða, dd, [af- intens. and brúðr, sponsa], to be jealous, also contracted ábrýða; þeir vandlæta ok afbrýða sem karldýrin eru borin, Stj. 94.

af-brýði and contr. ábrýði, n. (now obsol.) jealousy; en er Sisinnus sá Clemens páfa standa hjá konu sinni, þá, viltist hugr hans mjök af mikilli ílsku ok afbrýði, Clem. 41, 42, Fms. i. 9, Ýt. 11; in all these places spelt with af-, but ábryði is more common, and occurs Hkr. i. 111; in the poem Gkv. i. 10—hon ægði mér af ábrýði—it is used of the jealousy of a wife to her husband.

af-burðr, m. (also spelt abb-), odds, balance, bias, success (cp. bera af, to prevail); kvað honum eigi annat vænna til afburðar, in order to get the better of it, Sd. 166; sá hann at engi varð afburðrinn, they fought 'aequo Marte,' Sturl. ii. 74; hann ætlaði sér afburð, he meant to keep the odds in his own hand, Ísl. ii. 450; skal nú faraí haustvíking, ok vilda ek, at hon yrði eigi með minnum afburðum, less glorious, Orkn. 464. II. gen. sing, and pl. afburðar-, a-, freq. used as a prefix in some COMPDS with the notion of gloriously, with distinction. afburðar-digr, adj. very thick, biðr. 24.  afburða-fræknligr, adj. very gallant, Ísl. ii. 369.  afburðar-járn, n. excellent iron, Fms. x. 173.  afburðar-maðr, m. a man of mark, Rb. 316, Orkn. 474, Grett. 133, Finnb. 318.  afburðar-mikill, adj. conspicuous, Fms. v. 181.  afburðar-skip, n. a fine ship, Fas. iii. 106.  afburðar-vel, adv. very well, Hkr. ii. 265, Fms. ix. 515.  afburðar-vænn, adj. very fine, Fas. i. 182.

af-búð, f. an 'off-booth,' side-booth, apartment, Korm. 116.

af-dalr, m. an 'off-dale,' remote valley; freq. in tales and rhymes of hidden valleys, esp. in pl., e. g. Hvað hét hundr karls er í afdölum bjó, in a nursery rhyme, K. Þ. K. 38, Fms. v. 183.

af-deilingr, m. part, portion, share, Bs. i. 881.

af-dráttr, m. [draga af, to detract], diminution, deduction, Ann. 1358 (of duties, fines), Dipl. i. 7, Jm. 135 = costs.β. in arithmetic, subtraction, Alg. 358, now frádragning.

af-drif, n. pl. [drifa], destiny, fate; barn líkligt til stórra afdrifa, a bairn likely to grow into a great man, Fms. iii. 112 (of an exposed child); þykir mér lítil okkur a. verða munu, inglorious life, Fær. 53. It is now also used of final fate, end.2. offspring, Stj. 191.

af-drykkja, u, f. over-drinking, drunkenness, = ofdrykkja [af- intens.]

af-eggja, að, to dissuade, (as we might say 'to egg off'), Fms. ix. 352.

af-eira, ð, to curtail, deprive of, with dat. of the thing; a. þá sinni sæmd, to disgrace them, Bær. 3; riddaradómi, to degrade from knighthood, 4.

af-eista, t, to castrate, Bs. ii. 118.

af-eyringr, m. an animal, sheep with cropped ears, Bs. 1. 723, Sturl. iii. 47; also afeyra, ð, to cut the ears off, and afeyrt, n. adj. a mark on sheep.

af-fall, n. diminution, discount, falling off, in the phrase, selja e-t með afföllum, to sell at a discount, Sd. 189.

af-fangadagr, v. atfangadagr, day preceding a feast.

af-fara, v. afför.

af-fari, adj. who deviates, trespasses, Fms. viii. 237, v. l.

af-feðrast, að, dep. to fall short of his father, to degenerate, Fms. xi. 423.

af-feldr, m. the spoon of Hela, Edda 231.

af-ferma, d and ð, [farmr], to unload a ship, Fas. ii. 448.

af-flutning, f. and afflutningr, m. disparaging, depreciation, Bs. i. 714.

af-flytja, flutta, to disparage, Fms. x. 41, Grett. 100 A.

af-för, ar, f. departure, in the following COMPDS: affara-dagr and affarar-dagr, m. the last day of a feast, esp. of Yule or the like; a. jöla = Twelfth-night, opp. to affanga-dagr = at-fangadagr, Christmas Eve, Hkr. iii. 304, Fbr. 139, Fms. vii. 272; a. veizlunnar, Bs. i. 287, Fms. iii. 121.  affara-kveld, n. the last evening of a feast, Fms. xi. 424.

af-gamall, adj. [af- intens. ?], very old, decrepid from age, Nj. 190; a. karl, Fms. ii. 182, Sks. 92.

af-ganga, u, f. surplus, Fms. iii. 208, v. l.  II. deviation, digression, Skálda 203.  COMPD: afgongu-dagr, m. = affaradagr, day of departure, Fas. iii. 600.

af-gangr, s, m. surplus, store, Ver. 17, Dipl. v. 10, Fms. iv. 236, K. Þ. K. 163, in the phrase, með afgöngum, to spare, Fms. iii. 108; afgangs, gen. used adverbially, over, to spare, l. c., v. l. II. decease, death [ganga af, to die], Fas. iii. 596.

af-gelja, u, f. [gala, cp. hégilja], chattering, Edda 110.

af-gipt, f. [gefa af], tribute, K. Á. 170. II. indulgence, absolution, Bs. i. 712, H. E. i. 523, Dipl. i. 5.  COMPDS: afgiptar-bréf, n. letter of indulgence, Bs. 1. 699. afgiptar-fé, n. a Norse law term, escheatable property, N. G. L. i. 324.

af-gjald, n. tribute, Vm. 78 (freq.)

af-gjarn, adj. eager to be off, flying away, in the proverb, afgjarnt verðr öfundarfé, Fas. ii. 332; cp. afsæll.

af-gjöf, f. = afgipt, K. Á. 170, 174, H. E. i. 430.

af-glapa, að, [cp. glepja], an Icel. law term, to disturb or break the peace of a court or public meeting, by violence, crowding, shouting, brawling, or the like; ef menn troðast svá mjök at lögréttu fyrir önnkost, eðr göra þar hrang þat eðr háreysti, at fyrir því afglapast mál manna, ok varðar þat fjörbaugsgarð, Grág. i. 5; ef várþing verðr afglapat, at eigi megu mál lúkast, 105; ef menn afglapa görð allir þeir er til vóru teknir, i. 495.

af-glapan and afglöpun, f. [v. the preceding word], used of rioting or brawling in a court or at a meeting, to break the law or the peace; it is also used of any illegal steps to stop the course of law, so that the pleadings are interrupted, and there is a flaw in the procedure, v. þingsafglöpun; frequent in the Grágás and the Sagas; it was liable to the lesser outlawry, v. above: bribery and false witness seem to be counted as þingsafglöpun in Nj. 150, and were to be challenged to the High Court, Lv. 12, 31, Nj., Grág., esp. in the þ. þ. etc.: v. Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal.

af-glapi, a, m. an oaf, fool, simpleton, Fms. i. 156, Ld. 34, Sd. 145.  COMPD: afglapa-orð, n. words of a fool, in the proverb, úmæt eru afglapaorð, 'a fool's word is nothing worth'—now úmæt eru ómagaorð—Boll. 352.

af-greizla, u, f. payment, contribution, Vm. 141.

af-guðliga, adv. ungodly, N. G. L. i. 376, v. l. = óguðliga.

af-gæzla, u, f. taking care of, H. E. i. 396, uncert. read.

af-göra, ð, to offend, do amiss, transgress, Nj. 254, Fms. vii. 104, viii. 300.

af-görð, f. transgression, offence, mostly in pl., trespasses in a religious sense, Sks. 601, Hkr. iii. 225.

af-görvi, v. atgörfi.

af-hallnn, false read. = ofjarlar, Vall. L. 206, v. l.

af-hallr, adj. sloping downward, Eg. 277.

af-haugr, m. a side-mound, Ísl. ii. 46.

af-hefð, f. [hefð, possessio], ousting, D. N. iv. 881.

af-hegna, d, to enclose, hedge, D. N. iii. 774.

af-heima, gen. pl. n. [heima], from home, out of doors, abroad; fara til afheirna, to go abroad, opp. to at heimili, at home, N. G. L. i. 158.

af-helgast, að, dep. to become unholy, to be profaned, Sks. 782 B.

af-hellir, m. side-cave, Fms. iii. 570, Fas. ii. 152, Brandkr. 62.

af-henda, d and t, to hand over, Lv. 6, Dipl. ii. 14, 16; a. skuld, to pay a debt, Vápn. 41; a. heit, to pay a vow, Bs. i. 121.

af-hending, f. a metrical term, a subdivision of the samhenda, when the final assonance of a verse is repeated in the next one, e. g. seim þverrir gefr seima | seim örr ..., Edda (Ht. 47 and 24). In mod. Icel. metric. afhenda is quite different, viz. a short metre in only two lines.

af-hendis, adv. off one's hand, N. G. L. i. 180.

af-hendr, adj. out of one's hand, in the phrase, segja e-n sér afhendan, to give one up, of a client or the like; leitt er mér at segja þik afhendan, því at þat hefi ek aldri gert ef ek hefi við manni tekit, Fs. 34, Fms. iii. 51 (of the poet Hallfred and king Olaf).  II. n. afhent impers., e-m er e-t afhent, unfit for, unable to, Fms. viii. 21.

af-heyrandi, part. act. out of bearing, absent, Grág. ii. 143.

af-heyris, adv. out of bearing, opp. to áheyris, Bs. i. 771.

af-hlaðning, f. unloading, N. G. L. i. 410.

af-hlaup, n. surplus, Fms. iv. 336; til afhlaups, to spare, Alg. 370.  COMPD: afhlaups-korn, n. surplus corn, Gþl. 352.

af-hlutr, m. share of a thing, v. fjár-afhlutr.

AFHLYÐAST—AFLEITR. 7

af-hlýðast, dd, to disobey, D, N. ii. 173.

af-hrapi, a, m. offscourings, outcasts, (an ἅπ. λεγ.,—afhrak being now used); ok ræðr hann sér einum á hendr afhrapa hans, Grág. i. 294 (of the consequences of harbouring a vagabond).

af-hroð, n. destruction, v. afráð, Fas. iii. 169.

af-huga, adj. ind. averse, having turned one's mind from; verða a. e-u or við e-t, to forget, mind no more, Ísl. ii. 274, Stj. 202, Fs. 47, Bs. i. 78, 655 xi. 3.

af-hugast, að, dep. gov. dat. to forget, Fms. viii. 252; part. afhugaðr við e-t = afhuga, having put it out of one's mind, ii. 336.

af-hus, n. out-house, side-apartment, Eb. 10.

af-hvarf, n. [hverfa], a diversion, turning aside, Hm. 33, in which passage it is opp. to gagnvegr, the straight path, Lâ. 204.

af-hýða, dd, to scourge thoroughly, 'hide,' Grett. 135, Sturl. iii. 295.

af-höfða, að, to behead, Fms. i. 217, Stj. 464.

af-högg, n. a law term, 'off-hewing,' mutilation, maiming, N. G. L. i. 170, Bs. i. 675, H. E. i. 237. II. chips, splinters, Fms. ii. 290.

AFI, a, m. [cp. Lat. avus, Ulf. avô = μάμμα, and aba = ἀνήρ, vir], grandfather: it is now frequent, but occurs very rarely in old writers, who almost always use móðurfaðir or föðurfaðir. Yet it occurs in the poem Rm. 16—afi ok amma—and Vþm. 29, where it = föðurfaðir. It is curious to observe that in the poem Skm.—whence it is again transferred into the Grógaldr—it is used in the sense of a boy or a son; cp. as an illustration of this use the Norse phrase—D. N. iv. 848—afi eptir afa = son after father, man after man in uninterrupted succession, in accordance to the Gothic aba; Edda 108, Fms. iv. 288, vi. 346, xi. 6. We also say lang-afi, great-grandfather, and langamma, great-grandmother.COMPD: afa-systir, f. great aunt, Landn. 317.

af-kaup, n. bad bargain, Fms. v. 255.

af-káraligr, v. afkárligr.

af-kárligr, adj. = afkárr, Lex. Poët.; now freq. afkáralegr, adj. and -lega, adv. of manners, odd, like a madman.

af-kárr, adj. [af- intens.; kárr does not occur; cp. the modern kári, a gale, tempest, (poët.)], strange, prodigious; er hér nokkut afkárt inni, of a giant pulling a bear out of his den by the ears, Fas. ii. 237; it occurs repeatedly in Lex. Poët. = very strong, remarkable; afkárr söngr, discordant song, of shouting, Akv. 38; cp. launkárr.

af-kleyfi, n. in the COMPD afkleyfis-orð, n. a metric. term, a superfluous word, syllable, in a verse, an enclitic syllable preceding the höfuðstafr in a verse.COMPD: afkleyus-samstafa, u, f. syllaba hypermetra, Edda (Ht.) 137.

af-klæða, dd, to undress, Stj. 194.  β. reflex. to undress oneself, Eg. 420, Fms. x. 294.

af-komandi, part. descendant, Hkr. iii. 170.

af-kvremi, n. [kvám], 'off-coming,' offspring, in a collect, sense, Fms. i. 212, Hkr. i. 325, Orkn. 142, Stj. 39.  COMPD: afkvæmis-maðr, m. descendant, Stj. 39, 160.

af-kymi, a, m. nook, Ísl. ii. 471 (paper MS.); kymi, id., is now freq.

AFL, s, m. hearth of a forge, Edda 69, 70, Stj. 312, Fms. viii. 8; in N. G. L. i. 328 it seems to mean hearth (in general).

afl, m. [Grimm mentions an O. H. G. aval; abal is a dub. ἅπ. λεγ. in A. S. poetry, Ormul. avell], strength, esp. physical force; afreksmaðr at afli ok áræði, Eg. 1; styrkr at afli, Fms. i. 19; ramr at afli, 155; fullkominn at afli ok hyggju, bodily and mental vigour, Ld. 256; stillt þú þó vel aflinu, at þú verðir eigi kendr, Nj. 32; hafa afl til e-s, be a match for, be able to do, Gþl. 411.  β. virtue; afl dauðfærandi grasa, virtue of poisonous herbs, 623. 26.  2. metaph. strength, power, might, Th. 19.  3. a law term, force, validity; dæmdu vér þetta boð Bjarna úlögligt ok ekki afl hafa, void, Dipl. iii. 3.  4. a law term, majority, odds, in the phrase, ok skal afl ráða, plurima vota valeant; ef gerðarmenn (umpires) verða eigi ásáttir ok skal a ráða, Grág. i. 493; nú verða fjórðungsmenn eigi ásáttir, þá skal afl ráða með þeim, i. l, cp. 44, 531 (where it is used of a jury); en ef þeir verða eigi ásáttir er í lögréttu sitja hvat þeir vilja lofa eðr í lög leiða, þá skolu þeir ryðja lögréttu (viz. divide) ok skal ráða a. með þeim, Nj. 150.  5. force, violence; taka með afli, Stj. 4. 30; bjóða e-m afl, Bs. ii. 106.  COMPDS: afls-munr, m. odds, superiority of strength, esp. in the phrase, kenna aflsmunar, where there is a short struggle, the one being soon overcome, Eb. 182, Eg. 508, Hkr. i. 286:  β. kenna aflsmuna = kosta afis, to exert oneself to the utmost; varð hann at kenna a. (to exert the whole of his strength) áðr hann kæmi honum undir, Eb. 172.   afls-raun = aflraun.

AFLA, að, [cp. Swed. afvel, breed, slock: Dan. avling, farming; avlsgaard, farm; faareavl, qvægavl, breed of sheep or cattle. In Norse (mod.) avle is to harvest; Swed. afla, to beget. In the Icel. verb afla the idea of producing or gathering prevails, whereas the nouns branch off; the weak afli chiefly denotes produce, means, stores, resources, troops, forces; the strong one—afl—force alone. Yet such phrases as ramr at afli indicate something besides the mere notion of strength. In the mod. Scandin. idioms—Dan., Swed., Norse—there are no traces left of the idea of 'force:' cp. the Lat. opes and copiae. The Icel. spelling and pronunciation with bl (abl) is modern, perhaps from the time of the Reformation: cp. the words efla etc. with a changed vowel. The root is OP-, as shewn in Lat. ope, opes, the o being changed into a ?].  I. with gen. of the thing, to gain, acquire, earn, procure; vandara at gæta fengins fjár en afla þess (a proverb); þá bjöggu þeir skip ok öfluðu manna til, got men to man it, Eg. 170.  β. the phrase, afla sér fjár ok frægðar, to earn fame and wealth, of young heroes going sea-roving; fóru um sumarit í víking ok öfluðu sér fjár, Eg. 4; afla sér fjár ok frama, Fs. 5; fjár ok virðingar, id.; hann hafði aflat sér fjár (made money) í hólmgöngum, Eg. 49; aflaði þessi bardagi honum mikillar frægðar, brought him great fame, Fms. ii. 307; kom honum í hug, at honum mundi mikillar framkvæmdar afla, bring him great advantage, Eb. 112.  2. as a law term, to cause, inflict a wound; ef maðr aflar einum blóðs eðr bens af heiptugri hendi, N. G. L. i. 387.  II. with acc., mostly in unclassical writers, but now rare, to earn; aflaði hann þar fé mikit, Fms. vii. 80; aflandi þann thesaur er, 655 xxxii. 1; hafit ér ok mikit í aflat, Al. 159; mun ek til hafa atferð ok eljun at afla mér annan við, to contrive, Ld. 318, where, however, the excellent vellum MS. A. M. 309, 4to, has gen.—annars viðar—more classically, as the Saga in other passages uses the gen., e. g. afla sér manna ok hrossa, to procure horses and men, l. c. little below.  β. reflex., e-m aflask e-t, gains, Fb. 163.  γ. absol., njót sem þú hefir aflat, of ill-earned means, Nj. 37.  δ. part. aflandi, Njarð. 366.  2. now used absol. to fish, always with acc.; a standing phrase in Icel., the acc. only being used in that particular connection.  III. with dat. in the sense of to perform, manage, be able to; hann aflaði brátt mikilli vinnu, ok var hagr vel, Fms. i. 289; fyr mun hann því afla en ek færa honum höfuð mitt, it will sooner happen, Fms. iv. 291, where the Hkr. reads orka; bauð út leiðangri, sem honum þótti landit mestu mega afla, to the utmost that the country could produce, Fms. x. 118; ekki aflar harm því at standa í móti yðr, he is not man enough to stand against you, Fas. iii.

af-lag, n. [leggja af], gen. aflags.  I. used as adv. = afgangs, sparingly, Fas. iii. 477. In modern Icel. hafa aflögum or aflögu, to have to spare.II. slaughtering of cattle, killing off; leggja af margan fénað ... minti biskup enn á um aflögin, the slaughtering, Bs. i.

af-laga, adv. unlawfully, Grág. i. 473, ii. 367, Gþl. 294, 432, 473, Hkr. ii. 246, Al. 153; ganga a., Stj. 430.  2. now used in the sense to be out of joint, things going wrong.

af-lagliga, adv. = aflögliga, 655 xxxii. 4.

aflan and öflun, f. gain, acquisition, Hkr. ii. 218, Sks. 233.  COMPD: öflunar-maðr, m. a good steward, Sturl. iii. 130.

af-langr, adj. oblong, Ann. year 1414; formed from the Lat. (?), new common.

af-lausn, f., Lat. absolutio.1. some small release, ransom, compensation, Sturl. iii. 142, 239; gjöra a. um e-t, to relieve, release oneself in regard to a thing: Ólafr konungr mælti, 'Framar hefir þú þá gert um vígin á Grænlandi, en fiskimaðrinn kallar a. vera fiskinnar; því at hann kallast leysa sik, ef hann dregr fisk fyrir sik, enn annan fyrir skip sitt, þriðja fyrir öngul, fjórða fyrir vað,' king Olaf said, 'Thou hast done more then in the matter of manslayings in Greenland, than what the fisherman calls the ransom of his fishing; for he says that he has freed himself (of his fishing), if he draws (up) a fish for himself, but another for his boat, a third for his angle, a fourth for his line,' (this way of reckoning their catch is still common with fishermen in many parts of England and Scotland), Fbr. 154: cp. a stanza in a Scottish ballad, 'I launched my boat in Largo Bay, | And fishes caught I three; | One for wad and one for hook, | And one was left for me.'  2. eccles. = absolution, K. Á. 226, Hom. 137, Grett. 162, Fms. x. 18.

af-lát, n. leaving off, relinquishing; a. synda, Stj. 567, Sks. 612 B; án afláti, used adverb. incessantly, 625, p. 77, Th. 20.  β. remission, pardon; aflát misgörninga, Hom. 160; a. synda, 159.  COMPD: afláts-korn, n. surplus corn, store corn, Gþl. 352, v. l. aflaupskorn.

af-látr, adj. negligent, lazy, Hom. 152.

af-leiðing, f. 'off-leading:'1. now generally used in the pl. consequences, result;2. in old writers, on the contrary, it seldom occurs, and then in a peculiar sense. So Sturl. iii. 128, góðar afleiðingar eru með e-m, they are on good terms, things go on pretty well between them.3. metric. continuation; her er hinn fyrri visuhelmingr leiddr af þeirri vísu, er áðr var kveðin ok fylgir þat málsorð, er afleiðing (continuation) er kölluð, Edda (Ht.) 126.

af-leiðingr, s, m., skilja góðan afleiðing, used adverb. to part on friendly terms, Sturl. iii. 134: cp. the preceding word, 128; both passages are taken, from the þorgils S. Skarða, to which the phrase seems to be peculiar.

af-leiðis, adv.  1. loc. astray, out of the path, Sd. 146, 655 xvii. 4.  2. metaph., færa a., to pervert, Stj. 227, 519; þeir lugu á okkr, en þú færðir orð þeirra a., you perverted their words, Bs. i. 7, Glúm. 327; Snúa e-m a., to seduce, Andr. 625. 75.  β. impers., e-u þokar a., turns out wrong, Bs. i. 340.

af-leifar, f. pl. scraps, remnants, leavings, Stj. 383, Bs. i. 237; f. búsafleifar, Grág. i. 299.

af-leitinn, adj. = afleitr, of odd appearance, Fas. ii. 329.

af-leitliga, adv. perversely, Stj. 55; illa ok a., 173.

af-leitligr, adj. = afleitr, perverse, deformed, Stj. 274, Al. 96.

af-leitr, adj. [líta, cp. also -leitr in compounds], strange, hideous; neut.,

8 AFLENDIS—AFRÆKJA.

hversu afleitt (how disgusting) oss virðist um þeirra háttu, Hks. iii. 435; hversu afleitir (stupid) oss sýnast þeirra hættir, Fms. vii. 296, l. c.; þeir fyrirlíta ok halda alla sauðahirða sem afleita, odd, peculiar, Stj. 293; afleitt eðr eligt, vile, 1 Sam. xv. 9.  β. abandoned, the face turned from, deserted by, with dat.; afleita hamingjunni, luckless, Stj. 421. Ruth i. 12.

af-lendis, adv. = erlendis, abroad, N. G. L. i. 244.

af-lendr, adj. far from land, in open sea, Bs. ii. 47.

af-letja, latti, to dissuade:α. with infin., Bs. i. 39.  β. with acc., aflatti hann mjök fyrir sér ferðina, Fms. ix. 437.  γ. or witn an acc. of the person and gen. of the thing; a. e-n e-s, v. letja.

af-letta, tt, to cease, Fr.

af-lettr, prompt, ready, v. ofléttr.

afl-fátt, n. adj. short of strength; verða a., to fail in strength, Fms. i. 55. iii. 150.

afl-gróf, f. [afl, m.], hole below the forge, cinder-pit, or a water-pit wherein to cool the iron (?); cp. Vkv. 22, Þiðr. 72.

afl-hella, u, f. hearth-stone in a forge; er hann hafði þau (viz. the bones) niðrgrafit undir sína aflhellu, Þiðr. 95.

afli, a, m.  I. means, acquisition, gain, produce, stores, fruits; afli ok herfang, Fms. ii. 106; hafði þórir einn forráð þess liðs ok svá afla þess alls er verðr í ferðinni, iv. 297; eignir ... með öllum afla ok ávexti, increase and interest, K. Á. 54.  2. now used,  α. partic. of fishing stores, fishing, and β. gener. of provisions and stores of any kind.II. metaph.:  1. might, power; hafa afla til eingis, have might or means for nothing, be unable to do anything, to be powerless, Nj. 27.  2. forces, troops, body, Lat. copiae, opes; Ásgrímr sagði þat mikinn afla, great support, Nj. 210; en þat sýnist mér þó ráðligast at biðja sér liðs, þvíat þeir draga afla at yðr, they gather forces against you, 222; munu vér skjótt eiga af honum ván hins mesta úfriðar ef hann fær nokkurn afla, troops, resources, Fms. i. 188; at herja á þá feðga með allmikinn afia, strong body, 184; ok er hirð Sverris konungs sá, at aflinn Magnúss konungs (the main body) flýði allr, viii. 119.  COMPDS: afla-brögð, n. pl. [bragð], stores of fish, A. A. 276.  afla-fátt, n. adj. = aflfátt, Fms. iii. 133.  afla-fé, n. acquired property, N. G. L. i. 448.  afla-lítill, adj. having little power, Finnb. 320 (compar. aflaminni).  afla-maðr, m. powerful, strong, Lv. 12, 109.  afla-mikill, adj. opp. to aflalítill, powerful, strong, Ld.; harðgjörr ok aflamikill, Bs. i. 635; var Sæmundr afiamestr, the strongest in men, Sturl. ii. 44:  β. (= aflmikill), used of physical strength, Stj. Judg. iii. 29; verða menn eigi ásáttir hvárr sterkari er, en þó ætîa flestir Gísla aflameira (= aflmeira), GÍsl. 26.   afla-munr, m. odds, Sturl.; at etja við aflamuninn, to fight against odds, Al. 110.   afla-skortr, m. shortcoming in power, opp. to aflamunr, Bs. i. 525.   afla-stund, f. fishing season, Bs. ii.

af-lima, adj. ind., verða e-m a., to be cut off, separated from, Post. 95, Am. 26.

af-lima, að, to 'off-limb,' to dismember, maim, mutilate, Js. 37, Ann. 1342.

af-liman, f. 'off-limbing,' mutilation, Bs. ii. 75.

afl-lauss, adj. weak, strengthless, a medical term, palsied, paralytic, Bs. i. 351.

afl-leysi, n. palsy, v. Fél. ix.

afl-lítill, adj. weak, Fms. ii. 201, vii. 208.

afl-mikill, adj. of great strength, Sturl. i. 23, Fms. i. 261.

af-lofa, að, to refuse, Fr.

afl-raun, f. trial (proof) of strength; in plur. bodily exercises; Skallagrímr hendi mikit gaman at aflraunum ok leikum, Eg. 187; er þat flestra manna ætlan, at Grettir hafi verit sterkastr hérlandsmanna, síðan þeir Ormr ok þórálfr lögðu af aflraunir, Grett. 133; þótti þetta mikil a., Fms. iii. 210, Finnb. 274: cp. aflsraun.

afl-skortr, m. failing of strength, Fms. ii. 149.

aflugr, adj. strong, v. öflugr.

afl-vani, adj. ind. deficient in strength; verða a., to succumb; taka þeir fang, ok verðr Gunnarr mjök a., Fms. ii. 75 (in wrestling); enda varð hann a. fyrir liðs sakir, was overpowered, got the worst of it, Ísl. ii. 172; Eustachius sá sik aflvani (acc.) í móti þeim, 655 x. p. 2.

afl-vöðvi, a, m. [vöðvi, a muscle], the biceps muscle, Sturl. 51, Ld. 220, Fas. ii. 344.

af-logliga, adv. = aflaga, unlawfully, D. N. i. 80, Stj, 154.

af-má, ð, to 'mow off,' to blot out, destroy, Fms. ii. 238, Stj. 208, 346.

af-mán, f. [af, má], degradation, shame, v. the following.

af-mána, að, = afmá, to degrade, pollute.

af-mánaðr, part. polluted, defiled, Rb. 332.

af-mynda, að, to deform; dep. afmyndask, to be deformed, Fas. i. 425 (paper MS.); the word is now very freq.

af-mœðing, f. [móðir], right of weaning lambs, by taking them from the mother; kirkja á lamba a. (perhaps wrongly for afmæðring) í Mölvíkrhöfða, Vm. 164.

af-nám, n. gener. taking away, removal, Stj. 2 Sam. iv. II.  β. esp. in the phrase, at afnámi, of something reserved, before the division of spoil, property, or inheritance; now, taka af óskiptu, Dan. forlods, Grág, i. 330, 336, Jb. 289 (Ed. af námi); konungr skildi hafa úr hlutskipti þriðjung við liðsmenn, en umfram at afnámi bjórskinn öll ok safala, Eg. 57. 2. metaph. privation, loss; ok hann verðr at skaða þeim mönnum nokkrunn, er oss mun þykkja a. í, Eg. 114, Fms. vii. 244.  COMPDS: afnáms-fé, n. a law term, share, which is reserved before the division of property, spoil, inheritance, or the like, Eg. 240, Fms. iv. 28.  afnáms-gripr, m. something reserved or set aside, Fms. x. 214.

af-nefja, að, to cut off one's nose, Str. 35.

af-neita, að and tt, and afníta, tt, now always afneita, að, to deny, refuse; with dat., hefir afneitað tiltekinni trú, Fms. iii. 166; eigi vil ek því afneita, refuse, Fs. 11; ek afneitta eigi hans orðsending, Stj. 1 Kings xx. 7; en er hann afneitti eigi með öllu (refused not), þá báðu þeir hann því meir, Grett. 146.  2. absol. afnita; en þar es Jökull bróðir minn laust þik högg, þat skaltú hafa bótalaust, því at þú afníttir þú er þér vóru boðnar, Fs. 57.

af-neiting, f. denial, renunciation, Th. 17.

af-neyzla, u, f. use, consumption; a. skógarins, Fs. 125, Nj. 78; a. fjár (pl.), Jb. 404 A, B (Ed. ofnevzlur).

afr, v. áfr, buttermilk.

af-rað, afráð, afroð, and afhroð, n. (Fas. iii. 169), [cp. Swed. afrad; from roð, rud, fundus, ager(?)].  I. prop. a Norse and Swedish law term, tribute, ground tax, payable to the king; a. ok landaura, N. G. L. i. 257, D. N. iii. 408. So also in Vsp. 27, hvárt skyldu æsir a. gjalda, where it is opp. to gildi, league.II. metaph. loss, damage,1. in the phrase, gjalda a., to pay a heavy fine, suffer a great loss; en þat a. munu vér gjalda, at margir munu eigi kunna frá at segja hvárir sigrast, there will be so heavy a loss in men, such a havoc in killed, Nj. 197 (where most MSS. read afroð, some afrað, Ed. afrauð); töluðu þeir opt um málaferlin, sagði Flosi, at þeir hefði mikit a. goldit þegar, 254 (MSS. afrað, afroð, and afhroð); Lýtingr mun þykjast áðr mikit a. goldit hafa í láti bræðra sinna, 155 (MSS. afrað, afroð, and afhroð), Fms. x. 324.  2. in the phrase, göra mikit a., to make a great havoc; görði hann mikit afhroð í sinni vinn, great slaughter, Fas. iii. 169: cp. Lex. Poët.  3. advice, Vtkv. 5; the verse is spurious and the meaning

afraðs-kollr, m. cognom., Germ. 'steuerkopf,' cp. nefgildi, Engl. poll-tax, v. the preceding.

af-reizla, u, f. = afgreizla, outlay, payment, Ám. 13.

af-rek, n. [af- intens.], a deed of prowess, a deed of derring do; margir lofuðu mjök afrek Egils, ok sigr þann sem hann vann, Fms. xi. 234; vinna afrek, Fs. 6; ekki a. gerði hann meira í Noregi, Fagrsk. 94; hann lét ok göra þar í Níðarósi naust bæði mörg, ok svá stór, at afrek var í, grand, magnificent, Hkr. iii. 268.  COMPDS: afreks-gripr, n. a splendid object, a thing of price, Ld. 144.  afreks-maðr, m. a valiant man; a. at afli ok áræðí, Eg. I; en þat hefi ek spurt, at hirð hans er skipuð afreksmönnum einurn, heroes, 19, 84; a. um vöxt eðr afl, Ísl. ii. 190.  afreks-verk, n. valiant deed, Fær. 51, Al. 30.

af-reka, að, to achieve, perform; munu þér mikit afreka, Lv. 33; hvat þeir höfðu alrekat, Fas. iii. 221; a. vel, to succeed, Bárð. 175.

af-remma, u, f. [ramr], restriction, encumbrance, obligation; sú er a. meðr þessum tillögum, at prestr skal vera at heimilishúsi ok syngja allar heimilistíðir, Ám. 37.

afrendi, f. [afrendr], strength, prowess, valour, Hym. 28.

afrendr, adj. [frequently or almost constantly spelt afreyndr, as if from 'af-' intens. and 'raun,' of great prowess; but the derivation from 'afr- = afar-' and '-endi or -indi' is better].  I. in the phrase, a. at afli, very strong, valiant, Fms. ii. 87, Finnb. 254; compar. afrendari, Fms. x. 321, Fs. 33, 48 (where the MS. Vh. spells afreyndr, so also does the Fb. i. 341, etc.)  II. absol. without adding at afli, Lv. 101 (where written

af-réttr, m. and afrétt, f. (now always f.; cp. rétt), [prgbably akin to reka, viz. afrekt, contr. afrétt], compascuum, common pasture; it is now prop. used of mountain pastures, whither the cattle (sheep) are driven in the summer in order to graze during July and August, and again collected and driven down in the autumn (Sept.); in Norway called almenningr.I. masc., thus defined, en þat er afréttr, er ij menn eigu saman eðr fleiri, hverngi hlut sem hverr þeirra á í, Grág. ii. 303, 330; í afrétt þann, er, i. 397, ii. 303; afréttu, acc. pl., ii. 301, Jb. 198 A, K. Þ. K. 90, Olk. 37; hálfan afrétt, Vm. 29.  II. f. afréttinni (dat.), Grág. (Kb.) ii. 301, 325 A; gen. afréttar (gender uncert.), 303 A; afréttin, id., Cod. A; afrétt (dat. f. ?), Ísl. ii. 330, Háv. 39; afrettum, dat. pl. (gender uncert.), Boll. 336.  COMPDS: afréttar-dómr, m. court held for deciding causes concerning common pasture, Grág. ii. 323.  afrétta-menn, m. pl. owners or partners in common pasture, Grág. ii.

af-roð, v. afráð.

af-róg, n. excuse, justification, Str. 71.

af-ruðningr, m. [ryðja], clearing off, defence, repeal, Pr. 425.

af-runi, a, m. [runi, renna], deviation; metaph. sin, trespasses; umbót ok iðran afruna (gen.), 125. 174; iðrun fyrir görva afruna (acc. pl.), id.; tárfelling er hann hefir fyrir afruna þá, er verða í þessa heims lífi, id. 184.  β. injury, offence, D. N. iii. 367 (Fr.)

afr-yrði, n. = afaryrði, insolent words.

af-ræði, n. [af- intens. and ráð], absolute rule, D. N. ii, 336 several times (Fr.)

af-rækja, t and ð, to neglect, contemn, H. E. i. 257; reflex. afrækjast, in

AFSAKA—AFÞOKKA. 9

the same signification, a. with dat, a. lögunum, to break, neglect the law, Al 4.  β. with acc. (now always so), a. sitt höfuðrnerki, Karl. 189.  γ. uncert. dat. or acc., a. Guðs hlýðni, Edda (pref.) 144, Stj. 241.  δ. with at and a following infin., Gþl. 183; konungar afræktust at sitja at Uppsölum, left off, Hkr. ii. 97.  ε. absol., Fms. vii. 221, 188, Gþl. 506.

af-saka, að, to excuse, exculpate, K. Á. 230, Stj. 37.  β. pass. afsakast, to be (stand) excused, K. Á. 226, Stj. 125.

af-sakan and afsokun, f. a 'begging off,' excuse, exculpation, K. Á. 228, Stj. 152.  COMPD: afsakanar-orð, n. pl. excuses, Stj.

af-saki, a, m. excuse, 623. 60.

af-sanna, að, to refute, prove to be false ('unsooth'), 655 xvii. 1.

af-sáð, n. seed-corn, N. G. L. i. 240.

af-segja, sagði, to resign, renounce; a. sér e-t, Barl. 210. Now used in the sense of to refuse, deny.

af-setja, setti, to depose, put down, v. the following.

af-setning, f. and afsetningr, m. deposition, (off-setting, cp. Scot. 'aff-set,' Jam., which means dismissal, the act of putting away), H. E. ii. 74, 523.

af-siða, adj. ind. immoral, of loose manners, Grág. i. 138.

af-sifja, að, [sifjar], a law term, to cut off from one's 'sib,' alienate from one's family, renounce; gefa má maðr vingjafir at sér lifanda, hest eða yxn, vápn eða þvílíka grfpi, ok afsifjar (Cod. A reads afsitjar, but doubtless wrongly) hann sér þó at sex skynsömum mönnum þyki eigi arfsvik gör við erfingja, Jb. 163, D. N. i. 141, Pál Vidal. p. 84. The word appears to be a Norse law term, and does not occur in the laws of the Icel. Commonwealth, but came into use with the code Jb.

af-síða, adv. aside, apart, Krók. 56.

af-skapligr, adj. [skapligr], misshapen, monstrous, huge, shocking; a. áfelli, shocking accident, Stj. 90; herfiligr ok a., 655 xiii. A. i; a. ok úmannligt, Stj. 272; a. úmenska, Fms. ii. 225, K. Á. (App.) 230.

af-skeiðis, adv. astray, H. E. i. 252, 655 xi. 3, Hom. 99.

af-skipan, f. deposition, dismissal, D. N. (Fr.)

af-skipta, adj. ind. cut off, from an inheritance or the like, Lat. expers; in the phrase, vera görr a., to be wronged, Hrafn. 14.

af-skipti, n. pl. dealing with, intercourse, (cp. the phrase, skipta sér af e-u, to meddle with, care about); ok eingi a. veita heiðnum goðuin, Fms. ii. 160; ef hann veitir súr engi a., does not deal with, Grág. ii. 121.  COMPDS: afskipta-lauss, adj. heedless, careless, having nothing to do with, Fb. i. 392.  afskipta-lítill, adj. caring little about, Fms. vii. 181, Orkn. 142.  afskipta-samr, adj. meddling, partaking, v. úafskiptasamr.

af-skiptinn, adj. meddling, partaking, Ld. 66.

af-skiptr, part. = afskipta, wronged, cheated, Fas. iii. 619. Metaph. void of, having no interest in, Stj. 155, 195.

af-skirrandi, participial noun, [skirrast], an offscouring, outcast; leiði þér þenna a. út ór horgiimi, 656 C. 33.

af-skrámliga, adv. hideously, Hom. 155.

af-skrámligr, adj. [af- intens.; skrámr means a giant; skrimsl, a monster; cp. Engl. to scream], hideous, monstrous; a. illvirki, a sacrilege, K. Á. 222: also spelt askramligr and askramliga, Al. 142, Hom. 155.

af-skræmi, n. a monster, v. the following.

af-skræmiliga, adv. hideously: a, of a scream; þá lét út á stöðli a., howled piteously, of a ghost, Hkr. ii. 312, Eb. 320, of the bellowing of a mad bull.  β. of a monstrous shape; þrællinn (of a ghost) rétti inn höfuðit, ok sýndist honum a. mikit, Grett. 83 new Ed.  γ. metaph., óttast a., to be shocked at, Stj. 101.

af-skurðr, ar, m. a chip, lappet, Dipl, iii. 3.

af-skyld, f. a law term, due, obligation, encumbrance, several times in the Cartularies and deeds of gift, in the phrase, sú er a. þessa fjár, D. I. i. 273, etc.; með þessi a. fara þessir fjárhlutir, 282, Vm. 108: cp. the still more freq. phrase, sú er afvinna, cp. afvinna.

af-snið, n. a lappet, snip, Pr. 412.

af-sniðning, f. snipping off.afsniðningar-járn, n. a chopper, Fr.

af-sníðis, adv. cut through, across, Bs. i. 388.

af-spraki, a, m. [cp. A. S. sprecan; Germ. sprechen], rumour, hearsay; Hákon jarl hafði fengit afspraka nokkurn (perh. better in two words), Fms. 1. 187.

af-springr, m., Al. 11, Hkr. iii. 277, Edda (pref.) 146, and various other forms; afsprengr, m. and afspringi, n., Gþl. 47, Fms. viii. 237, Sks. 46 B, Stj. 63, Orkn. 176; the form now usual is afsprengi, n., Fms. v. 217, Fas. ii. 391, Bret. 112.  1. gener. offspring, progeny, v. the quotations above.  2. in pl. used of the produce of the earth, Sks. 48 B (rare).  3. metaph.:  α. a band, a detached part of a body; þóttist Hrafn þegar vita, at þessi a. mundi vera af ferð þeirra þorgils, that this detachment must be from the host of Thorgils and his followers, Sturl. iii. 274.  β. a branch, ramification; ok er mikil van, at þar verði nokkurr a. (offshoot) af þessum ófriði á Limafirði, Fms. xi. 13.  γ. rumour, notice, = afspraki; fá nokkurn a. um e-t, Fms. viii. 160.

af-spurn, f. a 'speering of,' news, notice, Fms. i. 187.

af-spýttr, part. spit out of, deprived of, Anecd. 42.

af-standa, stóð, [Germ. absteben], to cede, part with, Sturl. i. 164, v. l. miðla, Fms. iii. 208.

af-stigr, s, m. by-path, Fî. 5, Fær. 102.

af-stúfa, að, or afstýfa, ð, to lop, prune, of trees; a. við, N. G. L. i. 350, Lex. Poët., v. stufr.

af-stúka, u, f. side-nook, 655 xxxii. 4; a side-room in a temple, Fas. iii. 213; now stúka is almost always used of a sacristy.

af-svar, n. refusal, in pl. in the phrase, veita e-u afsvör, to refuse, Ld. 114, Fas. i-444, Fbr. 120.

af-svara, að, to deny, refuse, Fas. i. 528; with dat. of pers. and thing, Sturl. iii. 180.

af-sviptr, part. stripped; with dat., afsviptr þinni ásjónu, cut off from thy countenance, Stj. 228. Gen. xlviii. 11, Sks. 342, H. E. i. 457.

af-sýnis, adv. out of sight, Fms. viii. 344.

af-sæll, adj. luckless, in the proverb, a. verðr annars glys jafnan, (another version of the proverb is quoted s. v. afgjarn), coveted wealth, which is eagerly looked for by another, is luckless, difficult to keep safe, Stj. 78.

af-tak, n.  1. gener. taking away, B. K. 108.  2. 'taking off' (Shaksp.), slaying, executing; hvat hann vill bjóða fyrir a. Geirsteins, compensation for the slaughter of G., Fms. vii. 360; en a. hans (slaying) segja eigi allir einum hætti, x. 390; með aftaki Ólafs, by slaying him, 195; um manna aftök, executions, Gþl. 137: cp. aftaka, and taka af, to execute, behead. 3. in pl. commonly used of,  α. flat denial, in such phrases as, hafa aftök um e-t, to deny flatly. In some compds this signification can be traced, as in aftaka-minni, Fms. i. 139.  β. it is also now used in many compds of whatever is excessive, above all measure, e. g. aftaka-veðr, a hurricane.COMPDS: aftaks-skjöldr, m. a huge shield, Fas. i. 415.  aftaka-maðr, m. a determined, obstinate person; hón var a. mikill um þetta mál, he was very stubborn in this case, Hkr. ii. 74.  aftaka-minni, adj. compar. less obstinate, more pliable; stóð konungr í fyrstu fast á móti, en drottning var allt aftakaminni, the king at first stood fast against it, but the queen was all along less stubborn, Fms. i. 139.

af-taka, u, f. = aftak:  1. gener. loss, privation; a. ok missa, of a personal loss by death, Edda 37.  2. death by violent means, slaughter; til aftöku manna eðr fú upp at taka, for the cutting off of men or the confiscation of their goods, Eg. 73, 252; hann hafði verit at aftöku þorkels fústra, Fms. vii. 201, Orkn. 22 old Ed. Formerly there were no public executions in Icel., except the stoning of wizards or witches, Ld. ch. 98, Eb. ch. 20, Vd. ch. 26; and the hanging of thieves, Fbr. ch. 19, Eb. l. c. Now, however, used in the sense of public execution, and in various compds, e. g. aftöku-staðr, m. place of execution, etc.

af-tekja, u, f. dues, collections, revenues, or the like; til forræðis ok allra aftekna (gen. pl.), Bs. 692; ábúð ok a. staðanna, revenue, 752.

af-tekning, f. taking away, a grammatical term, an apostrophe, Skálda 182.

af-tekt, f. = aftekja, Fms. v. 274, xi. 441, Bs. i. 68.

af-telja, talði, to dissuade, Fms. x. 27.

af-tigna, að, now antigna, v. andtigna, to disgrace, Sks. 225.

af-trú, f. unbelief, heresy, Orkn. 188.

af-trúast, að, dep. to fall into unbelief, Bs. ii. 181.

af-tækiligt, n. adj. advisable, feasible, [cp. taka e-t af, to decide for], Fms. viii. 348.

af-tækt, n. adj. blamable; er þat ok ætlun mín at fátt muni vera aftækt um yðra skapsmuni, I 'ettle' that there will be little blameworthy about your turn of mind, Fms. v. 341.

af-tæma, ð, to 'loom off,' to empty, Fr.

afugr, backwards, going the wrong way, v. öfugr.

afund, envy, v. öfund.

af-undinn, adj. cross, uncivil.

afusa, gratitude, pleasure, v. aufusa.

af-vega, adv. [afvegar, Bs. ii. 92], off the way, astray, Sd. 149. Metaph. in moral sense; leiða a., to mislead; ganga a., to go astray.

af-vegaðr, part. misled, Mar.

af-vegis = afvega, astray, Skálda 203.

af-velta, adj. [the Scot. awald or awalt], cast, used of cattle, sheep, or horses that have fallen on the back and are unable to rise. Háv. 44.

af-vensla, u, f. expenses, outlay; auðræði (means) urðu brátt eigi mikil, en afvenslur þóttu varla með mikilli stillingu, Bs. i. 136.

af-vik, n. a creek, recess, Stj. 195; metaph. a hiding-place, Þiðr. 137.

af-vikinn, part. secluded, retired; a. staðr = afvik.

af-vinna, u, f. encumbrance, due, fees, outgoings, = afskyld. Freq. in deeds of gift. e. g. D. I. i. 203, 266; þá lágu öngar gjafir til staðarins, en a. varð öngu minni, then no gifts came in to the see, but the outlay was in nothing less, Bs. i. 84; þá görðust fjárhagir úhægir í Skálaholti, urðu afvinnur miklar (great outgoings) en tillög (incomings) eingin, Bs. i. 99.

af-virða, ð and t, to despise, Barl. several times.

af-virðiligr, adj. worthless, poor, despicable, Barl. 75, 154; v. auvirðiligr and auðv., which are the Icel. forms.

af-virðing, f., contr. ávirðing, disrepute, disgrace, fault, Bs. ii. 187.

af-vænn, adj. unexpected, Fas. ii. 552.

af-vöxtr, m. 'off-wax,' i. e. decrease, N. G. L. i. 214; opp. to ávöxtr.

af-þerra, ð, and mod. að, to wipe off; metaph. to expunge, Stj. 142.

af-þokka, að, in the phrase, a. e-t fyrir e-m, to throw discredit on, run down, set against, Fms. ii. 145; hann útti fátt við jarl, en afþokkaðí

10 AFÞVATTR—AKRTIUND.

heldr fyrir þeim fyrir öðrum mönnum, he had little to do with the earl, but rather ran them down before other men, Orkn. 378.

af-þvattr, m. a washing off, ablution, Fr.

af-æta, u, f. [af and eta], prop. a voracious beast, a glutton, a great bully; ér langfeðgar erut garpar miklir ok afætor, Fms. xi. 111; sterkir menn ok afætur miklar, iii. 143. It is perhaps identical with the present ófóti, n. a vile thing, offscouring.

AGG, n. brawl, strife, now freq.

AGI, a, m. [A. S. oga; Dan. ave; Engl. awe: cp. Ulf. agis, n., and perh. ἄγος or ἅγος], gener. awe, terror; þá skelfr jörð öll í aga miklum, then all the earth quakes in great awe, Hom. 100; agi ok ótti, awe and terror, Fms. vi. 442.  β. metaph. turbulence, uproar, disorder, esp. in the phrase, agi ok úfriðr, uproar and war, Fms. ii. 241, vi. 298, 430.  γ. awe, respect; var eigi sá annarr konungr, er mönnum stæði af jafnmikill agi af fyrir vizku sakir, there was not another king who inspired his men with so much awe for his wits' sake, Fms. x. 406; Guðs a., fear of God, Sks. 354, 667.  δ. discipline, constraint, now freq. in this sense; í æskunni meðan hann er undir aga, Sks. 26.  II. moisture, wet, now freq., cp. vatnsagi. Also a verb aga, að, to chastise, is now freq.  COMPDS: aga-samligr, adj. unruly, Fms. vii. 274.  aga-samr, adj. turbulent, in uproar; agasamt mun þá verða í héraðinu, ef allir þorláks synir eru drepnir, there will be uproar in the district if all Thorlak's sons are slain, Eb. 230.

AGN, n. bait, Barl. 123, Niðrst. 623. 3. There is now in many cases a distinction between agn, bait for foxes and land animals, and beita, bait for fish; but in the poem Hým. 18, 22, at least, agn is used of fishing; ganga á agnið is to nibble or take the bait: cp. egna.

agn-hald, n. a barb of a hook.

agn-sax, n. fishing knife, with which bait for fish is cut, Edda 36, Nj. 19 (arnsax is a false reading), Fas. i. 489.

agn-úi, a, m. the barb of a hook for keeping on the agn; skal a. vera á hverjum þorni, Sks. 419 (B. reads agnör).

agn-ör, f. a barbed hook, Sks. 89 new Ed.

AKA, ók, óku, ekit; pres. ek. It also occurs in a weak form, að, Fagrsk. 104, which form is now perhaps the most common. [Neither Ulf. nor Hel. use this word, which appears also to be alien to the South-Teut. idioms. The Germans say fahren; the English to drive, carry; cp. Engl. yoke. In Latin, however, agere; Gr. ἄγειν] Gener. to move, drive, transport, carry:I. to drive in harness in a sledge or other vehicle (where the vehicle is in dat.), as also the animal driven; bryggjur svá breiðar, at aka mátti vögnum á víxl, 'briggs' (i. e. wharfs or piers, cp. 'Filey Brigg') so broad, that wains might meet and pass each other, Hkr. ii. 11; gott er heilum vagni heim at aka, 'tis good to drive home with a whole wain, to get home safe and sound, cp. Horace solve senescentem, Orkn. 464, Al. 61; þórr á hafra tvá, ok reið þá er hann ekr, in which he drives, Edda 14, Ób. adds í (viz. reið þá er hekr i), which may be the genuine reading.  β. with the prep, i; Freyr ok ok í kerru með gelti, Edda 38.  γ. absol. to drive, i. e. travel by driving; þeir óku upp á land, Eg. 543; fóru þeir í sleðann ok óku nóttina alia, drove the whole night, Fms. iv. 317. With the road taken in acc.; aka úrgar brautir, Rm. 36; báðu hennar ok heim óku (dat. henni being understood), carrying a bride home, 37. 20.  II. to carry or cart a load, (to lead, in the north of England):—in Iceland, where vehicles are rare, it may perhaps now and then be used of carrying on horseback. The load carried is commonly in dat. or acc.:  α. acc.: aka saman hey, to cart hay, Eb. 150; saman ok hann heyit, Ísl. ii. 330; hann ok saman alla töðu sína, Landn. 94; þá tekr Gísli eyki tvá, ok ekr fé sitt til skógar, Gísl. 121; but absol., ok ekr til skógar með fjárhlut sinn, l. c. 36; þá let konungr aka til haugsins vist ok drykk, then the king let meat and drink be carted to the 'how' (barrow), Fms. x. 186; vill hann húsit ór stað færa, ok vill hann aka þat, carry it away, Grág. ii. 257; líkin váru ekin í sleða, carried in a sledge, Bs. i. 144.  β. dat. more freq., as now; hann ók heyjum sínum á öxnum, carried his hay on oxen, Fbr. 43 new Ed.; einn ók skarni á hóla, carted dung alone on the fields, Nj. 67, Rd. 277.  γ. with the animals in dat., þórólfr let aka þrennum eykjum um daginn, with three yoke of oxen, Eb. 152; or with the prep. á, ríðr þórðr hesti þeim er hann hafði ekit á um aptaninn, Ísl. ii. 331, Fbr. 43; ef maðr ekr eðr berr klyfjar á, leads or carries on packsaddles, Grág. i. 441.  δ. absol., þat mun ek til finna, at hann ok eigi í skegg ser, that he did not cart it on his own beard, Nj. 67.  ε. part., ekinn uxi, a yoked, tamed ox, Vm. 152.  III. used by sailors, in the phrase, aka segli, to trim the sail; aka seglum at endilöngum skipum, Fms. vii. 94; bað hann þá aka skjótt seglunum, ok víkja út í sund nokkut, 131. In mod. Icel. metaph., aka seglum eptir vindi, to set one's sail after (with) the wind, to act according to circumstances; cp. aktaumar.  IV. metaph. in a great many proverbs and phrases, e. g. aka heilum vagni heim, v. above; aka höllu fyrir e-m, to get the worst of it, Ld. 206; aka undan (milit), to retire, retreat slowly in a battle; óku þeir Erlingr undan ofan með garðinum, Fms. vii. 317; akast undan (reflex.), id., 278; þeir ökuðust undan ok tóku á skógana, they took to the woods, Fagrsk. 174 (where the weak form is used); sumir Norðmenn óku undan á hæli ofan með sjónum, x. 139: aka e-m á bug, the figure probably taken from the ranks in a battle, to make one give way, repel, en ef Ammonite aka þér á bug, if they be too strong for thee, Stj. 512, 2 Sam. x. 11, Mkv. 7; also metaph., aka bug á e-n, id.; mun oss þat til Birkibeinum, at þeir aki á oss engan bug, to stand firm, with unbroken ranks, Fms. viii. 412. It is now used impers., e-m á ekki ór að aka, of one who has always bad luck, probably ellipt., ór steini or the like being understood; cp. GÍsl. 54, the phrase, þykir ekki ór steini hefja, in the same sense, the figure being taken from a stone clogging the wheels; ok hann af sér fjötrinum, threw it off by rubbing, Fas. ii. 573; þá ekr Oddr sér þar at, creeps, rolls himself thither, of a fettered prisoner, id.; the mod. phrase, að aka sér, is to shrug the shoulders as a mark of displeasure: aka ór öngum, ex angustiis, to clear one's way, get out of a scrape, Bjarn. 52; aka í moínn, to strive against, a cant phrase. Impers. in the phrase, e-m verðr nær ekit, is almost run over, has a narrow escape, varð honum svá nær ekit at hann hleypti inn í kirkju, he was so hard driven that he ran into the church, Fms. ix. 485; hart ekr at e-m, to be in great straits, ok er þorri kemr, þá ekr hart at mönnum, they were pressed hard, Ísl. ii. 132; ekr nú mjök at, I am hard pressed, GÍsl. 52; er honum þótti at sér aka, when death drew near, of a dying man, Grett. 119 A. Reflex., e-m ekst e-t í tauma, to be thwarted in a thing, where the figure is taken from trimming the sail when the sheet is foul, Fms. xi. 121. In later Icelandic there is a verb akka, að, to heap together, a. e-u saman, no doubt a corruption from aka with a double radical consonant, a cant word. Aka is at present a rare word, and is, at least in common speech, used in a weak form, akar instead of ekr; akaði = ók; akat = ekit.

AKARN, n. [Ulf. akran = καρπός; Engl. acorn; Germ. ecker; Dan. agern], acorn, Edda 30 and Gl.

ak-braut, n. carriage road, Hkr. ii. 253, Fær. 102, vide Fb. i. 144.

ak-færi, n. driving gear, carriage and harness, Fms. iii. 206, Nj. 153.

AKKERI, n. [no doubt, like Engl. anchor, of foreign origin; cp. Gr. ἀγκύρα, Lat. ancora. It occurs, however, in a verse as early as the year 996], ankeri, Lv. 99, is a corrupt form from a paper MS., so is also atkeri, Hkr. i. 311; liggja um akkeri, to lie at anchor, Fbr. 52; leggjast um a., to cast anchor, Fms. iv. 301; heimta upp a., to weigh anchor, 302; a. hríffr við, the anchor holds, Ld. 21, Grág. ii. 397, Jb. 397, Eg. 129, Fms. vii. 264, ix. 44, x. 136, Hkr. i. 311, Lv. 99, Fas. i. 511, 515. Metaph., a. vánar, anchor of hope, 677. 17.  COMPDS: akkeris-fleinn, m. the fluke, palm of an anchor, Fms. ix. 387, Orkn. 362.  akkeris-lauss, adj. without, an anchor, Ann. 1347.  akkeris-lægi, n. anchorage, Jb. 396.  akkeris-sát, f. id., Grág. ii. 402, 408.  akkeris-stokkr, m. an anchor-stock, Orkn. 362.  akkeris-strengr, m. an anchor-rope, cable, Fms. ii. 10.  akkeris-sæti, n. anchorage, Jb. 397 B.

AKKORDA, að, [for. word], to accord, Rb. 446.

AKR, rs, pl. rar, [Ulf. akrs; A. S. œcer; Engl. acre; Germ. acker; Lat. ager; Gr. ἀγρός], arable land, ground for tillage:α. opp. to engi, a meadow; cp. the law term, þar er hvárki sé a. ne engi, Grág. i. 123, Hrafn. 21.  β. opp. to tún, the 'town' or enclosed homefield; bleikir akrar en slegin tún, the corn-fields are white to harvest and the 'town,' i. e. the 'infield,' is mown, Nj. 112; helgi tuns ok akra ok engja, Bs. i. 719; teðja akra, Rm. 12.  2. metaph. the crop; þeir höfðu niðrbrotið akra hans alla, destroyed all the crop in the fields, Fms. v. 50; ok er hann óð rúgakrinn fullvaxinn, þá tók döggskórinn á sverðinu akrinn uppstandanda, and when he (Sigurd Fafnir's bane) strode through the full-waxen rye-field, the tip of his sword's sheath just touched the upstanding ears. Fas. i. 173; sá hinn góði akr (crop) er upp rann af þeirri hinni góðu jörð, Hom. 68.  β. name of several farms.  COMPDS: akra-ávöxtr, m. produce of the fields, Ver. i.  akra-gerði, n. a 'field-garth,' enclosure of arable land, N. G. L. i. 22.  akra-karl, m. cognom. 'Acre-carle,' Lv. 40.  akra-spillir, m. cognom. destroyer of fields, Glúm. 333, Fas. ii. 362, better askaspillir, q. v.

akr-dai, n. (?), wild gourds; veit ek eigi hvat þat heitir (adds the translator) þat var því líkast sem a., Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39.

akr-deili, n. a plot of arable land, D. N. ii. 123 (Fr.)

akr-gerði, n. enclosure of arable land, Fms. vii. 178.

akr-görð, f. agriculture.akrgörðar-maðr, m. ploughmen, Nj. 54.

akr-hæna, u, f. a 'field-hen,' quail, opp. to heiðarhæna or lynghæns, Stj. 292.

akri, a, m. a bird, Edda (Gl.)

akr-karl, m. a 'field-carle,' ploughman or reaper, Stj. 273, 441, El. 4, 19.

akr-kál, n. 'field-kale,' potherbs, Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39.

akr-land, n. land for tillage, Grág. ii. 258, D. I. i. 268, Bs. i. 348, Fms. iii. 18. akrlands-deild, f. division of a field, Grág. ii. 260.

akr-lengd, f. a field's length (now in Icel. tunlengd, i. e. a short distance); svá at a. var í milli þeirra, so that there was a field's length between them, Bev. 14 (Norse).

akr-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of ground, Fms. vi. 187.

akr-neyttr, part. used as arable land, tilled, Sks. 630, v. l.

akr-plógsmaðr, m. ploughman, Stj. 255.

akr-rein, f. a strip of arable land, D. N. ii. 561.

akr-skipti, n. a division of afield, Fms. xi. 441.

akr-skurðr, ar, m. reaping, akrskurðar-maðr, m. a reaper, Stj. Ruth ii. 21 (young men).

akr-súra, u, f. field-sorrel, Hom. 82, 83.

akr-tíund, f. tithe paid on arable land (Norse), N. G. L. i. 391.

AKRVERK—ALDIN. 11

akr-verk, n. field-work, harvest-work, Bret. 6, Fms. vi. 187, Stj. Ruth ii.

akrverks-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of the ground, Ver. 5. Gen. iv. 2.

ak-stóll, m. probably a chair on wheels or castors; Ketilbjörn sat á akstóli injök við pall, in the banquet at Flugumýri in the year 1253, Sturl. iii. 182.

AKTA, að, [for. word, which therefore does not observe the contraction into á, which is the rule with genuine words; it appears esp. in eccl. writers and annalists at the end of the 13th and 14th centuries, Arna b. S., K. Á., Stj., the Norse Gþl., etc.: cp. A. S. eahtan; Hel. ahton, censere, considerare; Germ. achten; mid. Lat. actare, determinare et actare, Du Cange in a letter of the year 1284.]  I. to number, tax, value, take a census; akta fólkið, Stj. 2 Sam. xxiv. 10; fóru þeir víða um land ok öktuðu vísaeyri konungs, taxed, Bs. i. 707; nú byggir maðr dýrra en vandi hefir á verit, akti (tax) því fremr dýrra ok fremr til leiðangrs ok landvarnar, he shall be taxed in due proportion, Gþl. 337.  2. to examine, enquire; aktið inniliga öll þau leyni sem hánn má í felast, to take diligent heed of all the lurking-places, Stj. 479. 1 Sam. xxiii. 23; aktið þó áðr, and look, that, id. 2 Kings x. 23; hann aktaði eptir (looked after) um eignir staðarins, Bs. i. 778.  3. to devote attention to, study; hann aktaði mjök bókligar listir, Bs. i. 666, 680.  II. a law term, esp. in the Arna b. S., to debate, discuss in parliament; mú er þetta var aktað (debated) gengu menn til lögréttu, Bs. i. 719; var þá gengit til lögréttu, ok lesit bréf konungs ok drottningar ok aktað (stated) af leikmanna hendi hversu prestar höfðu af stöðum gengit, 735; lögbók öktuð á alþingi, the code of law debated at the althing, H. Ann. 419. 19. Now only used in the sense of to care for, feel respect for, but a rare and unclassical

ak-tamr, adj. tame under the yoke; griðungr a., Grág. ii. 122.

aktan, f. [Germ. achtung], heed, consideration, H. E. i. 410.

ak-taumr, m. esp. in pl. ar, lines (taumar) to trim (aka) the sail, distinguished from höfuðbendur, the stays of the mast, perhaps the braces of a sail (used by Egilsson to transl. ὑπέραι in Od. 5. 260), þórarinn stýrði ok hafði aktaumana um herðar sér, þvíat þröngt var á skipinu, had the braces round his shoulders, because the boat was blocked up with goods, Ld. 56; the phrase, sitja í aktaumum, to manage the sail; ef ek sigli með landi fram, ok sit ek í aktaumum, þá skal engi snekkja tvítugsessa sigla fyrir mér, eða ek vilja svipta (reef the sail) fyr en þeir, Fms. v. 337; reiði slitnaði, svá at bæði gékk í sundr höfuðbendur ok aktaumar, Fas. iii. 118; reki segl ofan, en a. allir slitni, 204; slitnuðu höfuðbendur ok aktaumar, Bær. 5, Edda (Gl.) That the braces were generally two may be inferred from the words við aktaum hvárntveggja hálf mörk, N. G. L. i. 199.  2. metaph., sitja í aktaumum, to have the whole management of a thing; mun yðr þat eigi greitt ganga ef þér erut einir í aktaumum, if you are alone in the management of it, Ísl. ii. 49; einir um hituna is now used in the same sense. (The Engl. yoke-lines, as aktaumar is sometimes interpreted (as in the Lat. transl. of the Ld.), are now called stjórntaumar. Aktanmr is obsolete. See 'Stones of Scotland,' tab. liv. sqq.)

AL- [A. S. eal-; Engl. all, al-; Germ. all-], a prefix to a great many nouns and participles, but only a few verbs, denoting thoroughly, quite, perfectly, completely, answering to Lat. omni- and Gr. παν- or παντο-. If followed by a u or v it sometimes changes into öl, e. g. ölúð, benignitas; ölværð, laetitia: ölteiti, hilaritas, is irregular, instead of alteiti. The prefixed particle al- differs from all-, which answers to Lat. per-, A. S. eall-, Engl. very: v. the following compds.

ALA, ól, ólu, alið; pres. el, [Ulf. a single time uses the partic. alans = (ἐντρεφόμενος, and twice a weak verb aliþs = σιτευτός, a fatling. The word seems alien to other Teut. idioms, but in Lat. we find alere; cp. the Shetland word alie, to nourish.] Gener. to give birth to, nourish, support, etc.  I. to bear, esp. of the mother; but also of both parents; rarely of the father alone, to beget: börn ólu þau, they begat children, Rm. 12; þat barn er þau ala skal eigi arf taka, Grág. i. 178: of the father alone, enda eru börn þau eigi arfgeng, er hann elr við þeirri konu, which be begets by that woman, 181; but esp. of the mother, to bear, give birth to; jóð ól Amma, Rm. 7; þóra ól barn um sumarit, Eg. 166, Fms. iv. 32, i. 14; hon fær eigi alit barnit, Fas. i. 118.  β. metaph. to produce, give rise to; en nú elr hverr þessara stafa níu annan staf undir sér, Skálda 162.  2. pass. to be born, begotten; börn þau öll er alin eru fyrir jól, who are born, N. G. L. i.; 377; the phrase, alnir ok úbornir, born and unborn, present and future generations, has now become aldir ok óbornir; eigu þau börn er þar alask (who are born there) at taka arf út hingat, Grág. i. 181; barn hvert skal færa til kirkju sem alit er, every child that is born, K. Þ. K. 1; ef barn elsk svá naer páskum, is born, 16.  β. of animals (rarely), justus heitir forað, þat elsk (is engendered) í kviði eins dýrs, 655 xxx. 4.  II. to nourish, support, Lat. alere:1. esp. to bring up, of children; the Christian Jus Eccl., in opposition to the heathen custom of exposing children, begins with the words, ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, every child that is born shall be brought up, K. Á. ch. 1.  β. adding the particle upp; skal eigi upp ala, heldr skal út bera barn þetta, this bairn shall not be brought up, but rather be borne out (i. e. exposed to perish), Finnb. 112.  2. to feed, give food to, harbour, entertain; ala gest ok ganganda, guests; ala þurfamenn, the poor, D. in deeds of gift; en sá maðr er þar býr skal ala menn alla þá er hann hyggr til góðs at alnir sé, he shall harbour them, D. i. 169; ala hvern at ósekju er vill. to harbour, 200; Guð elf gesti (a proverb), God pays for the guests, Bs. i. 247; sótt elr sjúkan, fever is the food of the sick; utanhrepps göngumenn skal enga ala, ok eigi gefa mat, hvárki meira né minna, gangrels of an outlying district shall none of them be harboured, nor have meat given them, neither more nor less, Grág. i. 293, 117.  β. of animals, to nourish, breed; einn smásauð er hann ól heima í húsi sínu, one pet lamb which he had reared at home in his own house, Stj. 516; segir allæliligan, ok kvað verða mundu ágæta naut ef upp væri alinn, of a live calf, Eb. 318.  2. pass. to be brought up, educated; ólusk (grew up) í ætt þar, æstir kappar (or were born), Hdl. 18; alask upp, to be brought up; hence uppeldi, n.  III. metaph. in such phrases as, ala aldr sinn, vitam degere, to pass one's days, Bárð. 165: the phrase, ala e-t eptir e-m, to give one encouragement in a thing, bring one tip in, esp. in a bad sense; ól hann eptir engum manni ódáðir, Joh. 625. 93: ala á mál, to persist in, urge on a thing; karl elr á málið (begs hard) at Gunnar mundi til hans fara, Sd. 172, Ísl. ii. 133, 163:—the present phrase is, að ala e-t við e-n, to bear a grudge against...; and in a negative sense, ala ekki, to let bygones be bygones: ala önn fyrir, to provide for: a. öfund, sorg, um e-t, to grudge, feel pang (poët.),

alaðs-festr, ar, f. [obsolete alaðr, alimentum, Ýt. 13, v. l.], a law term in the Icel. Commonwealth, viz. the eighth part of the sum fjörbaugr (life-money), amounting to an ounce, a fee to be paid by a convict in the Court of Execution (féránsdómr); if a convict, liable to the lesser outlawry, failed in paying off the alaðsfestr, he thereby became a complete outlaw, úalandi; hence the name life-money or blood-money. It is thus defined: þar skal gjaldast mörk lögaura at féránsdómi, goða þeim er féránsdóminn nefndi; þat fé heitir fjörbaugr, en einn eyrir (ounce) þess fjár heitir a. ef þat fé (the alaðsf. or the whole fjörb.?) gelzt eigi, þá verði hann skógarmaðr úæll, Grág. i. 88; nú gelzt fjörbaugr ok a. þá skal dæma svá sekðarfé hans sem skógarmanns, 132: Njála uses the less classic form, aðalfestr (per metath.), Nj. 240; cp. Johnsonius (Lat. transl.), p. 529, note 8.

al-auðn, f. devastation, Þiðr. 233.

al-auðr, adj. altogether waste, Bret. 168.

al-bata and al-bati, adj. ind. completely cured, quite well, Ísl. ii. 469.

al-berr, adj., now allsberr, quite bare, stark-naked, metaph. manifest, Sturl. iii. 118.

al-bitinn, adj. part. bitten all over, Rd. 298.

al-bjartr, adj. quite bright, brilliant, Eluc. 10, Fas. i. 663.

al-blindr, adj. stone-blind, Post. 745. 87.

al-blóðugr, adj. all-bloody, Nj. 62, Fms. i. 121, Ísl. ii. 271.

al-bogi = alnbogi, elbow, v. ölnbogi and ölbogi.

al-breiðr, adj. of the full breadth of stuff; a. lérept, Jb. 348.

al-brotinn, adj. part. all-broken, shattered, Fms. ii. 246.

al-brynjaðr, part. cased in mail, Hkr. ii. 26, Fms. vii. 45, Fas. i. 91.

al-búa, bjó, to fit out, furnish or equip completely, at albúa kirkju, N. G. L. i. 387; but spec. in part. albúinn, completely equipped, esp. of ships bound for sea [where bound is a corruption of boun, the old English and Scottish equivalent of buinn. Thus a ship is bound for sea or outward bound or homeward bound, when she is completely fitted and furnished for either voyage; windbound is a different word, where bound is the past part. of bind. Again, a bride is boun when she has her wedding dress on; v. below, búa and búask, which last answers to busk]: nú byst hann út til Íslands, ok er þeir vóru albúnir, Nj. 10; ok er Björn var a. ok byrr rann á, Eg. 158, 194: a. sem til bardaga, all-armed for the battle, Fms. xi. 22.  β. in the phrase, a. e-s, quite ready, willing to do a thing; hann kvaðst þess a., Nj. 100, Eg. 74: also with infin., a. at ganga héðan, ready to part, Fms. vii. 243.

al-búinn, ready, v. the preceding word.

al-bygðr, part. completely inhabited, taken into possession, esp. used of the colonisation of Iceland; þorbjörn súrr kom út at albygðu landi, after the colonisation was finished, Landn. 142, several times, Hrafn. 3, Eg. 191, etc.

ALDA, u, f. a wave, freq. as a synonyme to bylgja, bára, etc.; it is esp. used of rollers, thus undiralda means the rollers in open sea in calm weather, Edda (Gl.)  2. metaph. in the phrase, skil ek, hvaðan a. sjá rennr undan (whence this wave rolls), hafa mér þaðan jafnan köld ráð komið, veit ek at þetta eru ráð Snorra goða, of deep, well-planned schemes, Ld. 284. Now used in many COMPDS: öldu-gangr, m. unruly sea;öldu-stokkr, m. bulwarks of a ship, etc.

alda- and aldar-, v. old, time, period; (poët. = people.)

al-dauði and aldauða, adj. ind. dead and gone, extinct, of families, races, esp. in the neg. phrase, vera enn ekki a., to be still in full vigour; ok óru (váru) eigi þeir a., Ísl. ii. 310; eptir dauða Haralds var a. hin forna ætt Danakonunga, died out with king H., Fms. xi. 206; aldauða eru þá Mosfellingar ef ér Sigfússynir skuluð ræna þá, Nj. 73; ella eru mjök a. várir foreldrar, Fms. vi. 37; opt finn ek þat, at mér er a. Magnús konungr, I often feel that for me king M. is dead and gone, Hkr. iii. 107.  COMPD: aldauða-arfr, m. a law term, an inheritance to which there is no heir alive, Gþl. 282, N. G. L. i. 49; cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 11, where aldauðra-arfr is a mis-reading; the meaning of the passage hyggsk a. ráða is, that he would destroy them to the last man.

ALDIN, n., dat. aldini, [Dan. olden; a Scandinavian radical word(?)

12 ALDINSGARÐR—ALGYLDR.

not found In Ulf.], gener. fruit of trees, including apples, nuts, acorns, and sometimes berries; gras ok aldin ok jarðar ávöxtr allr, herbs, fruits, and earth's produce, K. Þ. K. 138; korn ok öllu aldini (dat.), K. Á. 178; þá verðr þegar eitr í öllu aldini á því tré, Rb. 358. It originally meant wild fruits, nuts and acorns; hafði hann enga aðra fæðu en aldin skógar ok vatn, Hom. 105; af korninu vex rót, en vöndr af rótinni, en af vendi a., 677. 14; lesa a., to gather nuts, acorns, Dropl. 5; úskapligt er at taka a. af trénu fyr en fullvaxið er, unripe fruit, Al. 18; epli stór ok fíktrés aldin, great apples and the fruit of fig-trees, Stj. 325. Numb. xiii. 23.  β. of garden fruit; allt þat a. er menn verja með görðum eðr gæzlu, Gþl. 544; akr einn harla góðr lá til kirkjunnar, óx þar it bezta aldini, the finest fruits, Fms. xi. 440.  γ. metaph., blezað sé a. kviðar þíns, the fruit of thy womb, Hom. 30. Luke i. 42.  COMPD: aldins-garðr, m. a fruit-garden, orchard, Gþl. 543.

aldin-berandi, part. bearing fruit, Sks. 630.

aldin-falda, u, f. a lady with an old-fashioned head-dress, Rm. 2.

aldin-garðr, m. garden, orchard, Lat. hortus; víngarða, akra ok aldingarða, Stj. 441. 1 Sam. viii. 14, where aldingarða answers to olive-yards, Fms. iii. 194.

aldini, fruit, v. aldin.

aldin-lauss, adj. without fruit, sterile, barren; a. tré, Greg. 48.

aldinn, adj. [Engl. old; Germ. alt; Ulf. alþeis = ἀρχαῖος]. In Icel. only poët. The Scandinavians say gamall in the posit., but in compar. and superl. ellri, elztr, from another root ald: it very seldom appears in prose authors: v. Lex. Poët.; Sks. 630; cp. aldrænn.

aldin-skógr, ar, m. wood of fruit-trees, Stj. Judg. xv. 5, where vingarðar, olivatré ok aldinskógar answer to the Engl. vineyards and olives.

aldin-tré, n. fruit-tree, Stj. 68.

aldin-viðr, ar, m. fruit-trees, a poët. paraphrase, Fms. ix. 265, Sks. 105.

ALDR, rs, pl. rar, m. [Ulf. alþs = ἀιών or Lat. aevum; Engl. old; Germ. alter], age, life, period, old age, everlasting time. 1. age, lifetime, Lat. vita, aetas; hniginn at aldri, stricken in years, Eg. 187; hniginn á aldr, advanced in years, Orkn. 216; ungr at aldri, in youth, Fms. iii. 90; á léttasta aldri, in the prime of life, v. 71; á gamals aldri, old, iii. 71; á tvítugs, þrítugs aldri, etc.; hálfþrítugr at aldri, twenty-five years of age, Eg. 84; vera svá aldrs kominn, at that time of life, Fs. 4; hafa aldr til e-s, to be so old, be of age, Fms. i. 30; ala aldr, to live, v. ala, Fs. 146; allan aldr, during the whole of one's life, Ver. 45; lifa langan a., to enjoy a long life, Nj. 252.  2. old age, senectus; aldri orpinn, decrepid, lit. overwhelmed by age, Fms. iv. 233, xi. 21; vera við aldr, to be advanced in years.3. manns aldr is now used = generation; lifa marga manns aldra, to outlive many generations: sometimes denoting a period of thirty to thirty-three years.  4. seculum, aevum, an age, period; the time from the creation of the world is divided into six such ages (aldrar) in Rb. 134: cp. öld.  5. eternity; in the phrase, um aldr, for ever and ever; mun ek engan mann um aldr (no man ever) virða framar en Eystein konung, meðan ek lifi, as long as I live, Fms. vii. 147, Th. 25; af aldri, from times of yore, D. N. ii. 501; um aldr ok æfi, for ever and ever, Gþl. 251, N. G. L. i. 41.

aldraðr, adj. elderly, Fms. i. 70, 655 xiv. B. I; öldruð kona, Greg. 27.

aldr-bót, f. fame, honour, Lex. Poët.

aldr-dagar, m. pl. everlasting life; um a., for ever and ever, Vsp. 63.

aldr-fremd, f. everlasting honour, Eluc. 51.

aldri qs. aldri-gi, [dat. from aldr and the negative nominal suffix -gi; Dan. aldrig], with dropped neg. suffix; the modern form is aldrei; unusual Norse forms, with an n or t paragogical, aldregin, aldregit: aldregin, N. G. L. i. 8, Sks. 192, 202 B, Hom. ii. 150, Stj. 62 (in MS. A. M. 227. Ed. aldri), O. H. L. 17, 79, and several times; aldregit, N. G. L. i. 356. The mod. Icel. form with ei indicates a contraction; the old aldri no doubt was sounded as aldrí with a final diphthong, which was later (in the 15th century) changed into ei. The contr. form aldri occurs over and over again in the Sagas, the complete aldregi or aldrigi is more rare, but occurs in Grág. i. 220 A, 321 A, ii. 167, etc.; aldrei appears now and then in the Edd. and in MSS. of the 15th century, but hardly earlier.  I. never, nunquam:1. temp., mun þik a. konur skorta, Ísl. ii. 250; koma aldregi til Noregs síðan, Nj. 9; verðr henni þat aldregi rétt, Grág. ii. 214; ella liggr féit aldregi, in nowise, i. 220; sú sök fyrnist aldregi, 361; ok skal aldregi í land koma síðan, ii. 167.  2. loc. (rare), mörk var svá þykk upp fra tungunni at aldri (nowhere) var rjóðr í (= hvergi), Sd. 170.  II. ever, unquam, after a preceding negative, appears twice in the Völs. kviður; en Atli kveðst eigi vilja mund aldregi (eigi aldregi = never), Og. 23; hnékat ek af því til hjálpar þér, at þú værir þess verð aldregi (now, nokkurrt tíma), not that thou ever hadst deserved it, II.  β. following a comparative, without the strict notion of negation; verr en a. fyr, worse than ever before, Stj. 404; framar en a. fyr, l. c. Cod. A; meiri vesöld en áðr hafði hann aldregi þolat, greater misery than he ever before had undergone, Barl. 196.  III. aldr' = aldri = semper; aldr' hefi ek frétt..., I have always heard tell that..., in a verse in Orkn.

aldr-lag, n. laying down of life, death, destruction, a poët. word, in the phrase, verða e-m at aldrlagi, to bring to one's life's end, Fms. viii. 108, Al. 106; esp. in pl. aldrlög, exititim, Bret. 59, 66, 67.

aldr-lok, n. pl. close of life, death, Hkv. 2. 10.

aldr-máli, a, m. tenure for life, D. N., unknown in Icel., Dan. livsfæste.

aldr-nari, a, m. [A. S. ealdornere, nutritor vitae,] poët. name of fire, Vsp. 57, Edda (Gl.)

aldr-rúnar, f. pl. life-runes, charms for preserving life, Rm. 40.

aldr-rúttr, adj. on terms of peace for ever, D. N. in a law phrase, a. ok æfinsáttr, Fr.

aldr-slit, n. pl. death, in the phrase, til aldrslita, ad urnam, Sturl. iii. 253.

aldr-stamr (perh. aldrscamr), adj. = fey, only in Akv. 42.

aldr-tili, a, m. [cp. as to the last part, Germ. ziel], death, loss of life, exitium; rather poët.; or in prose only used in emphatic phrases; hefir þó lokit sumum stöðum með aldrtila, has ended fatally, Fms. viii. 153; ætla ek þær lyktir munu á verða, at vér munim a. hljóta af þeim konungi, he will prove fatal to our family, Eg. 19; mun ek þangað sækja heldr yndi en a. (an alliterative phrase), Bret. 36; údæmi ok a., 38:—the words, Acts ix. 1, 'breathing out threatenings and slaughter,' are in the Icel. translation of the year 1540 rendered 'Saul blés ógn og aldrtila.'

aldr-tjón, n. loss of life, Lex. Poët.

aldr-tregi, a, m. deadly sorrow; etr sér aldrtrega, Hm. 19.

ald-rænn, adj. elderly, aged (rare), Lex. Poët.; hinn aldræni maðr, Fms. vi. 65, but a little below aldraðr; a. kona, Bs. i. 201, v, 1. öldruð.

aldur-maðr, m. alderman [A. S. ealdorman], Pd. 13.

al-dyggiliga, adv. truly, with perfect fidelity, Hom. 135.

al-dyggr, adj. faithful, Barl. 5.

al-dæli, adj. very easy to treat, Jv. 24, Mag. 115.

al-dæll, adj. easy to deal with, gentle, Grett. 108; A and B dæll.

al-eiga, u, f. a person's entire property, Gþl. 543, Hkr. ii. 344, iii. 141, Bs. ii. 66.  COMPD: aleigu-mál, n. a suit involving a person's whole property, Gþl. 550:—so also aleigu-sök, f., Hkr. ii. 163.

al-eyða, u, f. devastation, esp. by fire and sword; göra aleyðu, to turn into a wilderness, Fms. xi. 42, Hkr. iii. 141.

al-eyða, adj. ind. altogether waste, empty, void of people; a. af mönnum, Hkr. i. 98, ii. 197; brennir ok görir a. landit, burns and makes the land an utter waste, Hkr. i. 39; sumir lágu úti á fjöllum, svá at a. vóru bæirnir eptir, some lay out on the fells, so that the dwellings were utterly empty and wasted behind them, Sturl. iii. 75.

al-eyða, dd, to devastate, Karl. 370.

al-faðir, m. father of all, a name of Odin, v. alföður.

al-far, n., better álfar [áll], channel, B. K. 119.

al-fari, adj. ind., now alfarinn; in phrases like fara, koma alfari, to start, set off for good and all, Fms. iii. 92, Bret. 80, Fas. i. 249; ríða í brott a., Nj. 112, Bs. i. 481; koma til skips a., Grág. ii. 75. [Probably an obsolete dat. from alfar.]

al-farinn, adj. part. worn out, very far gone, Stj. 201, of the kine of Pharaoh, 'ill-favoured and lean-fleshed,' Gen. xli. 3.  β. now = alfari.

al-feginn, adj. very glad ('fain'), Lex. Poët.

al-feigr, adj. very 'fey,' i. e. in extravagant spirits, in the frame of mind which betokens speedy death, a. augu, Eg. in a verse.

alfr, alfheimr, etc., elves etc., v. álfr etc.

al-framr, adj. (poët.) excellent, Lex. Poët.

al-fríðr, adj. very fair, Lex. Poët.

al-frjáls, adj. quite free, Sks. 621.

al-frjóvaðr, part. in full flower. Lex. Poët.

alft, f. swan, v. álpt.

al-fullr, adj. quite full, Greg. 26.

al-fúinn, adj. quite rotten, Fms. vi. 164.

al-færr, adj. quite fit, quite good, Vm. 177, v. ölforr.

al-fært, n. of weather, fit for travelling, Sd. = fært.

al-föðr, m. father of all, the name of Odin as the supreme god in Scandinavian mythology, Edda i. 37 (Ed. Havn.) Now used (theol.) of God.

al-gangsi and algangsa, adj. ind. quite common, current, Sks. 199, 208 B.

al-geldr, adj. part. quite gelded, of cattle, Grág. i. 503.  β. now also = giving no milk.

al-gildi, n. a law term, full value, Gþl. 392.  COMPD: algildis-vitni, n. a law term, lawful testimony, competent witness; defin., N. G. L. i. 211.

al-gildr, adj. of full value, in a verse in Fs. 94; now common, opp. to hálfgildr, of half value, or ógildr, valueless.

al-gjafl, prob. a false reading, N. G. L. i. 347 = frjálsgjafi.

al-gjafta, adj. ind. stall-fed, of cattle, Ísl. ii. 38.

al-gleymingr, m. [glaumr], great glee, great mirth, in the phrase, slá á algleyniing, to be in great glee, to be very merry, Sturl. iii. 123. The Icel. now say, að komast í algleyrning, to run high, to the highest point.

al-góðr, adj. perfectly good, now used of God.  β. albeztr kostr, by far the best match (Germ. allerbester), Ld. 88.

al-grár, adj. quite grey, Þorf. Karl. 424.

al-gróinn, adj. part. perfectly healed, Eluc. 57.

al-grænn, adj. quite green, flourishing, Lex. Poët.

al-gullinn, adj. (poët.) all-golden, Hým. 8.

al-gyldr, adj. all-gilt, Vm. 52.

ALGÖRA—ALLARÆÐILIGA. 13

al-göra, ð, to finish, of buildings, Hkr. iii. 180, Ld. 114. Metaph. to fulfil Fms. iii. 49, Hom. 8, Stj. 18. Reflex, to become completed, Post. 626 B. II. Part. algörr, perfect; perfectam fortitudinem is rendered by algorvan styrkleik, thorough strength, Fms. viii. (pref.), i. 96, Sks. 44, 274, Stj. 563, 114; hið algörvasta, 677. 7.

al-görlega, adv. altogether, quite, Fms. ii. 42, Greg. 34, etc.

al-görleikr, now algörlegleikr, s, m. (theol.) perfectness, perfection, Stj. 21, Fms. x. 337, Rb. 316.

al-görr, adj. part. perfect, finished, v. algöra.

al-gorvi, f.  I. perfection, maturity, Stj. 376, Hom. 25.  II. full dress [v. görvi, dress], Sks. 298.

al-heiðinn, adj. altogether heathen; landit (Iceland) var a. nær hundraði vetra, the land was utterly heathen near a hundred (i. e. one hundred and twenty) winters, Landn. 322.

al-heilagr, adj. all-hallowed, N. G. L. i. 141.

al-heill, adj.  1. completely whole, entire, Lat. integer, Stj. 439. 1 Sam. vii. 9 (wholly), Sks. 604, translation from Lat. individua.2. perfectly healthy, safe and sound, Fms. xi. 38, ii. 232, Magn. 516.

al-heilsa, u, f. complete restoration to health, Bs. i. 313, v. l.

al-henda, u, f. a metrical term, a subdivision of dróttkvætt, a metre having two rhymed couplets in every line; if one of these be half rhyme it is called a. hin minni (the minor alhenda), if both be full rhymes it is a. meiri (complete alhenda), Edda (Ht.) 132, Sturl. ii. 56: thus harð-múla varð Skúli is a complete alhenda.

al-hending, f. = alhenda.

al-hendr, adj. used of a metre in alhenda, Edda 132; drápa alhend, Sturl. ii. 56.

al-hnepptr, adj. part. (metric.) an apocopate (hneppt) species of the metre dróttkvætt w ith masculine rhymes, v. hnept and hálfhnept. Thus defined, Edda (Ht.), verse 78; it is called alhneppt, where all the rhymes are masculine; but hálfhneppt, where feminines and masculines are used alternately.

al-hreinn, adj. quite pure, clean, Hom. 107.

al-huga and ölhuga or öluga, by eliding the h and changing the vowel through the following u, adj. ind. [hugr], whole-hearted, in full earnest, Sturl. iii. 272, v. l.; ölhuga ꜵ́st, sincere love, Greg. 17.

al-hugat, alugat, or alogat, n. part. in real earnest, whole-hearted, having made one's mind up; ef þér er þat alhugat, if thou be in earnest, Nj. 49; föður hans var alogat at drepa Davíd, his father's heart was set on slaying David, Stj. 473. 1 Sam. xx. 33.  β. used substantively, serious matters; blanda hégóma við alhugat (now alvara), to blend trifles with serious things.γ. adverb. steadfastly, earnestly; iðrast a., to repent sincerely, Hom. 166; en ef þú sér at alogat (really) tekr fé þitt at vaxa, Sks. 34, 339; þá er hann alogat úsekr, really guiltless, 677. 9.

al-hugi and alogi, a, m. earnest; þetta er a. minn en engi hégómi, I am in full earnest, Ísl. ii. 214; hvárt er þessa leitað með alhuga, in earnest, Eb. 130; er hitt heldr a. minn, I am determined, Fms. ii. 94; með enum mesta alhuga, with the most steadfast will, Hkr. i. 258, Fms. viii. 186, Bs. i. 732.

al-hugligr, adj. sincere; ekki þótti mér Ólafr frændi várr a., methought our kinsman Olaf was not quite sincere, Sturl. i. 81.

al-hungraðr, adj. part. very much an-hungered, Barl. 200.

al-húsa, að, to 'house,' roof in, Fms. x. 153,

al-hvítr, adj. quite white, Fms. xi. 16, Stj. 260.

al-hýsa, t, = alhúsa. Part. alhýst, when all the buildings are finished, in a complete state, Sturl. i. 68.

al-hýsi, n. farm-buildings, homestead, Gísl. 38, Bs. i. 144, Fas. iii. 15.

al-hægð, f. perfect ease, Sturl. i. 56, v. l. and dub.

al-hægr, adj. perfectly easy, smooth; a. tungubragð, a smooth, glib tongue, Skálda 170, Fas. ii. 65.

ali-, used of household or tame animals in some COMPDS: ali-björn, m. a tame bear, Grág. ii. 118, cp. Fms. vi. 297-307, Bs. i. 6l.  ali-dýr, n. a domestic animal, cattle; alidýr þat sem vér köllum búsmala, house-lamb, Stj. 18, Finnb. 226, of a tame bear.  ali-fe, n. fatlings, Matth. xxii. 4, in the transl. of 1540.  ali-fiskr, m. fish fattened in a stew or pond, in the local name Alifiskalækr, m. the brook of fattened trout, Gþl. 4.  ali-fugl and -fogl, m. tame fowl, Stj. 560, Þiðr. 79; öxn mín ok alifoglar, Greg. 43. Matth. l. c.  ali-gás, f. a fattened goose, Fms. vi. 347.  ali-karl, m. a nickname, cp. in familiar language fat carle, Sturl. i. 123.  ali-sauðr, m. a pet sheep, Stj. 516. 2 Sam. xii. 3.

ALIN, f. A dissyllabic form alun appears in old poetry, v. Lex. Poët. In early prose writers a monosyllabic form öln prevails in nom. dat. acc. sing., D. I. i. 310. l. 22 (MS. of the year 1275), 314. l. 16 (MS. year 1250), 311, 312. l. 16, 313. l. 7, 89. l. 1. Nom. pl., α. the old, alnar; β. the later, alnir: the former in -ar, in D. I. i. 309 (a MS. of the year 1275), 310-312 (MS. year 1370), 313, 316. l. 19, 318. 1. 15. The pl. in -ir, D. I. i. 89 sqq., in MSS. of the 13th and 14th centuries. In the contracted form aln- the simple radical vowel soon became a diphthongal á, viz. álnar, álnir, álnum, álna, and is at present so spelt and pronounced. We find an acute accent indeed in álna (gen pl.), D. I. i. 313. l. 25 (MS. year 1375), and dinar, id. l, 7; álnom, 1. 28; ölnum with changed vowel, N. G. L. i. 323 (in an Icel. transcript). The present declension is, nom. acc. alin, gen. álnar; pl. nom. acc. álnir, gen. álna, dat. alnum.  I. properly the arm from the elbow to the end of the middle finger [Gr. ὠλένη, Lat. ulna, cp. A. S. el-boga, Engl. el-bow, etc.]; almost obsolete, but still found in the words ölbogi qs. öln-bogi, 'elbow,' and úlf-liðr, prop. uln- or óln-liðr, wrist, commonly pronounced unl-liðr [false etymol., v. Edda, p. 17]; cp. Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 19, where tungl (luna) and unl- rhyme. Freq. in poetry in such compounds as alun-leygr, -brandr, ölun-grjót, alnar-gim, alin-leygr, the standing poët. name of gold and gems being ignis or lapis cubiti.II. mostly metaph.:  1. an ell, [Ulf. aleina; A. S. eln; Engl. ell; O. H. G. elina; Dan. alen; Lat. ulna, cp. cubitum]; the finger, arm, foot were the original standards for measure. The primitive ell measured the length from the elbow to the point of the second finger, and answered to about half a yard Engl. = 18 inches. The Icel. ell before the year 1200 measured just half a yard. About this year, by a law of bishop Paul, the ell was doubled into a stika, a stika being precisely = two ells = an Engl. ell of that time. To prevent the use of bad measure, a just and lawful stika (yard) was marked on the walls of the churches, esp. that at Thingvellir, as an authorised standard, Páls S. ch. 9, Bs. i. 135, D. I. i. 309, 316, Jb. Eb. 26; ensk lérept tveggja álna, English linen of two ells measure, id.; þat er mælt, at at graftar kirkju hverri skal mæla stiku lengd, þá er rétt sé at hafa til álna máls, ok megi menn þar til ganga ef á skilr um alnar, 309. During the whole of the 15th century the Icel. trade was mainly in British hands; thus the Engl. double ell probably prevailed till the end of the 15th or beginning of the 16th century. The Hanse Towns ell = 21111 inches was then introduced, and abolished in the year 1776, when the Dan. ell = 24 inches came into use. At present the Hanse Towns ell is called Íslenzk alin (Icel. ell), and the original half-yard ell is quite obsolete; cp. Jón Sigurðsson in D. I. i. 306-308, and Pál Vidal. s. v. alin.  2. a unit of value, viz. an ell (half-yard measure) of woollen stuff (vaðmál); the vaðmál (Halliwell wadmal, Engl. woadmal, Orkn. and Shell, wadmaal and vadmel) was in Icel. the common medium of payment, whence an ell became the standard unit of value or property, whether in land or chattels; 120 ells make a hundred, v. that word. In D. I. i. 316 we are told that, about the year 1200, three ells were equal in value to one ounce of ordinary silver, whence the expression þriggja álna eyrir (a common phrase during the 13th century). The value of the ell of vaðmal, however, varied greatly; during the 11th and 12th centuries six ells made an ounce, D. I. i. 88. In Norway we find mentioned níu, ellifu álna aurar (nine, eleven ells to an ounce). In Grág. (Kb.) ii. 192, § 245, it is said that, about the year 1000, four ells in Icel. made an ounce, and so on; vide Dasent, Essay in 2nd vol. of Burnt Njal., and Pal Vidal. s. v. alin.  COMPDS: álnar-borð, n. a board an ell long, N. G. L. i. 100.  álnar-breiðr, adj. an ell broad, Fas. ii. 118.  alnar-kefli, n. a stajf an ell long, Grág. ii. 339, Ld. 318. álnar-langr, adj. ell-long, Grág. ii. 359.  álnar-tíund, f. tithe of the value of an ell, K. Á. 100.  álnar-virði, n. equal in value to an ell, K. Á. 194.  álna-sök, f. action for bad measure, Grág. i. 472.

al-jafn, adj. quite equal, 677. 12, 655 A. 2.

al-járnaðr, adj. part. shod all round, shod on all four feet, Mag. 5.

alka, alca, the awk, v. álka,

al-keypt, n. part. dearly bought, in a metaph. sense, Fms. ix. 302, Eb. 266, Glúm. 36s, = fullkeypt.

al-kirkja, u, f. a parish church, Pm. 41.

al-klæðnaðr, m. a full suit of clothes, Nj. 73, Eg. 518, Bs. 5. 655, 876.

al-kristinn, adj. completely christianised, Fms. i. 279, Hkr. i. 259.

al-kristnaðr, part. id., Hkr. ii. 178, Fms. x. 273.

al-kunna, adj. ind.  α. of a thing or event, notorious, universally known; sem a. er orðit, Fms. xi. 201; en sem vinátta þeirra görðist a., but tvhen their friendship was noised abroad, Hkr. ii. 281.  β. of a person, knowing, fully informed; unz a., until I know the whole, Vtkv. 8, 10, 12.

al-kunnigr, adj. notorious, Hkr. iii. 26, Stj. Gen. iv. 10, 655 xxxi. I, Fms. vii. 5, Hkr. ii. 328.

al-kunnr, adj. id., Fms. v. 40.

al-kyrra, adj. ind. completely calm, tranquil, Fms. xi. 72.

ALL- may in old writers be prefixed to almost every adjective and adverb in an intensive sense, like Engl. very, Lat. per-, Gr. δια-, ζα-. In common talk and modern writings it is rare (except after a negative), and denotes something below the average, viz. tolerably, pretty well, not very well; but in the Sagas, something capital, exceeding. In high style it may perhaps be used in the old sense, e. g. allfagrt ljós oss birtist brátt, a transl. of the Ambrosian hymn, Aurora lucis rutilat. The instances in old writers are nearly endless, e. g. all-aunt, n. adj. very eager, Fms. ii. 41; ironically, 150.  all-apr, adj. very sore, very harsh, v. apr.  all-auðsóttligt, n. adj. very easy, Fs. 40.  all-auðveldliga, adv. very easily, Fms. iv. 129.  all-auðveldligr, adj. very easy, Fms. v. 331.  all-auðveldr, adj. id., Fbr. 158: neut. as adv., Hkr. ii. 76.  all-ágætr, adj. very famous, Fms. ii. 76.  all-áhyggjusamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very careful, Fms. vi. 184.  all-ákafliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hot, impetuous, Hkr. i. 234, ii. 32.  all-ákaft, adj. very fast, Nj. 196. all-áræðiliga, adv. very likely, Fær.

14 ALLARÆÐISLITILL—ALLMIKILMANNLIGA.

183.  all-áræðislítill, adj. very timid, Fms. vi. 217.  all-ástúðligt, n. adj. very hearty, intimate, Fms. ii. 20.  all-banvænn, adj. very likely to prove mortal, Orkn. 148.  all-beinn, adj. very hospitable, Fms. ii. 84, Eb. 286: neut. as adv., Fær. 259.  all-beiskr, adj. very harsh, bitter, Sturl. iii. 167.  all-bert, n. adj. very manifest, Lex. Poët.  all-bitr, adj. very biting, sharp, Sks. 548.  all-bitrligr, adj. of a very sharp appearance, Vígl. 20.  all-bjartr, adj. very bright, Fms. viii. 361.  all-bjúgr, adj. very much bent, curved, Ölkofr. 39.  all-blár, adj. very blue, Glúm. 394.  all-blíðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very blithely, kindly, Fær. 132.  all-blíðr, adj. very mild, amiable, Sd. 158, Fms. i. 202.  all-bráðgörr, adj. very soon mature, Eb. 16.  all-bráðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hastily, Orkn. 72.  all-bråðr, adj. very hot-headed, Njarð. 370: neut. as adv. very soon, Fms. xi. 51: dat. pl.  all-bráðum, as adv. very suddenly, 139.  all-bros-ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very funny, laughable, Fms. iii. 113.  all-dasigr, adj. very sluggish. Lex. Poët.  all-digr, adj, very big, stout; metaph. puffed up, Nj. 236.  all-djarfliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very boldly, Fms. ii. 313, Orkn. 102. all-djúpsettr, adj. very deep, thoughtful, Bret. 158.  all-drengiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very bold, gallant, Lv. 110.  all-dræmt, n. adj. very boastfully, from dramb, superbia, (the modern word is dræmt = slowly, sluggishly); þeir létu a. yfir sér, boasted, Sturl. ii. 56. MS. Mus. Brit. 1127; Cod. A. M. has allvænt, prob. wrongly.  all-dyggr, adj. very doughty, Lex. Poët.  all-dýrr, adj. very dear, Fms. iii. 159.  all-eiguligr, adj. very worth having, Sd. 146.  all-eina (theol.), á Guð alleina (a hymn), alone: Hkr. iii. 339 (in a spurious chapter).  all-einarðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very sincere, candid, open, Ld. 334.  all-eldiligr and -elliligr, adj. of a very aged appearance, Fms. iii. 125.  all-fagr, adj. very bright, fair, Orkn. 296 old Ed.: neut. as adv. very fairly, Sturl. i. 72.  all-fast, n. adj. very firmly, steadfastly, Eb. 290, Fær. 259.  all-fastorðr, adj. very 'wordfast,' very true to his word, Fms. vii. 120.  all-fálátr, adj. very taciturn, close, Fas. iii. 408.  all-fáliga, adv. on very cold terms, Sturl. iii. 298.  all-fámáligr, adj. very close, of very few words, Fms. iii. 85, iv. 366.  all-fámennr, adj. followed by very few people, Sturl. ii. 122, Magn. 386.  all-far, adj. very few, Eg. 512, Ld. 272, Ísl. ii. 356: neut. on very cold terms, Fms. xi. 55.  all-fáræðinn, adj. of very few words, Fms. iv. 312.  all-feginn, adj. very 'fain,' glad, Eg. 240, Ld. 330.  all-feginsamliga, adv. very 'fain,' gladly, Eg. 27.  all-feigligr, adj. having the mark of death very plain on one's face, v. feigr, Sturl. iii. 234.  all-feitr, adj. very fat, Fms. x. 303.  all-ferliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very rudely, Fms. iv. 263.  all-fémikill, adj. very costly, Ld. 298.  all-fjarri, adv. very far, far from, metaph., Hkr. ii. 246; eigi a., not improper, Fbr. 15.  all-fjartekit, part. very far-fetched, Skálda 166.  all-fjölgan, adj. acc. very numerous (does not exist in nom.), Sks. 138 A.  all-fjölkunnigr, adj. very deeply versed in sorcery, Fms. ii. 175, Fas. i. 412.  all-fjölmeðr and -mennr, adj. followed, attended by very many people, much frequented, Eg. 724, 188, Hkr. i. 215: n. sing. in very great numbers, Fms. i. 36.  all-fjölrætt, n. adj. very heedful, much talked of, Nj. 109.  all-forsjáll, adj. very prudent, Hom. 115.  all-framr, adj. very famous, Lex. Poët.; very far forward, Grett. 161 A.  all-frekliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very daringly, impudently, Fas. i. 24.  all-frekr, adj. too eager, too daring, Fms. vii. 164.  all-friðliga, adv. in very great peace, Lex. Poët.  all-fríðr, adj. very beautiful, Eg. 23, Hkr. i. 225, ii. 354, Fms. i. 2.  all-frjáls, adj. very free, independent, v. alfrjáls.  all-fróðligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very wise, learned, Sks. 306 B.  all-fróðr, adj. very learned, Sks. 30.  all-frægr, adj. very famous, Fms. ii. 324, Hkr. i. 232, ii. 187, Ld. 122.  all-frækiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj., and all-frækn, adj. and -liga, adv. very bold, boldly, Ísl. ii. 267, Hkr. i. 239, Fms. i. 121.  all-fúss, adj. and -liga, adv. very eager, eagerly, Eg. 488, Fms. xi. 89.  all-fýsiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very desirable, Eg. 19, 468.  all-fölr, adj. very pale, Lex. Poët.  all-gagnsamr, adj. very profitable, gainful, Ísl. ii. 56.  all-gamall, adj. very old, Hkr. i. 34.  all-gegniliga and -gegnliga, adv. very fittingly, Sturl. ii. 63.  all-gemsmikill, adj. very wanton, frolicsome, Sturl. ii. 57.  all-gerla and -görviligr, v. -görla, -görviligr.  all-gestrisinn, adj. very hospitable, Háv. 40.  all-geysilegr, adj. and -liga, adv. very impetuous, Fms. x. 81.  all-gildliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. with a very grand air, Grett. 121.  all-gildr, adj. very grand. Lex. Poët.  all-giptusam-liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very lucky, Fms. x. 53.  all-glaðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very joyfully, joyful, Fms. iii. 143, Lv. 55.  all-glaðr, adj. very joyful, Eg. 163, Ld. 176.  all-gleymr, adj. very gleeful, mirthful, in high spirits, [glaumr], verða a. við e-t, Sturl. iii. 152, Eb. 36.  all-glæsiliga, adj. and -ligr, adv. very shiny, Eb. 34, Fas. iii. 626, Fms. ix. 430.  all-glöggsær, adj. very transparent, dearly visible, metaph., Þorf. Karl. 380.  all-glöggt, n. adj. very exactly, Hkr. iii. 253, Fas. iii. 13.  all-góðmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very kindly, kind, Mag. 6.  all-góðr, adj. very good, Nj. 222, Eg. 36, 198.  all-greiðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very easy, easily, Eb. 268: neut. as adv., Eb. l. c.  all-grimmliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very grimly, fiercely, Fas. iii. 414.  all-grimmr, adj. very cruel, fierce, Hkr. iii. 167.  all-grun-samliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very suspiciously, Ísl. ii. 364.  all-göfugr, adj. very distinguished, Eg. 598, Bs. i. 60.  all-görla, adv. very clearly, precisely, Hkr. iii. 133, Fms. xi. 15.  all-görviligr, adj. very stout, manly, Fms. ii. 28.  all-hagstæðr, adj. with a very fair wind, Sturl. iii. 109.  all-harðligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very hard, stern, Fas. i. 382.  all-harðr, adj. very hard, stern, Fms. i. 177: n. sing. severely, Nj. 165, Grág. i. 261.  all-háskasamligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very hazardous, Fms. v. 135.  all-heiðinn, adj. quite heathen, Fs. 89 (in a verse).  all-heilagr, adj. very sacred, Lex. Poët.  all-heimskliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very foolish, frantic, Hkr. ii. 190, Fas. iii. 293.  all-heimskr, adj. very silly, stupid, Eg. 376, Grett. 159.  all-heppinn, adj. very lucky, happy, Lex. Poët.  all-herðimikill, adj. very broad-shouldered, Eg. 305.  all-hermannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very martial, Fms. xi. 233.  all-hjaldrjúgr, adj. very gossipping, chattering, Lv. 57: neut. as adv., Vápn. 10.  all-hógliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very gently, Fms. xi. 240, vi. 274.  all-hóleitr and -háleitr, adj. very sublime, Hom. 23.  all-hór and -hár, adj. very high, tall, v. -hár.  all-hratt, n. adj. in all speed, Lex. Poët.  all-hraustliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very bravely, Fms. viii. 289, Eb. 34.  all-hraustr, adj. very valiant, Fms. viii. 267.  all-hreystimannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very valiantly, Fms. xi. 95.  all-hrumliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very infirmly from age, Fas. ii. 91.  all-hræddr, adj. very much afraid, Fbr. 94.  all-hræðinn, adj. very timid, Fms. vi. 155.  all-hugsjúkr, adj. very grieved, heart-sick, Hkr. i. 243, Fms. vi. 133.  all-hvass, adj. of the wind, blowing very sharp, Fms. ix. 20, Lex. Poët.  all-hyggi-ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very carefully, Fas. iii. 610.  all-hýrliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very blandly, with a very bright face, Fas. iii. 636.  all-hæðiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very ridiculous, Finnb. 312.  all-hældreginn, adj. walking very much on one's heels, dragging the heels very much in walking, of an aged or beggarly person, Band. 9.  all-hœgliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very softly, meekly, Fms. xi. 389.  all-hœlinn, adj. very bragging. Lex. Poët.  all-iðinn, adj. very diligent, laborious, Bs. i. 278.  all-illa, adv. and -illr, adj. very badly, bad, wicked, Nj. 242, cp. illa; ill-willed, Eg. 542: compar., vera allver um, to be worse off, Nj. 221 (Ed. allvant); angry, Lv. 145; disgraceful, Eg. 237; unfortunate, Sturl. ii. 47.  all-jafnlyndr, adj. very calm, even-tempered, Fms. vi. 287.  all-kaldr, adj. very cold, Vápn. 21.  all-kappsamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. with very much zeal, liberally, Hkr. i. 271; veita a., of hospitality, Ld. 292; mæla a., frankly, peremptorily, 296.  all-kappsamr, adj. very eager, vehement, Eg. 187.  all-karlmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very manfully, Fms. x. 141.  all-kaupmannliga, adv. in a very businesslike, tradesmanlike way, Fms. v. 255.  all-kátligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very funny, Grett. 112.  all-kátr, adj. very joyful, Nj. 18, Eg. 44, 332.  all-keppinn, adj. very snappish, Lex. Poët.  all-kerskiligr and -keskiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very sarcastic, biting, Sturl. ii. 196.  all-klókr, adj. very shrewd, Hkr. iii. 317.  all-knáliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very stoutly, vigorously, Rd. 312.  all-kostgæflliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very earnestly, in a very painstaking way, Stj.  all-kostigr, adj. very excellent. Lex. Poët.  all-kviklatr, adj. very quick, lively, Ld. 270.  all-kynliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very strangely, strange, Ísl. ii. 58, Fms. ii. 227, Grett. 160.  all-kyrrligr, adj. very quiet, tranquil, Háv. 49.  all-kærr, adj. very dear, beloved, Eg. 139, Fms. i. 48; very fond of, Hkr. i. 194: neut., Eg. 116, of mutual love.  all-langr, adj. very long, Háv. 49.  all-laust, n. adj. very loosely, Fms. xi. 103.  all-lágr, adj. very low, short of stature, Fbr. 68.  all-lengi, adv. very long, K. Þ. K. 158.  all-léttbrúnn, adj. of very brightened, cheerful countenance, Ld. 94.  all-léttiliga, adv. very lightly, Fas. iii. 612.  all-léttmælt, n. adj., vera a. um e-t, to speak in a very lively way, Fms. iv. 261.  all-léttr, adj. very light (in weight), Fas. iii. 487.  all-líkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. in very agreeable, courteous terms, Fas. i. 84.  all-likligr, adj. very likely, Fas. ii. 247, Sks. 669.  all-líkr, adj. very like, Fas. iii. 579, Sd. 160, Korm. 142.  all-lítilfjörligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very puny, prop. having little life in one, Háv. 54.  all-litill, adj. very little, Fær. 268: n. sing.  all-litt, as adv. very little, Nj. 108, 130, Korm. 172; poorly, Grett. 116.  all-lyginn, adj. very given to lying, Fbr. 157.  all-makligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very deserving, fitting, Sturl. iii. 127, Bjarn. 22.  all-mann-fátt, n. adj. with very few people, Gísl. 31.  all-mannhættr, adj. very dangerous, Fas. iii. 34.  all-mannskæðr, adj. very full of manskathe, very murderous, Fms. ii. 512.  all-mannæenligr, adj. a very promising man, Fms. iv. 254.  all-mannvænn, adj. a man of very great promise, Hkr. ii. 182.  all-margliga, adv. very affably, Sturl. iii. 27.  all-margmæltr, part. very talkative, Sturl. ii. 179.  all-margr, adj. very numerous, pl. very many, Nj. 32, Grág. ii. 176, Sks. 328, Gþl. 329.  all-margrætt, n. adj. part. very much spoken of, Fms. viii. 275.  all-málugr, adj. very loquacious, Hkr. iii. 152, 655 xi. 2.  all-máttfarinn, adj. very much worn out, with very little strength left, Fas. ii. 356.  all-máttlítill, adj. very weak, Fms. i. 159.  all-meginlauss, adj. very void of strength, Fms. xi. 103.  all-mikilfengligr, adj. very high and mighty, very imposing, Fs.  all-mikill, adj. very great, Ísl. ii. 269, Nj. 193, Eg. 29, 39: neut. as adv. greatly, Fms. i. 24, vii. 110.  all-mikilmannliga,

ALLMISJAFN—ALLÞRONGR. 15

adv. very nobly, Sturl. i. 33.  all-misjafn, adj. very variously, unfavourably, in such phrases as, mæla a. um e-t, there were very different stories about the matter, leggja a. til, ganga a. undir, taka a. á, Eg. 242, Hkr. ii. 123, Fms. i. 86, vii. no, Ld. 166.  all-mjór, adj. very slim, slender, narrow, Hkr. iii. 117, Gþl. 173.  all-mjök, adv. very much, Nj. 134, Ld. 196, Eg. 19; féllu þá a. menn, in very great numbers, Fms. i. 173.  all-myrkr, adj. very dark, Fms. ix. 23.  all-mæðiliga, adv. with very great effort, heavily, Fms. ix. 16.  all-nauðigr, adj. and -liga, adv. very reluctant, unwilling, Grett. 153; a. staddr, dangerously, Fms. v. 212.  all-náinn, adj. very near, nearly related, Sks. 330.  all-náttförull, adj. very much given to wandering by night, Lex. Poët.  all-níðskárr, adj. of a poet, given to mocking, satirical verse, [níð and skáld (?)], Fms. ii. 7.  all-nóg, adv. very abundantly, Sd. 182.  all-nær, adv. very near, Fms. vii. 289; metaph., lagði a. at, pretty nearly, well-nigh, Fs., Sks. 684 B.  all-nærri, adv. very near, Ld. 202, Fas. iii. 339.  all-opt, adv. very often, Anecd. 38, Gþl. 169.  all-orðfátt, n. adj. in the phrase, göra a. um, to be very short of words as to, Bjarn. 31.  all-ógurligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very frightful, Edda 41.  all-ólmliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very furiously, Fas. iii. 546, Bárð. 177.  all-óttalaust, n. adj. with very little to fear, Eg. 371, v. l.  all-ramskipaðr, adj. part. very strongly manned, Fms. iii. 13.  all-rauðr, adj. very red, Ld. 182.  all-ráðligr, adj. very expedient, advisable, Grett. 145.  all-reiðiligr, adj. looking very wrathful, Fms. iv. 161.  all-reiðr, adj. very wroth, angry, Edda 57, Nj. 135, Eg. 139.  all-ríkmarmligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very grand, pompous, magnificent, Fms. i. 213.  all-ríkr, adj. very powerful, Fms. i. 115.  all-rýrliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very feebly, puny, Fbr. 28.  all-röskliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very smart, brisk, Fms. viii. 317.  all-sannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very likely, 'soothlike,' Fms. iv. 270.  all-sáttgjarnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very placable, of mild disposition, Sturl. iii. 288.  all-seinn, adj. very slow, Bs. i. 192: neut. as adv. slowly, Grett. 151 A.  all-sigrsæll, adj. very victorious, having very good luck in war, Hkr. i. 28.  all-skammr, adj. very short, very scant, Nj. 264: neut. substantively, a very short way, Finnb. 324; short distance, Fms. iv. 329. all-skapliga, adv. very fittingly, properly, Grett. 120. all-skapværr, adj. of a very gentle, meek disposition, Sturl.  all-skapþungt, n. adj., vera a., to be in a very gloomy, depressed state of mind, Fms. iv. 26.  all-skarpr, adj. very sharp, Lex. Poët.  all-skeinuhættr, adj. very dangerous, vulnerable, Sturl. ii. 139.  all-skemtiligr, adj. very amusing, Sturl. ii. 77.  all-skillítill, adj. very slow-witted, dull, Sturl. i. 89.  all-skjallkænliga, adv. [skjalla, to flatter], very coaxingly, Grett. 131 A.  all-skjótt, n. adj. as adv. very soon, Nj. 236.  all-skrautligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very smart, splendid, Fas. ii. 366, Mag. 11.  all-skygn, adj. very sharp-sighted, Hrafn. 33.  all-skyldr, adj. bound to, very obligatory; neut. = bounden duty, Sks. 484; deserved, Gþl. 61:  β. nearly related, near akin, Fms. xi. 75.  all-skyndiliga, adv. very quickly, Blas. 40.  all-skynsamliga, adv. very judiciously, Sturl. iii. 161.  all-skyrugr, adj. all curd-besprent, Grett. 107 A.  all-sköruliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very frankly, boldly, dignified, Sturl. iii. 39, Fms. ix. 5, Ld. 94 C, 226, Bs. i.  all-sljáliga, adv. very slowly, sluggishly, Grett. 101 A.  all-smár, adj. very small, Fms. v. 55, xi. 61.  all-snarpliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very sharply, smartly, Fms. viii. 346.  all-snarpr, adj. very sharp, Fms. i. 38, Nj. 246.  all-snemma, adv. very early, Fms. ii. 223.  all-snjallr, adj. very shrewd, clever, Fms. viii. 367.  all-snúðula, adv. very quickly, Lex. Poët.  all-snæfr, adj. very brisk, id.  all-snöfurmannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very brisk and energetic looking, of a man, Fms. xi. 79.  all-spakliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very mildly, moderately, wisely, Hkr. ii. 41.  all-spakr, adj. very gentle, wise, Fms. vi. 298.  all-starsýnn, adj. who stares very hard at a thing, looking fixedly upon, Fms. vi. 203.  all-sterkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very briskly, strongly, Ld. 158, Fas. iii. 612.  all-sterkr, adj. very strong, Hkr. i. 238, Eg. 285; Ísl. ii. 461 (very vehement); as a pr. name, Fms. iii. 183.  all-stilliliga, adv. very calmly, in a very composed manner, Ld. 318.  all-stirðr, adj. very stiff, Háv. 46.  all-stórhöggr, adj. dealing very hard blows, Fms. i. 171.  all-stórliga, adv. very haughtily, Hkr. ii. 63, Ld. 168.  all-stórmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very munificently, nobly, Fas. iii. 45; haughtily, Sd. 146.  all-stórorðr, adj. using very big words, Eg. 340, Ld. 38 (very boisterous).  all-stórr, adj. very great, metaph. big, puffed up, Ld. 318; dat. all-stórum, as adv. very largely, Edda 32.  all-strangr, adj. very rapid, Lex. Poët.  all-styggr, adj. very ill-humoured, cross, Grett. 103 A.  all-styrkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very stoutly, Stj. 402.  all-styrkr, adj. very strong, Fms. i. 177.  all-svangr, adj. very hungry, Lex. Poët.  all-svinnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very wisely, prudently, wise, Fas. i. 95, ii. 266.  all-sættfúss, adj. very placable, peace-loving, very willing to accept an atonement, Sturl. iii. 19.  all-sœmiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very seemly, decorous, honourable, Hkr. i. 215, Ísl. ii. 163.  all-tiginn, adj. very princely, Lex. Poët.  all-tillátsamr, adj. very indulgent, lenient, Þórð. 12.  all-tíðrætt, n. adj. very much talked of, much spoken of, Eg. 99, Sturl. i. 199.  all-tíðvirkr, adj. very quick at work, Fms. xi. 377. all-torfyndr, adj. very hard to find, Fms. vii. 356.  all-torfært, n. adj. very hard to pass, cross, Eg. 546.  all-torsótt, n. adj. part. very difficult to reach, Eg. 546.  all-tortryggiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very suspiciously, Sturl. ii. 47.  all-torveldligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very difficult, Str.  all-trauðr, adj. very slow, unwilling, Fms. xi. 39.  all-tregr, adj. very tardy, Fær. 114, Bárð. 178.  all-trúr, adj. very true, Fms. vi. 377.  all-tryggr, adj. very trusty, Hkr. iii. 167.  all-tvítugr, false reading, instead of eigi alls t., not quite twenty, Sturl. i. 181.  all-undarligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very odd, wonderful, Fms. ii. 150.  all-ungr, adj. very young, Eg. 268, Fms. i. 14, Ld. 274.  all-úbeinskeyttr, adj. shooting very badly, Fms. ii. 103.  all-úblíðr, adj. very harsh, unkind, Fas. ii.  all-úbragðligr, adj. very ill-looking, Sturl. iii. 234.  all-údæll, adj. very spiteful, untractable, Sturl. i. 99.  all-úfagr, adj. very ugly, metaph., Fms. iii. 154.  all-úfimliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very awkwardly, Fas. ii. 543.  all-úframliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very backward, shy, timid, Fbr. 38 C.  all-úfríðr, adj. very ugly, Fms. xi. 227.  all-úfrýnn, adj. very sullen, 'frowning,' sour, Eg. 525.  all-úfrægr, adj. very inglorious, Fms. iv. 259.  all-úglaðr, adj. very gloomy, sad, Hkr. iii. 379.  all-úhægr, adj. very difficult, Eg. 227.  all-úhöfðingligr, adj. very low-looking, very plebeian, Finnb. 222.  all-úkátr, adj. very sorrowful, Edda 35, Eg. 223, Fms. i. 37.  all-úknár, adj. very weak of frame, Grett. 119 A, very badly knit; Bs. i. 461 (of boys).  all-úkonungligr, adj. very unkingly, Fms. viii. 158.  all-úkunnigr, adj. quite unknown, Ísl. ii. 412.  all-úlífligr, adj. very unlikely to live, Hkr. ii. 200.  all-úlíkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very unlikely, Gísl. 24, Sd. 123, Finnb. 310.  all-úlíkr, adj. very unlike, Glúm. 364.  all-úlyginn, adj. not at all given to lie, truthful, Fbr. 157.  all-úmáttuliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. weakly, very weak, tender, Fms. iv. 318.  all-úráðinn, adj. part. very 'unready' (cp. Ethelred the 'unready'), undecided, Lv. 9.  all-úráðliga, adv. very unadvisedly, rashly, Odd. 12 old Ed.  all-úsannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very untruthful, unjust; also, unlikely, Fms. vii. 141.  all-úsáttfúss, adj. very implacable, unwilling to come to terms, Sturl. iii. 275.  all-úskyldr, adj. very strange to, not at all bound to ..., Eg. 10.  all-úspakr, adj. very unruly, Sturl. ii. 61.  all-úsváss, adj. very uncomfortable, of weather, cold and rainy, Bs. i. 509.  all-úsýnn, adj. very uncertain, doubtful, Glúm. 358, Sturl. i. 105.  all-úsæligr, adj. of very poor, wretched appearance, Niðrst. 109.  all-úvinsæll, adj. very unpopular, Fms. iv. 369, Fas. iii. 520.  all-úvísliga, adv. very unwisely, Niðrst. 6.  all-úvænliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. of very unfavourable prospect, Fas. ii. 266; n. adj. very unpromising, Grett. 148 A.  all-úvænn, adi. very ugly, Fas. i. 234; very unpromising, unfavourable, Ísl. ii. 225: neut. as adv. unfavourably, Fms. xi. 134.  all-úþarfr, adj. very unthrifty, very unprofitable, something that had better be prevented, Eg. 576, Hkr. ii. 245.  all-vandlátr, adj. very difficult, hard to please, Fms. vi. 387.  all-vandliga, adv. with very great pains, exactly, carefully, Sks. 658 B.  all-vant, n. adj., vera a. um e-t, to be in a very great strait, Nj. 221.  all-varfærr, adj. very careful, solicitous, Eg. 63.  all-vaskligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very brisk, smart, gallant, Hkr. i. 104; compar. v. alvaskligr.  all-vaskr, adj. very brisk, gallant, Fms. viii. 226.  all-vandr, adj. very bad, of clothes, much worn, Pm. 11.  all-vápndjarfr, adj. very bold, daring in arms, Hkr. iii. 63.  all-veðrlítið, n. adj. very calm, with little wind, Fms. vi. 360.  all-vegliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very grand, princely, nobly, Fms. i. 20, Eg. 332, Hkr. i. 15.  all-vel, adv. very well, Nj. 12, Eg. 78, 198; compar. albetr, v. alvel.  all-vesall, adj. very puny, wretched, Nj. 97.  all-vesalliga, adv. very wretchedly, Ölk. 35.  all-vesalmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. id., Ísl. ii. 416.  all-vesæll, adj. very miserable, base, vile, Nj. 97.  all-vingjarnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very friendly, amicable, Sturl. ii. 168.  all-vingott, n. adj. on very friendly terms, Fbr. 129.  all-vinsæll, adj. very popular, used of a man blessed with many friends, Fms. i. 184, ii. 44, Orkn. 104 old Ed.  all-virðuligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very worthy, dignified, Fms. x. 84, Bs. i. 83.  all-vitr, adj. very wise, Sks. 29 B (superl.)  all-vitrliga, adv. very wisely, Fas. ii. 66.  all-víða and all-vítt, n. adj. very widely, Hkr. iii. 141, Lex. Poët.  all-vígliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. in a very warlike manner, Fms. ix. 488, Fas. ii. 112.  all-vígmannliga, adv. very martially, Fas. iii. 150.  all-vígmóðr, adj. quite wearied out with fighting, Introd. to Helgakviða (Sæm.)  all-víss, adj. very wise, sure, Sks. 520, Lex. Poët.: neut. to a dead certainty, Lex. Poët.  all-vænliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very promising, handsome, Glúm. 349, Fms. v. 260, Fbr. 114.  all-vænn, adj. id., Clem. 24, Bs. i. 340: neut., þykja a. um, to be in high spirits, Ísl. ii. 361; make much of, Fms. ii. 76; as adv. favourably, Fms. iv. 192.  all-vörpuligr, adj. of a very stout, stately frame, Hkr. ii. 254.  all-vöxtuligr, adj. very tall, of large growth, Fas. iii. 627.  all-þakkligr, adj. very pretty, = þekkiligr, Lex. Poët.  all-þakksamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very thankfully, Fms. i. 120, Ld. 298.  all-þarfliga, adv. very thriftily, very pressingly; biðja a., to beg very hard, Edda 45.  all-þarfr, adj. very thrifty, Lex. Poët.  all-þéttr, adj. very crowded, cp. Lex. Poët.  all-þrekligr, adj. of a very robust frame, Hkr. ii. 2.  all-þröngr, adj. as neut. in a very great

16 ALLÞUNGLIGA—ALLSHERJAR.

crowd, Edda 24.  all-þungliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hard, unwilling, reluctant, Sturl. ii. 120; taka a. á e-m, to be very hard upon, Mag. 1.  all-þungr, adj. very unfavourable, Hkr. ii. 358; hostile, badly disposed towards, Eb. 108, Eg. 332; þykja a., to dislike, Fms. viii. 441; a. orð, to blame, Sturl. ii. 62.  all-þykkr, adj. very thick, Fas. i. 339: n. sing. as adv. thickly, Fms. vii. 70 (of great numbers slain on the battle-field).  all-æfr, adj. very furious, wrath, Ísl. ii. 258, Lv. 60, Fas. i. 404.  all-ægiligr, adj. very terrible, Dropl. 18.  all-æstr, adj. very incited, vehement, Nj. 231.  all-örorðr, adj. very quick-tongued, frank, outspoken, Eg. 340.  all-öruggliga, adv. very steadfastly, very firmly, Grett. 153 A.  all-öruggr, adj. very unflinching, Bs. i. 624.

all-föðr, m. father of all, Edda 2, 6, 13 (a name of Odin), v, alföðr.

al-ljóss, adj. quite light; dagr a., broad daylight, Eg. 219; n. sing., vera alljóst, in broad daylight, Grett. 95 A, 112 A, Fms. ix. 35, Sturl. ii. 108; metaph. quite clear, Sks. 490.

al-loðinn, adj. very hairy, shaggy all over, Fms. iii. 125.

al-lokit, n. part., a. allri ván, when all hope is gone, Bs. i. 198.

ALLR, öll, allt, and alt, adj. [Ulf. alls = πᾶς, ἅπας, ὅλος; A. S. eall; Engl. and Germ. all] .

A. In sing. as adj. or substantively, cunctus, totus, omnis:I. all, entire, the whole; hón á allan arf eptir mik, she has all my heritage after me, Nj. 3; um alla þingsafglöpun, every kind of þ., 150; gaf hann þat allt, all, 101; at öllum hluta, in totum, Grág. i. 245; allr heilagr dómr, the whole body of Christians, ii. 165; á öllu því máli, Fms. vii. 311; allu fólki, thewhole people, x. 273; hvitr allr, white all over, 655 xxxii. 21; bú allt, thewhole estate, Grág. i. 244; fyrir allt dagsljós, before any dawn of light, Hom. 41: with the addition of saman = ἁπας—Icel. now in fem. sing. and n. pl. say öll sömun, and even n. sing. allt samant; in old writers saman is indecl.,—the whole, Germ. sänmtlich, zusammen; allt saman féit, thewhole amount, entire, Grág. ii. 148; þenna hernað allan saman, all together, Fms. i. 144; fyrir allan saman ójafnað þann, Sd. 157. Metaph. in the phrase, at vera ekki allr þar sem hann er sénn (séðr), of persons of deep, shrewd characters, not to be seen through, but also with a feeling of something 'uncanny' about them, Fms. xi. 157 (a familiar phrase); ekki er öll nótt úti enn, sagði draugrinn, the night is not all over yet, said the ghost, 'the Ides are not past' (a proverb), v. Ísl. Þjóðs.  2. all, entire, full; allan hálfan mánuð, for the entire fortnight, Nj. 7; þar til er Kjartani þykir allt mál upp, until Kjartan thought it was high time, of one nearly (or) well-nigh drowned, Hkr. i. 286.  II. metaph. past, gone, dead, extinct; perh. ellipt., vera allr í brottu, quite gone, Eb. 112 new Ed.; var Hrappr þá allr í brottu, Nj. 132; then by an ellipsis of 'brottu,' or the like, allr simply = past, gone:α. past, of time; seg þú svá fremi frá því er þessi dagr er allr, when this day is past, Nj. 96, Fms. ii. 38, 301; var þá öll þeirra vinátta, their friendship was all gone, Fms. ix. 428; allt er nú mitt megin, my strength is gone, exhausted, Str.  β. dead; þá er Geirmundr var allr, gone, dead, Landn. (Hb.) 124; siz Gunnarr at Hlíðarenda var allr, since G. of Lithend was dead and gone (v. l. to lézt), Nj. 142; sem faðir þeirra væri allr, after his death, Stj. 127; þá er Nói var allr, 66; en sem hann var allr, 100; eptir þat er Sara var öll, after all Sara's days were over, 139, 140, 405; á vegum allr hygg ek at at ek verða munu, that I shall perish on the way, Gg. verse 5; með því at þú ert gamlaðr mjök, þá munu þeir eigi út koma fyr en þú ert allr, Háv. 57; still freq. in Swed., e. g. blifwa all af bekumring, be worn out with sorrow; vinet blev alt, fell short; tiden er all, past.  III. used almost adverbially, when it may be translated by all, quite, just, entirely; klofnaði hann allr í sundr, was all cloven asunder, Nj. 205; er sá nú allr einn í þínu liði er nú hefir eigi höfuðs, ok hinn, er þá eggiaði hins versta verks er eigi var fram komit, where it seems, however, rather to mean one and the same ... or the very same ..., thus, and he is now one and the same man in thy band, who has now lost his bead, and he who then egged thee on to the worst work when it was still undone, or the very same, ... who, Nj. 213; vil ek at sú görð häldist öll, in all its parts, 256; kváðu Örn allan villast, that he was all bewildered, Ld. 74.  IV. neut. sing. used as a subst. in the sense of all, everything, in every respect; ok for svá með öllu, sem ..., acted in everything as..., Nj. 14, Ld. 54; ok lát sem þú þykist þar allt eiga, that you depend upon him in all, Fms. xi. 113; eigi er enn þeirra allt, they have not yet altogether won the game, Nj. 235: í alls vesöld, in all misery, Ver. 4; alls mest, most of all, especially, Fms. ii. 137 C, Fs. 89 (in a verse); in mod. usage, allra mest, cp. below. The neut. with a gen.; allt missera, all the year round, Hom. 73; allt annars, all the rest, Grág. ii. 141; at öllu annars, in all other respects, - K. Þ. K. 98; þá var allt (all, everybody) við þá hrætt, Fas. i. 338. In the phrases, at öllu, in all respects, Fms. i. 21, Grág. i. 431; ef hann á eigi at öllu framfærsluna, if he be not the sole supporter, 275: úreyndr at öllu, untried in every way, Nj. 90; cp. Engl. not at all, prop. not in every respect, analogous to never, prop. not always: fyrir alls sakir, in every respect, Grág. ii. 47, Fas. i. 252: í öllu, in everything, Nj. 90, 228: með öllu, wholly, quite, dauðr með öllu, quite dead, 153; neita með öllu, to refuse outright, Fms. i. 35, 232, Boll. 342: um allt, in respect of everything, Nj. 89; hence comes the adverb ávalt, ever = of allt = um allt, prop. in every respect, v. ávalt.  V. the neut. sing. allt is used as an adv., right up to, as far as, all the way; Brynjólfr gengr allt at honum, close to him, Nj. 58; kómu allt at bænum, 79; allt at búðardyrunum, right up to the very door of the booth, 247; allt norðr um Stað, all along north, round Cape Stad, Fms. vii. 7; suðr allt í Englands haf, iv. 329; verit allt út í Miklagarð, as far out as Constantinople, ii. 7, iv. 250, 25; allt á klofa, Bárð. 171.  2. everywhere, in all places; at riki Eireks konungs mundi allt yfir standa í Eyjunum, might stretch over the whole of the Islands, Eg. 405; Sigröðr var konungr allt um Þrændalög, over all Drontheim, Fms. i. 19; bjoggu þar allt fyrir þingmenn Runólfs goða, the liegemen of R. the priest were in every house, ii. -234 (= í hverju húsi, Bs. i. 20); allt norðr um Rogaland, all the way north over the whole of R., Fms. iv. 251; vóru svirar allt gulli búnir, all overlaid with gold, vi. 308; hafið svá allt kesjurnar fyrir, at ekki megi á ganga, hold your spears everywhere (all along the line) straight before you, that they (the enemy) may not come up to you, 413; allt imdir innviðuna ok stafnana, vii. 82.  3. nearly = Lat. jam, soon, already; vóru allt komin fyrir hann bréf, warrants of arrest were already in his way, Fms. vii. 207; var allt skipat liðinu til fylkingar, the troops were at once drawn up in array, 295; en allt hugðum vér (still we thought) at fara með spekt um þessi héruð, Boll. 346.  4. temp. all through, until; allt til Júnsvöku, Ann. 1295; allt um daga Hákonar konungs, all through the reign of king Hacon, Bs. i. 731.  5. in phrases such as, allt at einu, all one, all in the same way, Fms. i. 113. In Icel. at present allt að einu means all the same: allt eins, nevertheless; ek ætla þó utan a. eins, Ísl. ii. 216; hann neitaði allt eins at..., refused all the same, Dipl. iii. 13; allt eins hraustliga, not the less manly, Fms. xi. 443. The mod. Icel. use is a little different, namely = as, in similes = just as; allt eins og blómstrið eina (a simile), just as the flower, the initial words of the famous hymn by Hallgrim.  6. by adding 'of' = far too ..., much too ..., Karl. 301 (now freq.)  7. with a comparative, much, far, Fms. vi. 45 (freq.)  VI. neut. gen. alls [cp. Ulf. allis = ὅλως; A. S. ealles], used as an adv., esp. before a negative (ekki, hvergi), not a bit, not at all, no how, by no means; þeir ugðu alls ekki at sér, they were not a bit afraid, Nj. 252; hræðumst vér hann nú alls ekki, we do not care a bit for him, 260; á hólmgöngu er vandi en alls ekki (none at all) á einvigi, Korm. 84; en junkherra Eiríkr þóttíist ekki hafa, ok kallaði sik Eirik alls ekki (cp. Engl. lackland), Fms. x. 160; alls hvergi skal sök koma undir enn þriðja mann, no how, in no case, by no means, Grág. i. 144: sometimes without a negative following it; ær alls geldar, ewes quite barren, Grág. i. 502; hafrar alls geldir, id.; alls vesall, altogether wretched, Nj. 124; alls mjök stærist hann nú, very much, Stj.; a. mest, especially, Fs. 89, Fms. ii. 137. In connection with numbers, in all, in the whole; tólf vóru þau alls á skipi, twelve were they all told in the ship, Ld. 142; tíu Íslenzkir menn alls, 164; alls fórust níu menn, the slain were nine in all, Ísl. ii. 385; verða alls sárir þrír eða fleiri, Grág. ii. 10; alls mánuð, a full month, i. 163; þeir ala eitt barn alls á aefi sinni, Rb. 346.  β. with addition of 'til' or 'of' = far too much; alls of lengi, far too long a time, Fms. i. 140; hefnd alls til lítil, much too little, vi. 35.

B. In pl. allir, allar, öll, as adj. or substantively:  1. used absol. all; þeir gengu út allir, all men, altogether, Nj. 80; Síðan bjoggust þeir heiman allir, 212; Gunnarr reið ok beir allir, 48; hvikit þér allir, 78, etc.  2. as adj., alla höfðingja, all the chiefs, Nj. 213; ór öllum fjórðungum á landinu, all the quarters of the land, 222; at vitni guðs ok allra heilagra manna, all the saints, Grág. ii. 22; í allum orrostum, in all the battles, Fms. x. 273; Josep ok allir hans ellifu bræðr, Stj., etc.  3. by adding aðrir, flestir, etc.; allir aðrir, all other, everyone else, Nj. 89, Fms. xi. 135: flestir allir, nearly all, the greatest part of, v. flestr; in mod. use flestallir, flest being indecl.: allir saman, altogether, Nj. 80.  4. adverb., Gregorius hafði eigi öll fjögr hundruð, not all, not quite, four hundred, Fms. vii. 255.  5. used ellipt., allir (everybody) vildu leita þér vegs, Nj. 78. 6. gen. pl. allra, when followed by superl. neut. adj. or adv., of all things, all the more; en nú þyki mér þat allra sýnst er ..., all the more likely, as ..., Ld. 34; allra helzt er þeir heyra, particularly now when they hear, Fms. ix. 330; allra helzt ef hann fellr meir, all the rather, if ..., Grág. ii. 8; allra sízt, least of all, 686 B. 2; bæn sú kemr til þess allra mest, especially, Hom. 149: very freq. at present in Icel., and used nearly as Engl. very, e. g. allra bezt, the very best; a. hæst, neðst, fyrst, the very highest, lowest, foremost, etc.

C. alls is used as a prefix to several nouns in the gen., in order to express something common, general, universal.COMPDS: alls-endis or alls-hendis, adv.—scarcely to be derived from 'hönd'—in every respect, quite, thoroughly, used almost exclusively in connection with a preceding negative, eigi, eingi, or the like, and giving additional force to the negation; er þat hugboð mitt, at vér berim eigi agæfu til um vár skipti, it is my foreboding, that we shall not carry luck with us to the very end of our dealings, Ld. 160; eigi til allsendis, id., Eg. 75; þat er reynt at eingi maðr heldr sínum þrifnaði til allsendis, it is proved that no man holds his thriving thoroughly, Fms. i. 295.  alls-háttar, adv. [háttr], of every sort, kind; a. kurteysi, thoroughly good manners, Fms. i. 17 (freq.)  alls-herjar, an old, obsolete gen. from herr; Drottinn Sabaoth is in the Icel. transl. of the Bible rendered by Drottinn Allsherjar, the Lord of Hosts. It is esp. used as an adv. in some political and legal

ALLSHERJARBUЗALR. 17

terms, denoting something general, public, common.allsherjar-búð, f. the booth in the parliament (alþingi) belonging to the allsherjargoði. Its site is fixed, Sturl. ii. 44, 126 (referring to events in the year 1215).  allsherjar-dómr, m. a doom of the supreme court, a lawful public sentence, judgment of the full court; þér rufuð allsherjardóm, violated lawful judgment, the law of the land, Fms. iv. 205.  allsherjar-fé, n. public property, a domain, Íb. ch. 3, viz. the ground of the Icel. alþingi.  allsherjar-goði, a, m. (v. goði), the supreme priest, pontifex maximus. As the alþingi (q. v.) was within the jurisdiction of the great temple (hof) in Kjalarnes, the keeper or priest of that temple—the descendant of its founder Thorstein Ingolfsson—had the title of supreme priest, and opened the alþingi during the heathen age. At the introduction of Christianity this office remained with the supreme priest, who retained his name; and he, and not the bishop of Skalholt, opened the alþing every year; Þorsteinn Ingólfsson lét setja fyrstr manna þing á Kjalarnesi áðr alþingi var sett, ok fylgir þar enn (still, viz. in the 13th century) sökum þess því goðorði (viz. the priesthood of Kjalarnes, aliter allsherjar goðorð) alþingis helgun, Landn. 336 (the text as found in the Melabók), Landn. 39, Þórð. 94 (Ed. 1860), and Landn. Mantissa.  allsherjar-lið, n. public troops, army (Norse), Fms. x. 411.  allsherjar-lýðr, pl. ir, m. the people, commonalty, Hkr. iii. 194.  allsherjar-lög, n. pl. public law, statute law of the land, in the phrase, at alþingis máli ok allsherjar lögum, Nj. 14, 87.  allsherjar-þing, n. general assembly, Fms. i. 224. In Icel. at present allsherjar- is prefixed to a great many other words in order to express what is public, general, universal.alls-konar [Old Engl. alkyn], prop. an obsolete gen. from a masc. konr:  α. as adj. ind. of every kind; a. fanga, Eg. 65; a. ár, good season in all respects, Hkr. i. 15:  β. used simply as adv.; hinn ágætasti a., in every respect, Fms. xi. 157 (rare).  alls-kostar, adv. [kostr], in all respects, quite, altogether; a. illa, bad altogether, Ld. 232; þykjast nú a. hafa unninn mikinn sigr (a full victory), Fms. xi. 147; frjáls ok a. geymandi, to be observed in every respect, K. Á. 50; hann lofaði a., made a full allowance, Bs. i.  alls-kyns, adv. [kyn] = allskonar, Fms. x. 380. ll. 2, 25, where it is spelt alls-kuns.  alls-staðar, adv. [staðr], freq. alstaðar or allstaðar in a single word, everywhere, ubique; cp. margstaðar, in many places; sumstaðar, in some places; einhversstaðar, somewhere; nokkursstaðar, anywhere; allstaðar þar sem, Fms. ii. 81, x. 182. Metaph. in every way (rare); a. mun ek gera at þínu skapi, nema þar, in everything, except that..., Nj. 17.  alls-valdandi, part. [A. S. ealwalda], 'all-wielding,' of God, Almighty, Dipl. iv. 8, Fms. i. 121, Bs. several times.  allra-handa = allskonar, a mod. word.  allra-heilagra in compds, a. messa, -dagr, -kirkja, All-Saints'-day, -church, Bs., K. Á., Fms., etc.

ALLS and als, conj. [Ulf. allis = γάρ; Engl. as, contr. —als; cp. the consecutive als in Grimm D. W. sub voce, col. 257 sqq.], as, while, since; freq. in Lex. Poët. in old poets, less freq. in old prose writers, rare in the classics of the 13th century: used four times in the treatise of Thorodd,—alls hann sjálfr er hebreskr stafr, Skálda 167; alls vér erum einnar tungu, 161; alls engi grein er enn á gör, 162; alls þeir höfðu áðr allir eitt hljóð, 166,—and as often in the old Heiðarv. S.—alls þú ert góðr drengr kallaðr, Ísl. ii. 366; alls Barði var eigi bítr á fébætr, 386; alls þú rekr þitt erendi, 483; alls þú hefir þó hér til nokkorar ásjá ætlað, Ld. 42; alls þeir máttu ekki sínum vilja fram koma, Boll. 348; alls hann trúir mér til, Fs. (Hallfr. S.) 90: alls þú hefir þó áðr giptu til mín sótt, Fms. v. 254; alls þeir höfðu frítt lið, viii. 362 . With the addition of 'er' (at); en þó, alls er þú ert svá þráhaldr á þínu máli, Fms. i. 305; alls er ek reyni, at..., as I ..., ii. 262, (Grág. i. 142 is a false reading = allt), Fas. ii. 283: with addition of 'þó,' alls þó hefir þetta með meirum fádæmum gengið, heldr en hvert annara, þá vil ek ..., but considering that..., Band. 32 new Ed.; cp. Lex. Poët.

all-tíð, adv. at all times, Fas. i. 505 (paper MS.), freq. in mod. use.

al-lúsigr, adj. all-lousy, Fbr. 156.

all-vald, n. absolute power.  allvalds-konungr, m. sovereign, Fms. x. 378.

all-valdr, pl. ar, m. = alvaldr (poët. word), sovereign king, Lex. Poët., Hkr. i. 432; heilir allvaldar báðir, a poetical salute, Fms. vi. 195; mikil er allvalds raun (a proverb), 'tis hard to strive against the powerful, Lv. 111.

allyngis, quite, altogether, v. öllungis.

al-manna-, gen. pl. from an obsolete almenn [cp. Alemanni], a prefix to some nouns, denoting general, common, universal, Ad. 21. Freq. now in Icel., e. g. almanna-rómr, m. public opinion, in the proverb, sjaldan lýgr a., vox populi vox Dei.COMPDS: almanna-bygð, f. an inhabited country, Fas. iii. 3.  almanna-gjá, f. local name of the great lava rift close to the alþing, where all the people met; vide Nj. 244, Sturl. i. 206, etc.  almanna-leið, f. a public road, Lv. 29.  almanna-lof, n. praise of all, Nj. 251.  almanna-skript, f. general confession, Hom. 74.  almanna-stofa, u, f. the common hall, a large room in the Icel. dwellings of the 12th and 13th centuries; opp. to litla stofa, Sturl. ii. 153, iii. 194, 198; it seems to be identical with skáli.  almanna-tal, n. common reckoning, Íb. 18:  β. (Norse), general census, with a view to making a levy, N. G. L. i. 98; Fr. = almannaþing.  almanna-vegr, m. a high road, Nj. 261, Fms. ii. 99, = þjóðvegr, þjóðleið.  almanna-þing, n. (Norse), a public meeting, = alþing, Fr.

al-máttigr, adj. [A. S. ealmeathig; Hel. ala-; Germ. allmächtig], almighty, seems to be a Christian (eccl.) word, translated from the Latin omnipotens; but the phrase 'hinn almáttki áss' in the heathen oath (used of Thor) implies its use in very early times. The old form is contracted before -ir, -ar, -an, -um, etc., and changes g into k; almáttkan, -kir, -kum (now almáttugan, -ugir, -ugum, through all cases), v. máttigr: used of God, Fms. i. 231, Eluc. 10, Sks. 305, etc.: heathen use, Landn. 258, cp. p. 335.

al-máttr, ar, m., dat. -mætti, almightiness, omnipotence (eccl.), of God, 671. 3; sinn almꜵ́tt (acc.), Ísl. i. (Hom.) 386, Fms. i. 226, 655 vi. 2; vide almætti, n.

al-menni, n. the people, public, Fr. (Norse).

al-menniliga, adv. generally, H. E. i. 465, K. Á. 80.

al-menniligr, adj. [Germ. allgemein], general, common, rare in old writers, Stj.; a. (catholic) trú, Mar. 656 B. 8, 623. 18; a. þing, concilium oecumenicum, Rb. 338; a. Kristni, 390, 208, Gþl., etc. Freq. in mod. Icel., = common, good, real.

al-menning, f. and almenningr, m.  I. in Icel. almost always fem, in the sense of fundus communis, ager compascuus, common land, belonging to a whole 'fjórðungr' (quarter) of the country, and thus wider than the mod. 'afrétt.' It still remains in the local name of the deserts round Cape Horn at the north-west point of Icel., cp. Fbr. and Landn. 124; cp. also the passage in Íb. ch. 3. The word is now seldom used except of wastes belonging to nobody: þat er almenning er fjórðungs menn eigu allir saman, Grág. ii. 392-394, Js. 107, Íb. ch. 3, Grág. ii. 345, 352, 359, 385, K. Þ. K. 26, Fbr. 41, Landn. 124, in all those cases fem.  II. masc. (Norse), [cp. Swed. almänning, pascuum, and Germ. almeinde, via publica or ager compascuus, Grimm R. A. p. 498], common or public pasture (answering nearly to the Icel. afrétt), where cattle are grazed during the summer months, cp. the Norse setr, Icel. sel: rarely used in Icel. writers. In Ó. H., ch. 114, used of Grímsey, an island off the north coast of Iceland, Gþl. 450, Jb. 299, 311.  2. the high-street, in a Norse town, N. G. L. ii. 241.  3. the people, the public in general, common now in Icel. in this sense, Stj. 292, 493, Fbr. 194; almennings matr, common food, Bs. ii. 5, 179.  4. a levy, conscription; fullr, allr, hálfr a., a full, half levy of men and ships; fullr a. in Norway meant a levy of one in every seven male adults, N. G. L. ii. 199, Fms. iv. 142, i. 165, D. I. i. 66 (of the milit. duties of Icelanders when residing in Norway). Metaph. (as a phrase) in Nj. 207, of raising the country, the institution being unknown in the Icel. Commonwealth.  COMPDS: almennings-bréf, n. a proclamation, Sturl. iii. 29.  almennings-drykkja, u, f. a public banquet, Bs. i. 108.  almennings-far, n. a public ferry, Gþl. 415.  almennings-mörk, f. a public forest, Gþl. 454.  almennings-stræti, n. a public street, Grett. 158 A.  almennings-tollr, m. a public toll, tax, 126 C. 173 (?).  almennings-vegr, m. a public way.

al-mennr, adj. common, public, Grett. 115, where MSS. A and B have almælt. Now freq.

ALMR, elm-tree, v. álmr.

almusa, u, f. = ölmusa, alms, [Scot. almous, Germ. almosen, (ἐλεημοσύνη.)]

al-múgi, a, and almúgr, s, m., at present the first form is always used [cp. múgi and múgr, Dan. almue, plebs], prop. the commons, people; konungrinn ok almúginn, king and commons, Stj.; eigi vissi almúginn (people in general) hvat fram fór í sóttinni, Bs. i. 74; almúgrinn (the people) geystist, Bret. 37, 94; allvinsælir við almúgann, having very many friends among the commonalty, Fms. i. 184.  β. now in Icel. = plebs, the masses, opp. to the higher classes; so in many compds, e. g. almúga-maðr, m., almúga-legr, adj., etc.

al-mæli, n. what all people say, a common saying, general report; þat er a. at..., all people say, agree that..., Fms. xi. 326, Hkr. iii. 398; þat vóru almæli um dalinn, at ..., Sd. 155, Ld. 332.  β. a saying, proverb; þat er a. (common saying) at menn sjóði þau ráð, er þeir hafa lengi í hug sér, Hom. 83; þótt almælit sannaðist, at móðurbræðrum verði menn líkastir, though the saying proved sooth, that men are likest to their uncles by the mother's side, Ísl. ii. 29.

al-mæltr, adj. part. spoken by all, what all say; esp. in the phrase, almælt tíðindi, news; spyrjast almæltra tíðinda, what news? Nj. 227, Ld. 80, Fms. xi. 118 (a standing phrase).  β. of a child that has learnt to talk; en þá er sveinninn var tvævetr, þá rann hann einn saman ok var a. sem fjögra vetra gömul börn, but when the boy was two years old, then he ran alone and could say everything as well as bairns of four years, Ld. 34, (altalandi is the word now used.)

al-mætti, n. omnipotence, Skálda 161; esp. theol., now more freq. than the masc. almáttr.

al-naktr, adj. part. quite naked, Rd. 295; now alnakinn.

aln-bogi, a, m. = ölbogi, elbow, Edda 110.

al-nýr, adj. quite new, Fms. viii. 61, Grág. i. 491.

al-ogaðr, adj. quite in earnest, = alhugaðr.

ALPT, swan, v. álpt.

ALR, s, m. pl. ir, awl, Edda 71. β in the phrase, 'leika á als oddi,' skjálfa þótti húsit, sem á als oddi léki (MS. allsolla), the house quivered, as if it were balanced on the point of an awl, Fas. i. 89; the Icel. now use

18 ALRAUÐR—ALÞINGI.

the phrase, að leika á als oddi, of the excitement produced by joy, to be merry, in high spirits, full of life and vigour, (cp. the Engl. to be on pins and needles.)

al-rauðr, adj. quite red, Rd. 298.

al-ráðinn, adj. part. quite determined, Fms. viii. 145.

al-ránn, adj. utterly plundered; þeir munu görvir fyrst alránir er næstir eru, Ísl. ii. 93 (dub.)

al-reyndr, part. fully proved, Fms. xi. 441, Mirm. 74.

alri, elder-tree, v. elri.

al-roskinn, adj. quite grown up, Fms. i. 5, Ld. 256.

al-rotinn, adj. all rotten, Stj. Exod. xvi. 20.

al-ræmdr, adj. part.  α. neut. rumoured of all, of bad news; a. er, all people say, Nj. 76, Fms. vii. 113, Stj.  β. in mod. Icel. both masc. and fem. in a bad sense, e. g. a. þjófr, a noted thief.

al-sagðr, adj. part. spoken of by all, Fms. ii. 50.

al-satt, f. in the phrases, sáttr alsáttum, completely reconciled, atoned with a full atonement, Dipl. ii. II; sættast alsáttum, Grág. ii. 141.

al-sáttr, adj. fully reconciled, Nj. 120, Boll. 362.

al-sekr, adj. a law term, an utter felon, an outlaw of the greater degree, = skógarmaðr, opp. to fjörbaugsmaðr, Nj. 240, Hrafn. 18, Grág. i. 463.

al-siða, adj. ind. [siðr, faith], en er Kristni var a., but when the Christian faith was universally accepted, Hkr. ii. 97; en þó Kristnin vaeri nú a. þá ..., Grett. 150 (the old Ed. wrongly á landi).

al-skipaðr, adj. part. /w/ fully manned:α. of a ship; skúta, tvítugsessa, langskip a., Nj. 280, Eg. 13, Fms. iv. 70, Hkr. i. 176.  β. a law term, bekkr, pallr a., full court, Grág. i. 7.  γ. of a bench in a banquet-hall, quite full, Eg. 43.

al-skjaldaðr, adj. part. lined, covered with shields:α. of ships lined with shields along the bulwarks from stem to stern, as a ship of war, Landn. 156, Sturl. iii. 61.  β. of troops in full armour, Sturl. ii. 47.

al-skrifaðr, adj. part. written all over, of vellum, Th. 76.

al-skyldr, adj. quite binding, Sks. 636.

al-slitinn, adj. part. quite ragged, worn out, Vm. 161.

al-slíkr, adj. quite the same, Fms. iv. 157.

al-smíðaðr, part. completely built, Fms. xi. 436.

al-snotr, adj. all-wise, Hin. 54: very clever, Þkv. 26, 28.

al-spakr, adj. all-wise, cognom., Eg. 466.

al-staðar, everywhere, v. alls-staðar, sub allr.

al-stýfðr, part. a metre in masculine rhymes (stýfa), Edda (Ht.) 134. Masculine final rhymes are called stýft.

al-stýfingr, m. an animal with close-cropped ears; he who marked sheep in this way was liable to the lesser outlawry, unless it were publicly announced in the lögrétta, Grág. i. 426.

al-svartr, adj. quite black, Nj. 80.

al-sveittr, adj. all-sweaty, Al. 22.

al-sveitugr, adj. reeking with sweat, now kófsveittr, Gísl. 137.

al-sýkn, adj. a law term, altogether free, released from all punishment, Grág. ii. 160.

al-sýkna, u, f. complete immunity from punishment, pardon, Grág. i. 359.

al-sætt, f. complete reconciliation, Nj. 101, Js. 40, B. K. 126.

ALTARI, n. and rarely altara, n. or altari, a, m.; mod. heteroclite altari, n. pl. öturu; the forms -eri, -era [altare] also appear:—an altar, a Christian word, the altar in heathen temples being called 'stallr,' Nj. 279, K. Á. 28, 208, Stj. freq.; altaris, 625. 84; altari þín, 655 xxiii. 2; altari (nom. pl.), xiv B. 2, Pm. 47: masc., altara (acc.) fim alna langan ..., but þat (neut.) skal með eiri búa, a little below, altarans (gen.), altarann (nom. sing.), altaris (gen. neut.), altarit (neut. nom.), Stj. 307, 308, indifferently neut. or masc., Symb. 24; alteri, 1812. 17; altera (dat. neut.), 655 iii. 2, 623. 54.  COMPDS: altaris-blæja, u, f. an altar-cloth, Am. 33, Vm. 37, 15. K. 83; altara-blæa, D. I. i. 404.  altaris-bók, f. an altar-book, Vm. 6, Dipl. v. 18.  altaris-brík, f. an altar-piece, Vin. 12.  altaris-búnaðr, m. altar-furniture, H. E. i. 489.  altaris-dagr, m. anniversary of the foundation of an altar, H. E. i. 310.  altaris-dúkr, m. an altar-cloth, Vm. i, D. I. i. 244.  altaris-fórn, f. a victim offered on an altar, Mart. 122.  altaris-gólf, n. the floor round an altar, N. G. L. i. 160.  altaris-horn, n. the horn of an altar, Fms. xi. 444.  altaris-hús, n. a chapel, Bs. ii. 80.  altaris-klæði, n. an altar-cloth, Hkr. iii. 81, D. I. i. 266; altara-, Fms. iii. 28, Vm. 1.  altaris-líkneski, n. an image placed on an altar, Pm. 61.  altaris-messa, u, f. mass at an altar, Bs. ii. 81.  altaris-plata, u, f. a candlestick, Pm. 93.  altaris-skrá, f. an altar-book, Pm. 109.  altaris-staðr, m. the place where an altar stands, Eg. 768.  altaris-steinn, m. an altar-slab, D. I. i. 266, 443, K. Á. 28. Vm. 31, Am. 55, Pm. 106.  altaris-stika, u, f. a candlestick for an altar, Vm. 3.  altaris-þjónusta, u, f. altar-service, 655 xxxii. 1.

al-tiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. civilly, Bs. i. 812.

altingis = alþingis, adv. [þing, res], quite, altogether, Pm. 24.

al-tjaldaðr, adj. part. hung with tapestry all round, Fms. xi. 17, Sturl. iii. 193, Háv. 52.

al-ugaðr, sincere, v. alhugaðr.

al-úð, f. and in old writers almost constantly ölúð (with changed vowel), alyð, Clem. 43, [a contracted form from al-hugð, -hugr], affection, sincerity, freq. in mod. Icel. in this sense. But in old writers prop. used of hospitality, in such phrases as, taka við e-m með ö., to give a hearty reception to, Ld. 196, Fær. 156, Fs. 15; veita með ö., to give hospitable treatment, Fms. vi. 120.  β. affection; hann gaf mér hringinn með mikilli ö., Fms. ii. 171; sakir gæzku þeirrar ok alúðar (affection) er Guð hafði við Abraham, for the sake of that kindness and love which God had toward Abraham, Ver. 78; Björn spyr tíðinda heldr tómliga af engri a., coolly, Bjarn. 53. Mod. also alúðliga, adv. heartily; alúðligr, adj. kind, hearty.COMPDS: alúðar-maðr, m. devoted friend, Fms. vi. 34.  alúðar-vinr, m. sincere friend, Hkr. ii. 210, Ver. 15; ölúðarvinr, Fms. iv. 287.

al-valdr, almighty; alvald, omnipotence; v. allv-.

al-vara, u, f. [appears neither in Engl. nor Germ.; Dan. alvor].  1. seriousness, earnestness; Gunnarr segir sér þat alvöru, Nj. 49, Þorst. Stang. 50; áhyggjusamliga ok með mikilli a., with much earnestness, Fms. i. 141; taka e-t fyrir a., to take it in earnest, x. 77; vissa ek eigi at þér var a. við at taka, that you were in earnest, Band. 3.  2. affection = alúð (not used at present in that sense); hverigir lögðu fulla alvöru til annarra, Bs. i. 288; elskulig a. til e-s, hearty love, Fms. iii. 63; með alvöru ok blíðu, 144; er öll hans a. (inclination) til Ólafs konungs, vi. 32.  COMPDS: alvöru-liga, adv. earnestly, Fms. ii. 211.  alvöru-ligr, adj. earnest, devoted; a. vinátta, Fms. ii. 144.  alvöru-samligr, adj. earnest looking, devoted; a. þjónosta, Fms. i. 261.

al-varliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), seriously, earnestly, 655 xxxii. 21.  β. intimately, devotedly; fagna e-m a., to receive heartily, Grett. 98 A.

al-vaskligr, m. brisk, martial, Ld. 196, (Ed. allvaskligr.)

al-vaxinn, adj. part. quite grown up, Ld. 132.

al-vápnaðr, adj. part. in full armour, Eg. 422, 460, Fms. i. 81.

al-vatr, adj. thoroughly wet, Fær. 184, Fbr. 23, K. Þ. K. 10.

al-vel = allvell, adv. very well; albetr at sér, of much better appearance, Ld. 332, Glúm. 353: so the vellum MS. A. M. 132 in both these passages.

al-vepni = alvæpni, full armour.

al-verki and alverkja, adj. ind. aching, feeling pains all over the body [cp. the Scot. wark and werk and the provincial Engl. wark in the sense of ache, racking pain], Fms. v. 223, Bs. i. 615.

al-virkr and alyrkr, adj. [verk], a. dagr, a working day, opp. to a holy day, N. G. L. i. 429, 153; cp. virkr.

al-vista, adj. ind. paralysed, Fél. I. ix. 186.

al-vitr, adj. all-wise, now partic. used of God, Clem. 33; superl. alvitrastr, of greatest wisdom, used of a man of science, Sturl. i. 167. MS. Brit. Mus. 1127.

al-vænn, adj. fair.

al-væpni, n. [vápn], complete arms; hafa a., to be in full armour, fully armed, Nj. 93, 107, Eg. 46, 74, 88; með a., fully armed, Íb. ch. 7.

al-værð, f., almost constantly ölværð (the change of vowel being caused by the following v), Bs. i. 593. l. 19, even spelt ölbærð, probably akin with alvara; hospitality, hearty reception, good treatment; taka við e-m með ö., Fms. xi. 52, 27, Fas. iii. 79; var þar uppi öll ö. af Gríms hendi, i. 172; bjóða honum með allri ö., kindness, hospitality, ii. 510; cp. also Bs. i. l. c., where full er ölbærð öllum means there is open house; the word is now obsolete.

al-værliga and ölværliga, adv. hospitably, Ísl. ii. 348.

al-yrkr, adj., a. dagr, a working day, v. alvirkr.

al-þakinn, adj. part. thatched all over, Fms. i. 89; older form -iðr.

al-þiljaðr, adj. part., old form -þilðr, completely wainscotted, Sturl. iii. 193: the vellum MS. has -þilðir, the Ed. -þiljaðir.

al-þingi, n. [þing], mod. form alþing, by dropping the inflective i; the gen., however, still remains unchanged, alþingis. The parliament or general assembly of the Icel. Commonwealth, invested with the supreme legislative and judicial power, consisting of the legislative lögrétta (q. v.), and the courts, v. dómr, fimtardómr, fjórðungsdómar; v. also goði, goðorð, lügsögumaðr, lögsaga, lögberg, and many other words referring to the constitution and functions of the alþingi. It was founded by Ulfljot about A. D. 930, Ib. ch. 3; and reformed by Thord Gellir A. D. 964, who instituted the courts and carried out the political divisions of Icel. into goðorð, fjórðungar, and þing, ch. 5. In the years 1272 and 1281 the alþing, to some extent, changed its old forms, in order to comply with the new state of things. In the year 1800 it was abolished altogether. A kind of parliament, under the old name alþingi, was again established in the year 1843, and sat at Reykjavík. Before the year 930 a general assembly was held in Kjalarnes, whence it was removed under the name of alþingi to the river Öxará, near to the mountain Ármannsfell. The much-debated passage in Hænsaþ. S. ch. 14—en þingit var þá undir Ármannsfelli—therefore simply means that the events referred to happened after the removal of the Kjalarnesping. The parliament at first met on the Thursday beginning the tenth week of the summer, which fell between the 11th and the 17th of June; by a law of the year 999 its opening was deferred to the next following Thursday, between the 18th and 24th of June, old style; after the union with Norway, or after A. D. 1272 or 1281, the time of meeting was further deferred to June 29. July 2 (Vis. B. V. M.) is hence called Þing-Maríumessa. The parliament lasted for a fortnight; the last day of the session, called

ALÞINGISDOMR—ANDBLASINN. 19

vápnatak, because the weapons having been laid aside during the session were again taken (cp. Engl. wapentake), thus fell on the first or second Wednesday in July. As to the rules of the alþingi, vide esp. the first chapter of the Þ. Þ. Grág. (Kb.) i. p. 38 sqq. The most eventful years in the history of the alþingi are, A. D. 930 (foundation), 964 (reform), 1000 (introduction of Christianity), 1004 (institution of the Fifth Court), 1024 (repudiation of the attempt of the king of Norway to annex Iceland), 1096 (introduction of tithes), 1117 (first codification of laws), 1262-1264 (submission to the king of Norway), 1272 and 1281 (new codes introduced). In the year 1338 there was no alþing held because of civil disturbances, eytt alþingi ok þóttu þat údærni, Ann. s. a., Grág. (Þ. Þ.) Íslend. bók, Kristni S., Njála, Sturl., Árna b. S., Ó. H. (1853), ch. 114; of modern writers, vide esp. Maurer, Entsteh. des Ísl. Staates; Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal; some of the Introductions by Jón Sigurðsson in D. I., esp. that to the Gamli Sáttmáli of the year 1262.  COMPDS: alþingis-dómr, m. the court of justice in the a., Grág. i. 87, 130.  alþingis-för, f. a journey to the a., Js. 6.  alþingis-helgun, f. hallowing, inauguration of the a., cp. allsherjar goði, Landn. 336.  alþingis-lof, n. permission, leave given by parliament; ef... sættist á víg fyrir a. fram, against the rules of the a. = unlawfully, Grág. ii. 173.  alþingis-mál, n. parliamentary rules, proceedings of parliament; ef þeir taka eigi af alþingismáli, do not infringe the parliamentary rules, Grág. i. 103: in the legal phrase, at alþingismáli réttu ok allsherjar lögum, where the first rather denotes the form, the last the substance of the law.  alþingis-nefna, u, f. nomination to the legislative body and the courts, including dómnefna and lögréttuskipan, Grág. i. 5; cp. Íb. ch. 5.  alþingis-reið, f. a journey to the a., Nj. 100, Grág. ii. 78.  alþingis-sátt, f. an agreement entered into at the a.  alþingissáttar-hald, n. the keeping of such an agreement, Grág. i. 217, Sturl. i. 66.  alþingis-sekt, f. a conviction in the courts.alþingissektar-hald, n., Sturl. i. 66 (seems to be a false reading); v. the preceding word.

al-þingis = öllúngis or öldungis, quite, altogether, D. N. (not Icel.)

al-þjóð, f. rare and obsolete = alþýða, the commons, Ad. verse 17, Sonatorr. 9, 15; a. manna, Sturl. iii. 229, 125, Fms. vii. 240.

al-þykkr, adj. quite thick, foggy, Stj. 1 Kings xviii. 45.

al-þýða, u, f. the public, people; svá at a. vissi, Sd. 167; sagði þá allri alþýðu, told all people, Eg. 271.  β. people assembled in a body; er þat bænarstaðr minn til allrar alþýðu, all the assembled commons, Nj. 189, Fms. i. 33.  γ. í alþýðu lífi, in common life, 655 xxi. 3. With gen., a. manna = öll a., everybody, the overwhelming majority, bulk of people assembled, Eg. 193, where it is used of the household; a. manna var á brott farin, nearly all people had left, 220; a. manna gerðu (pl.) góðan róm at máli hans, the whole meeting cheered his speech, Fms. vii. 242. It is now almost solely used of the common people, allt fólk, bæði ríka menn (wealthy) ok alþýðu, Fms. v. 113; cp. alþýðis-fólk.  COMPDS: alþýðu-drykkja, u, f. a common banquet, Sturl. ii. 245.  alþýðu-leið, f. a high road, Eg. 579, Bjarn. 49.  alþýðu-lof, n. popularity, general praise, Hkr. iii. 31.  alþýðu-maðr, m. a working man, Vd. 172 old Ed., wrongly instead of alþýða manna, Fs. 67.  alþýðu-mál, n. common, general report, þat er a. at, Hkr. iii. 34.  alþýðu-skap, n., in the phrase, vera ekki við a., to be unpopular, úvinsæll ok lítt við a., Fs. 63.  alþyðu-tal, n. reckoning, common calculation, Íb. ch. 7, Rb. 18.  alþyðu-vápn, n. common weapons, Fas. iii. 620.  albýðu-vegr, m. a public road, Sturl. i. 36, Hkr. iii. 54.  alþýðu-virðing, f. public opinion, consensus popularis, Bs. i. 158.  alþýðu-vitni, n. universal testimony, Sks. 12.  alþýðu-þyss, m. a general tumult, Bs. i. 46, Hom. 46.

al-þýðask, dd, dep. in the phrase, a. til e-s, to incline towards, attach oneself to, Fms. vi. 135.

al-þýði, n. = alþýða, and alþýðis-fólk, id., Bs. i. 805.

al-þýðligr, adj. common, general; a. maðr = menskr maðr, a common man, Fas. ii. 251; í alþýðligri ræðu, common parlance, Skálda 185; hitt væri alþýðlegra (more plain), at segja, 208; a. fyrir sakir siðferðis, of plain manners, Finnb. 298.

al-þægr, adj. [þiggja], quite acceptable, pleasant to, Hom. 75.

al-œstr, adj. part. excited, stirred up, Sks. 230.

AMA, að, to vex, annoy, molest; with dat. of the person, eigi skuluð þér a. Ruth, Stj. 423, Fms. i. 244.  β. dep. (more freq.), amast við e-n, to annoy, molest, in order to get rid of one, Landn. 66, Nj. 130, 199, v. l.; ömuðust liðsmenn lítt við hana, Fms. v. 305, vii. 166, Fs. 32; at hann mundi eigi a. við (object to) bygð hans, Sd. 139: absol. to dislike, Nj. 167. ami, a, m. vexation, annoyance, is now used in the phrase, að vera e-m til ama, to become a cause of vexation to: ama-samr, adj. and ama-semi, f. bad humour; cp. also ömurligr, distressing; amatligr, loathsome.

amallera, að, to enamel (Fr. word émailler), Fms. xi. 427, Vm. 152, 165.

amathysti, a, m. amethyst (for. word), Str.

amatligr or ámátligr, adj. loathsome, hideous (freq. at the present day), Hkv. 1. 38.

amban, f., ambana, að, and ambim, ambuna, recompense (Norse); v. ömbun, ömbuna.

AMBÁTT, pl. ir, f. [cp. Ulf. andbahts = διάκονος, ὑπηρέτης; A. S. ambight; Hel. ambaht, servitium; O. H. G. ampaht; hence the mod. Germ. amt, Dan. embede, Icel. embætti; the mod. Rom. ambassador, ambassade are of the same stock; Ital. ambasciadore, nuntius; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 6. 15—circum se ambactos clientesque habent, v. Diez on this root. The Icel. am- is an assimilated form from and-], a bondwoman, handmaid; þræll eðr a., Grág. ii. 152, 156. (where the older form ambótt), N. G. L. i. 76; konungs a., freq. of a royal concubine, Fms. i. 14, Fagrsk. ch. 21: cp. embætta and embætti. Cp. also mod. ambaga, u, f. an awkward person; amböguligr, adj. and ambögu-skapr, m. clumsy manners, perh. all of them related to ambótt.  COMPDS: ambáttar-barn, n. child of an a., Fms. i. 72.  ambáttar-dóttir, f. daughter of an a., Eg. 345.  ambáttarligr, adj. vile, like an a., Fas. i. 244.  ambáttar-mót, n. expression of an a., Fas. i. 147.  ambáttar-sonr, m. son of an a., Grág. i. 363, Ld. 70, 98.  ambátta-fang, n. a term of contempt, a woman's tussle, as it were between two bondswomen, Sd. 162 (of wrestling).

amb-höfði, a, m. a nickname of uncertain signification. Egilsson supposes that of bi-ceps: most probably amb- denotes some animal; cp. Hjart-höfði, Hart-head, and Orkn-höfði, Seal-head, Sturl. i. 35 (in a verse).

amboð, n. utensils, v. andboð.

AMLÓÐI, a, m.  1. the true name of the mythical prince of Denmark, Amlethus of Saxo, Hamlet of Shakespeare.  2. now used metaph. of an imbecile, weak person, one of weak bodily frame, wanting in strength or briskness, unable to do his work, not up to the mark. It is used in phrases such as, þú ert mesti Amlóði, what a great A. you are, i. e. poor, weak fellow. In a poem of the 10th century (Edda 67), the sea-shore is called the flour-bin of Amlode (meldr-lið Amlúða, navis farinae Amlodif), the sand being the flour, the sea the mill: which recals the words of Hamlet in Saxo,—'sabulum perinde ac farra aspicere jussus eadem albicantibus maris procellis permolita esse respondit.' From this poem it may be inferred that in the 10th century the tale of Hamlet was told in Icel., and in a shape much like that given it by Saxo about 250 years later. Did not Saxo (as he mentions in his preface) write his story from the oral tradition of Icelanders? In Iceland this tale was lost, together with the Skjölduaga Saga. The Icel. Ambales Saga MS. in the Brit. Mus. is a modern composition of the 17th century.  COMPDS now in freq. use: amlóðaligr, adj. imbecile; amlóða-skapr, m., or amlóða-háttr, imbecility; also amlóðast, dep. Torfaeus, in his Series Reg. Dan. p. 302, quotes an old Swedish rhyme running thus: 'Tha slog konungen handom samman | och log fast och gorde aff gamnian | rett some han vore en Amblode | then sig intet godt forstode,' where it means a fool, simpleton, denoting a mental imbecility. [Perhaps the A. S. homola is cognate; thus in the Laws of King Alfred, 'Gif he hine on bismor to homolan bescire,' if he in mockery shave his (a churl's) head like a fool, which Lambarde renders morionis in morem: see Thorpe's Anc. Laws ii. Gloss. sub voce, and cp. the quotation from Weber's Metrical Romances ii. 340.]

AMMA, u, f. [cp. afi], grandmother; now in freq. use, but rarely in the Sagas, which use föður-móðir and móður-móðir, Hým. 7, Rm. 16, Edda 109, Nj. 119, Ld. 328. In compds, ömmu-bróðir, ömmu-systir, etc.; lang-amma, u, f. is a great-grandmother. [In Germ. amme means a nurse.]

ampli, a, m. and hömpull, s, m. [ampulla], a jug, Vm. 6, 47, Dipl. iii. 4, B. K. 31.  COMPD: ömpuls-brot, n. a potsherd, Pm. 93.

amra, að, to howl piteously, Fs. 45 (of cats); cp. ömurligr, piteous, and ömruligr, adj. id.

amstr, n. [cp. Germ. amsteig = palearium], a rick, Orkn. 448, an ἅπ. λεγ.: amstr now means toil: cp. amstrast, að, to toil.

AN, conj. than, Lat. quam, is the old form, and constantly used in MSS. of the 12th century, instead of 'en' or 'enn,' q. v.

ANA, að, to rush on, now freq.

AND-, a prefixed prep. [Ulf. uses a separate prep. and; A. S. and-; Germ. ant-, ent-, empf-; it exists in Engl. in an-swer; Lat. ante-; Gr. ἀντι-], denoting whatever is opposite, against, towards, and metaph. hostile, adverse; freq. spelt and pronounced an- or ann-; it is used in a great many compds, v. below. If followed by v, the a changes into ö, e. g. öndverðr, adversus; in andvirði, prize, however, the a is unchanged.

ANDA, að, [Ulf. has us-anan = ἐκπνεῖν; cp. Gr. ἀνεμος, wind, and Lat. animus, anima, spirit, breath: the Germans say geist, spirit, and athmen, spirare: Ulf. translates πνεῦμα by ahma, νοῦς by aha; Hel. spiritus by gêst and athom, whence Germ. athmen: cp. Swed. ånd, ånde, spiritus, spirare.]  I. act. to breathe, and of the wind, to waft; meðan þeir megu anda ok upp standa, Bs. i. 224, Karl. 95; þórðr andar nú handan, Sturl. i. 21 (in a verse).  II. dep. andast, to breathe one's last, expire; Mörðr Gígja tók sótt ok andaðist, Fiddle Mord 'took sick' and breathed his last, Nj. 29; en ef svá ferr at ek öndumk, but if it fares so that I die, Eg. 127; þar hefir andast faðir minn, Fas. iii. 619. Part. andaðr, dead; hón var þá onduð, had breathed her last, Ld. 16; jarlinn vai þá a., Fms. i. 149.

anda- and andar-, the compds belonging to önd, anima, and önd, a duck, v. sub voce önd.

and-blásinn, adj. part. [önd], inflated, Skálda 169.

20 ANDDYRI—ANDVANA.

and-dyri and anndyri, n. [Lat. atrium; from önd, atrium, q. v.], a porch; hón dró hann fram yfir dyrnar ok svá í anddyrit, Grett. 140, Nj. 140, Fms. ii. 148, Bs. i. 804.

and-fang, n. esp. pl. [Germ. empfang], reception, hospitality, Vþm. 8.

and-fælur, f. pl. [önd], 'the horrors,' in the phrase, vakna með andfælum, of one suddenly awakening from a bad dream, or from being frightened when asleep, Fas. iii. 256, Fél. ix. 188.

and-fætingr, s, m. [and-], transl. of Antipodes in Pliny, Stj. 94. Now used in the mod. sense of Antipodes; also in the phrase, sofa andfætis, or andfæting, of two sleeping in a bed 'heads and heels.'

and-hlaup, n. suffocation, Eg. 553.

and-hvalr, s, m. balaena rostrata, now called andarnefja, u, f., Edda (Gl.), Sks. 123 A.

and-hæli, n. monstrosity, absurdity; medic. the heels being in the place of the toes, Fél. ix. 188. andhælisligr, adj. absurd.

andi, a, m.  1. prop. breath, breathing; af anda fisksins, Edda 19; cp. hverr andalauss lifir, who lives without breathing, in the Riddles of Gestumblindi, Fas. i. 482; af anda hans, Greg. 20, Sks. 41 B; andi er Ingimundar, ekki góðr á bekkinn, of foul breath, Sturl. i. 21 (in a verse).  2. a current of air; andi handar þinnar, air caused by the waving of the hand, 623. 33: now freq. of a soft breeze.3. (gramm.) aspiration; linr, snarpr a., Skálda 175, 179.  II. metaph. and of Christian origin, spirit. In the Icel. translation of the N. T. andi answers to πνεῦμα, sál to ψυχή (cp. Luke i. 46, 47); Guð skapaði líkamann ok andann, Mar. 656; taki þér við líkamanum en Drottinn við andanum, id.; gjalda Guði sinn anda, Mar. 39 (Fr.); hjarta, andi ok vizka, id. In some of these cases it may answer to ψυχή, but the mod. use is more strict: as a rule there is a distinction between 'önd,' f. anima, and 'andi,' m. animus, yet in some cases both are used indifferently, thus Luke xxiii. 46 is translated by 'andi,' yet 'önd' is more freq., Pass. 44. 21, 45. 1.  2. spirit, spiritual being (önd is never used in this sense); John iv. 24, Guð er andi, and, tilbiðja í anda, ἐν πνεύματι.  3. the Holy Ghost, Nj. 164, Rb. 80.  4. angels; þessháttar eldr brennir andana, Stj. 41.  5. in a profane sense; álfr eða a., Fas. i. 313.  6. spiritual gift; í krapti ok í anda Heliæ, Hom. 104. Luke i. 17, Sks. 565.  COMPDS: anda-gipt, f. inspiration, gift of the Holy Ghost, Fms. iv. 48.  anda-kast, n. breathing, Fas. iii. 348.  andaliga, adv. spiritually, = andliga, Fms. v. 230.  anda-ligr, adj. spiritual, = andligr, Stj. 8, Dipl. ii. 11.

and-kostr = annkostr, purpose.

and-langr, m. (poët.) name of one of the heavens, Edda (Gl.)

and-lauss, adj. [önd], breathless, lifeless, exanimis; a. hlutir, Eluc. 9.

and-lát, n. [önd, anima; lát, damnum], 'loss of breath,' death; þá er þú fregn a. mitt, 623. 43; a. Magnúss konungs, Gizurar biskups, etc., Bs. i. 65, 70, Eg. 119, 367.  β. the last gasp, the very moment of death; þá var konungr nær andláti, Hkr. i. 160; var hann þá beint í andláti, Fms. vi. 230; ok er hann fann at nær dró at andláti hans, his last moments drew near, viii. 446: andlát has the notion of a quiet, easy death; líflát, a violent death; but both are only used in a dignified sense.  COMPDS: andláts-dagr, m. day of death, Bs. i. 466.  andláts-dægr, n. id., 686 B.  andláts-sorg, f. grief for a death, Stj. 196.  andláts-tíð, f. and -tími, a, m. time of death, Greg. 78, Stj. 9.

andliga, adv. spiritually, Sks. 614, 649, Stj. 27, 34, Hom. 57.

andligr, adj. [Hel. translates spiritualis by gëstlic, Germ. geistlich, Ulf. πνευματικός by ahmeins], spiritual; in the N. T. πνευματικός is translated by andligr, 1 Cor. xv. 44: a. fagnaðr, 656 C; a. herklæði, 656 A. ii. 18; a. skilning, Greg. 23; a. líf, Skálda 199; biskup hefir andligt vald til andligra hluta, a bishop has spiritual power in spiritual things (opp. to veraldligr, κοσμικός), Gþl. 73; andlig skírn, Hom. 52.

and-lit, n. and annlit, [and-, adversus, and líta; Ulf. andavleizns = πρόσωπον; A. S. andvlite; Germ. antlitz], a face, countenance; á andliti þeirra, 623. 61; sá ek annlit þitt, id., Nj. 16; þangat horfi anlit er hnakki skyldi, N. G. L. i. 12; Hom. 7 renders in faciem by í andliti. Metaph. auglit is used as more dignified; í augliti Guðs (not andliti), ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, in the eyes or sight of God.COMPDS: andlits-björg, f. visor, Sks. 406.  andlits-farinn, adj. in the phrase, vel a., of fair, well-formed features, better in two words (andliti farinn), Sturl. iii. 178 C.  andlits-mein, n. cancer in the face, Sturl. ii. 185.  andlits-sköp, n. pl. lineaments of the face, N. G. L. i. 339; vel andlits sköpum, of well-formed features, Fms. viii. 238.

and-marki, ann-, and an-, a, m. [and-, mark], a fault, flaw, blemish; ókostir eðr andmarkar, Grág. i. 313; ef annmarkar þeir verða á búfénu, 429; þú leyndir anmarka á honum, Nj. 8. p. nietaph. in moral sense, trespasses; iðran annmarka, 625. 90; used as a nickname, Gísl. 32.  COMPDS: annmarka-fullr, adj. full of faults, Fms. vi. 110.  annmarka-lauss, adj. faultless, Grág. i. 287.

and-máligr, adj. contentious, quarrelsome, Fms. ii. 154, Magn. 448.

and-mæli, n. contradiction, 4. 25.

and-nes, n. and annes, [and-, nes], a promontory or point of land, Hkr. i. 313, Fms. viii. 147, Fær. 83.

and-orða, adj. ind. [cp. Ulf. andavaurd; Germ. antwort], the Icel. use svar or andsvar (Engl. answer) in this sense; andorða only appears in the phrase, að verða a., to come to words with, Rd. 300, Korm. 110 (rare).

and-óf, n. prob. = and-þóf, prop. a paddling with the oars, so as to bring the boat to lie against wind and stream. Metaph., við nokkuru andófi, after a somewhat hard struggle, Fbr. 84. 2. a division in a ship, fremsta rúm í skipi kallast a., Fél. ix. 3.

and-ramr, adj. (andremma, u, f.) having foul breath, Sturl. i. 20.

ANDRAR, m. pl. [Ivar Aasen aander], snow shoes, in sing. prob. öndurr, cp. the compds öndor-dís and öndor-goð, used of the goddess Skaði, in the Edda; found only in Norway, where the word is still in use; in Icel. only remaining in the proverb snæliga snuggir kváðu Finnar, áttu andra fala, Fms. vii. 20, of a silly act, to sell one's snow shoes just when it begins to snow. Prob. a Finnish word; v. skíð.

and-rá, f. [contr. = anddrag(?), mod. word], breath, in the phrase, í sömu a., at the very same breath, instantly.

and-róði, a, and andróðr, rs, m. the later form more freq. [and-, róa], pulling against stream and wind; Einarr átti gildan andróða, E. had a hard pull, Fms. vi. 379, v. l. andróðr; róa andróða, vii. 310, (andróðr, Hkr. iii. 440); þeir tóku mikinn andróða, they had a hard pull, Fms. viii. 438, v. l. andróðr; ok er þá sem þeir hafi andróða, Greg. 31; taka andróðra (acc. pl.), Fms. viii. 131, Hkr. iii. 440: cp. the proverb bíðendr eigu byr en bráðir andróða, those who bide have a fair wind, those who are hasty a foul, festina lente, 'more haste worse speed;' the last part is omitted in old writers when quoting this proverb.

and-saka, að, (annsaka, Bret. 162), [A. S. andsäc], to accuse, with acc., Al. 23; hann andsakaði (reprimanded) sveinana harðliga, Sturl. iii. 123.

and-skoti and annskoti, a, m. [and-, ädversus; skjóta, skoti], prop. an opponent, adversary, one who 'shoots from the opposite ranks;' a. lýðs várs ok laga várra, 655 xvi. B; þeir höfðu heyrt at andskotar þeirra vildi verja þeim vígi þingvöllinn, they had heard that their adversaries would keep them by a fight from the parliament field, Íb. ch. 7; eigi mun ek vera í andskota flokki móti honum, Fms. v. 269.  2. metaph. a fiend, devil, transl. of Satan, now only used in that sense and in swearing; nú hefir a. fundit færi á at freista yðvar, Post. 656; far í brott a., ὕπαγε Σατανᾶ, 146; a. ok þeir englar er eptir honumhurfu, Ver. I; dökvir þik, anskoti (voc.), 623. 31, Hom. 108, 109, K. Á. 20.  COMPD: andskota-flokkr, m. a band of enemies, Fms. v. 269, Grág. ii. 19.

and-spilli and andspjall, n. colloquy, discourse, Skm. 11, 12.

and-spænis, adv., a. móti e-m, just opposite, the metaph. being taken from a target (spánn), Snót 127.

and-stefna, d, to stem against, Fas. iii. 50 (rare).

and-streymi, n. prop. against the tide or current; metaph. adversity, Fr.

and-streymr, adj. running against stream; metaph. difficult, cross; Sighvatr var heldr a. um eptirmálin, hard to come to terms with, Sturl. ii. 42; andstreym örlög, ill-fate, Al. 69; kvað Svein jafnan andstreyman verit hafa þeim frændum, had always set his face against, Orkn. 390.

and-stygð, f. disgust; vera a. af e-u (now, at e-u), dislike, Róm. 265.

and-styggiligr, adj. odious, abominable, Hkr. iii. 273.

and-styggr, adj. id., Hom. 102, 623. 31, Sks. 539.

and-svar and annsvar, n. [A. S. andsvaru; Hel. uses andvordi and andvordian = respondere; Ulf. andavaurd], an 'answer,' response, but in old writers esp. a decision; vera skjótr í andsvörum, prompt in deciding, Fms. i. 277; sagðist til hans hafa vikit um ansvarit, put the case under his decision, vi. 354; munu vit tala fleira áðr ek veita því andsvör, before I decide, Ld. 80; in N. G. L. i. 86 it seems to mean protest, intervention: used of the echo in Al. 35.  COMPD: andsvara-maðr, m. a law term, a respondent, defender, Jb. 30.

and-svara and annsvara, að, to answer; þá annsvarar konungrinn, Fms. xi. 56, rare, and in a more formal sense than the simple verb svara.  β. answer, to be responsible for; sem ek vil a. fyrir Guði, as I will answer before God, Gþl. 66; v. anza or ansa.

and-syptir, m. [önd, anima, or and-?], sobbing, sighing, hysterical fit, Hom. 121; [Engl. sob; Germ. seufzen].

and-sælis, in common talk andhælis, adv. [sól], against the course of the sun (cp. the Scot. 'widdershins,' that is, going against the sunshine or the sun's light, a direction universally considered both in England and Scotland to be most unlucky; see the quot. in Jamieson sub voce), Ísl. ii. 154, Rb. 134; esp. used of witches and 'uncanny' appearances; þat gékk öfugt um húsit ok a., itwent backwards about the house and against the sun's course, Eb. 268, Gísl. 33, cp. Fs. (Vd.) 43, 59; hon gékk öfug a. um tréit, ok hafði þar yfir mörg röm ummæli, Grett. 151.  β. ansælis or andhælis is used of everything that goes backwards, wrong, or perversely; cp. andærr and andæris.

and-vaka, u, f. sleeplessness, ἀγρυπνία, caused by care or grief, Fms. i. 82; mostly used in pl.  β. medic. agrypnia, Fél. ix. 189, Bs. i. 251. γ wakefulness, Hom. 108. In the Máfhlíð. vísur, Eb. ch. 19, andvaka unda = a sword, the 'awakener' of wounds; (cp. vekja blóð.)

and-vaki, adj. ind. sleepless, now andvaka; liggja a., to lie awake, Al. 71, Barl. 10, Mag. 80.

and-vana and andvani, adj. ind., and now andvanr, adj.  I. [and- and vanr, solitus], destitute, wanting; with gen., a. átu, lífs a., auðs

ANDVARÐA—ANNARR. 21

ok alls gamans a., Hkv. 2. 31, Völs. kviður, Lex. Poët.; alls a. nema víls ok vesaldar, Fms. iii. 95; a. heilsu, Magn. 512; alls a., of the beggar Lazarus, Greg. 24; a. þeirrar þjónustu, in want of, Post. 656 B; margs a., Bret. 174; a eigna várra, having lost our lands, 208.  II. [önd, anima], now = exanimis; andvana lík, a lifeless corpse, Pass. 4. 23.

and-varða, að, to hand over [cp. Dan. overantvorde], rare, Fr.

and-vari, a, m.  I. a fish of prey, gurnard, Lat. miluus, Edda (Gl.); tke name of the gurnard-shaped dwarf, Edda 72; the owner of a fatal ring, hence called andvara-nautr: cp. Skv. 1. 2, Andvari ek heiti ... margan hefi ek fors um farit.  II. in mod. usage, a soft breeze, and metaph. watchfulness, vigilance, in such phrases as, hafa andvara á sér, Pass. 15. 6: andvara-lauss, adj. heedless; andvara-leysi, f. mostly in a theol. sense, etc.  COMPD: andvara-gestr, m. an unwelcome guest, in the phrase, vera e-m a., Fbr. 7, 24 new Ed. (now freq.)

and-varp, n. the act of heaving a sob, sigh, 655 xx. 4, Sks. 39, 688. Freq. in theol. writers, Pass. 40. 7.

and-varpa, að, to sob, sigh, breathe deeply, Fms. x. 338, Hom. 155, Sks. 225 (freq.)

and-varpan, f. sobbing, Hom. 124, Stj. 149.

and-vegi, throne, v. öndvegi.

andverðr, adverse, v. öndverðr.

and-viðri, n. [veðr], head wind, Fbr. 67, Eg. 87, Fms. i. 203.

and-virði, n. [verð], worth, equivalent, value, price; þá skal þat kaup ganga aptr en hinn hafi a. sitt, Gþl. 491; haf þú nú allt saman, skikkjuna ok a., Lv. 50; allt a. hvalsins, the whole value of, Greg. ii. 375; hann tekr þar á móti ofdrykkjuna ok hennar a., reward, Fms. viii. 251.

and-virki and annvirki, n. [önn, labour (?); cp. old Germ. antwerk = machina].I. in Icel. writers esp. used of hay and haystacks; ef eldr kemr í hús manns eðr a., K. Þ. K. 78, 82; færa, reiða a., to carry into the barn, Grág. ii. 122, Lv. 211; nema fé gangi í akr, engi, töður eðr a., Grág. ii. 299; nautafjöldi var kominn í tún ok vildi brjóta a., ... throw down the cocks, Glúm. 342, Boll. 336; sendi Úlfarr menn upp á hálsinn at sjá um a. sitt þat er þar stóð; cp. little below, stórsæti, large ricks, Eb. 152.  II. in Norway more generally used of crop, tillage, agricultural implements; garð þann sem um a. (barley ricks? ) stendr, Gþl. 381; ef menn brenna a. manna, N. G. L. i. 244; a. (produce) manna hvatki sem er, 251, Jb. 312; þá skal hann þar etja öllu sinu a. á, 357; viðarköst, timbr, grindr, sleða eðr önnur a., implements (some MSS. read amboð), 258, v. l. Metaph., legit hafa mér a. nær garði, en at berjast við þik fyrir sakleysi, business more urgent than to ..., Grett. 110 A.

and-vitni, n. a law term.  I. Icel. contradictory testimony, such as was contrary to law. Thus defined: þat er a. er menn bera gegn því sem áðr er borit, vætti í gegn kvið, eðr kviðr í gegn vætti, svá at eigi má hvárttveggja rétt vera, Grág. i. 59, 60; it was liable to the lesser outlawry, skoluð menn a. bera ok hér á þingi, en ef menn bera, ok varðar þat útlegð, enda á þat einskis at meta, id.; en ef menn bera þat a. varðar þat fjörbaugsgarð, ii. 272; bera þeir a. guðunum, false witness against the gods, 655 xiii. B. 1.  II. Norse, where it appears to mean contradictory testimony, such as was usually admissible; ok koma eigi a. móti, N. G. L. ii. 89, v. l.; svá er ef einn ber vitni með manni sem engi beri, en tveir sem tíu, ef maðr uggir eigi a. móti, if one bears witness for a man it is as though no man bore witness for him, but two are as good as ten, if a man doth not fear that contradictory evidence will be brought against him, 150.

and-vígr, adj. in the phrase, vera e-m a., a match for ..., as good a swordsman as ...; hann var eigi meirr enn a. einum þeirra bræðra, Fms. ii. 165; sagði Gellir sik fleirum mönnum a. en einum, Bs. i. 649.

and-yrði, n. pl. [v. andorða], objection, Sks. 76.

and-æfa, ð, [v. andóf; Ivar Aasen andöva and andov], a boating term, to paddle against tide, current, and wind, so as to prevent the boat from drifting astern; þá féll á stormr svá mikill, at þeir fengu eigi betr en andæft, had nothing better than to lay to, Sturl. ii. 121; the vellum MSS. wrongly andhætt.  2. metaph. in the corrupt form andæpta, to reply feebly against; with dat., ekki er þess getið at Þórðr andæpti þessari vísu, Th. returned no reply to this libel, Sturl. i. 22. Now absol. to speak in a disjointed way, to ejaculate; andæpti skáld upp úr móðu, fram eru feigs götur; skilja sköp, skamt er að landi, brosir bakki mót, of rhymed incoherent words of a poet in the act of sinking beneath the waves, vide Espól. Ísl. Árb. the year 1823, Sigurðr Breiðfjörð in a poem in the Smámunir.

and-æris, adv. [ár, remus], crossly, perversely, a figure taken from pulling, Lex. Poët.; freq. in the corrupt form andhælis.

and-ærligr, adj. cross, odd, Lex. Poët.; now andhælislegr.

ang, n. sweet savour, fragrance; með unað ok ang, Bs. ii. 10.

ANGA, að, [Norse aanga; Swed. ånga], to give out a sweet scent, odour; ilmr angar mjök sætliga, Mar. Fr.; now freq.

angan, f. sweet odour; angan Friggjar, the love of Frigga, Vsp. 54; some MSS. read angantýr, the sweetheart, husband of Frigga.

angi, a, m. [Norse angie] .I. sweet odour; þvílíkan ilm ok anga sem cedrus, Stj. 73, etc.  II. [cp. A. S. anga = aculeus, stimulus], a spine or prickle, in the phrase, þetta mál hefir anga, has a sting, is not good to touch, Bs. ii. 52. Now often used in pl. and used of a sprout, fibre in fruits or plants; metaph. a spoilt boy is called angi, 'a pickle:' as to the root, cp. öngull, hamus, and the English angle: angilja, u, f. is, according to Björn, one of the bones of a fish.

angist, f. [Lat. angustia; Fr. angoisse; Engl. anguish; Germ. angst] , anguish, esp. in theol. writers, Stj. 31, 51, 55, 106, 114.  COMPDS: angistar-ár, n. a year of misery, Stj.  angistar-neyð, f. distress, Stj.  angistar-tími, a, m. an hour of pain, Stj.

angistast, að (?), dep. to be vexed, Stj. 121.

ANGR, m. (now always n., Pass. 1. 4, and so Bs. i. 195); gen. rs, [cp. Engl. anger, Lat. angor.] I. grief, sorrow; þann angr, Bær. 12; upp á minn a. ok skaða, Stj. 215; minn harm ok a., Bær. 14; með margskonar angri, Fms. x. 401; sorg eðr a., Háv. 51; ekki angr(s), Hkv. Hjörv. 10. II. in Norse local names freq. = bay, firth, e. g. Staf-angr, Harð-angr, etc. etc. (never in Icel.): kaupangr in Norway means a town, village, sinus mercatorius, [cp. the English 'Chipping' in Chipping Norton, Chipping Ongar, etc., and in London, 'Cheapside,'] these places being situated at the bottom of the firths: fjörðr hardly ever occurs in local names in Norway, but always angr; cp. the pun on angr, moeror, and angr, sinus, Fas. ii. 91. The word is obsolete in the historical age and scarcely appears as a pure appellative, Edda (Gl.), Fms. xii, Munch's Map and Geogr. of Norway. [Root probably Lat. ang- in ango, angustus, angiportus.]

angra, að, to anger, grieve, vex, with acc., Fms. xi. 393; mik hefir angrað hungr ok frost, Fms. ii. 59: with dat., hvárt sem mér a. reykr eða bruni, Nj. 201, Stj. 21: impers. to be grieved, a. honum mjök, Fas. ii. 296: more freq. with acc., Finnb. 234, Bs. i. 289; mik angrar mart hvað, Hallgrím.  β. reflex., angrask, to be angered; a. af e-u, to take offence at, Bs. i. 280; við e-t, Fas. iii. 364.  γ. part. angraðr, used as adj. sorrowful, angry; reiðr ok a., El. 14; pronounced angráðr, concerned; in the phrase, göra sér angrátt, um, to feel a pang, Gísl. 85.

angran, f. sorrow. Fas. iii. 364.

angr-fullr, adj. full of care, Str. 55.

angr-gapi, a, m. a rude, silly fool, [the French gobemouche], Bs. i. 806, Mag. 64 (Ed.); sem a. at svara fólsku tignum mönnum, Sturl. iii. 138.

angr-lauss, adj. free from care, Lat. securus, Hkv. 2. 45.

angr-ligr, adj. sad, Bs. ii. 163.

angr-ljóð, n. pl. funeral songs, dirges, neniae, Hkv. 2. 44.

angr-lyndi, n. [lund], concern, low spirits, Gísl. 85.

angr-mæðask, dd, dep. to be in low spirits, Fr.

angr-samligr, adj. and angr-samliga, adv. sorrowful, sorrowfully, Stj. 655 xxxii.

angr-samt, adj. full of grief, depressed, downcast, Stj., Barl., Vápn. 17; neut., e-m er a., to be in low spirits, Fms. viii. 29.  β. troublesome, Stj. (of gnats).

angr-semd and angrsemi, f. grief, Mar., Ver. 2.

angr-væri, f. dejection, Hkr. iii. 253; now also angr-vær, adj. dejected.

angr-æði, f. moody temper, sullenness, Fr.

an-könn, f. [and-kenna], a flaw, fault, = anmarki, only as gen. pl. in the COMPDS ankanna-fullr, adj. full of faults, Sks. 76 new Ed., v. l.  ankanna-laust, n. adj. a law term, uncontested, used of an inheritance or possession where there is no legal claimant; skal hann eignast a. allt Noregs konungs veldi, he shall hold as his own all the power of Norway's king without a rival, Fagrsk. 97; Magnús konungr hafði þá ríki einnsaman ok a., i. e. there were no pretenders, Fms. x. 413.

ann- in several compds, v. and-.

ANNA, að, [önn, labor; Ivar Aasen anna: the root is not found in Goth.]  I. act. but rare; with dat. in the sense to be able to do; eg anna því ekki, I cannot manage that: absol., geldingar svá holdir, at þeir anni á degi ofan í Odda, ellipt. = anni at ganga, that they can walk, Vm. 28.  II. dep. freq.:  1. with acc.,  α. a law term; in cases involving support, to take care, provide for, to support; þá skal móðirin þau börn annast, Grág. i. 240; a. úmaga, 243, 294; a. sik, to support oneself, Fms. vi. 204; úmegð, Rd. 234.  β. more generally to take care of; mál þetta mun ek a., Glúm. 358.  γ. to engage in battle; tveir skyldi annast einnhvern þeirra; þeir Barði ok Steinn skyldi a. Ketil brúsa, Ísl. (Hvs.) ii. 356.  2. a. um e-t, to be busy about, trouble oneself about; a. um matreiðu, to cook, Nj. 75; hann a. ekki um bú, Glúm. 342, 359.

annarligr, adj. strange, alien, Stj. 188; metaph., Skálda 193.

ANNARR, önnur, annat, adj.; pl. aðrir; gen. pl. annarra; dat. sing. f. annarri, [Ulf. anþar; A. S. oþar; Engl. other; Germ. andere; Swed. andra and annan: in Icel. assimilated, and, if followed by an r, the nn changes into ð.]  I. = ἕτερος, alter:1. one of two, the other; tveir formenn þeirra, hét annarr, the one of them, Fms. ix. 372; sá er af öðrum ber, be that gets the better of it, Nj. 15; a. augat, Fms. ii. 61; á öðrum fæti, Bs. i. 387, Edda 42; annarri hendi..., en annarri, with the one hand ..., with the other, Eb. 250, 238; á aðra hönd, on the one side, Grág. i. 432, Nj. 50; a. kné, Bs. i. 680; til annarrar handar, Nj. 50; annarr—annarr, oneother; gullkross á öðrum en ari af gulli á öðrum, Fms. x. 15. Peculiar is the phrase, við annan, þriðja, fjórða ... mann, = being two, three, four ... altogether; við annan, oneself and one besides, Eb. 60; cp. the Greek τρίτον ἡμιτάλαντον, two talents and a half, Germ. anderthalh.2. secundus, a cardinal number, the second; sá maðr

22 ANNARSKONAR—APALDR.

var þar a. Íslenzkr, Fms. xi. 129; í annat sinn, for the second time, Íb. ch. 1, 9; a. vetr aldrs hans, Bs. i. 415; höggr harm þegar annat (viz. högg), a second blow, Sturl. ii. 118.  β. the next following, Lat. proximus; á öðru hausti, the next autumn, Ísl. ii. 228; önnur misseri, the following year, Bs. i. 437, 417; a. sumar eptir, 415, Fms. i. 237. Metaph. the second, next in value or rank, or the like; annat mest hof í Noregi, the next greatest temple, Nj. 129; a. mestr höfðingi, the next in power, Ísl. ii. 202; fjölmennast þing, annat eptir brennu Njáls, the fullest parliament next to that after the burning of N., 259; vitrastr lögmanna annarr en Skapti, the wisest speaker next after S., Bs. i. 28; a. mestr maðr í Danmörk, the next greatest man, Fms. xi. 51; annat bezt ríki, v. 297; var annarr sterkastr er hét Freysteinn, the next strongest champion, Eb. 156; mestrar náttúru a. en Þorsteinn, Fs. 74, Fms. iv. 58.  II. = ἄλλος, alius, one of many, other, both in sing. and pl.; hon lék á gólfinu við aðrar meyjar, Nj. 2; mart var með henni annara kvenna, i. e. many women besides, 50; jafnt sekr sem aðrir menn, as guilty as anybody else, Grág. i. 432; einginn annarra Knúts manna, none besides, Fms. x. 192; ef þeir gerði lönd sín helgari enn aðrar jarðir, ... than all other grounds, Eb. 20; er Þórólfr hafði tignað um fram aðra staði, ... more than any other place, id.; kalla þá jörð nú eigi helgari enn aðra, id.; tók Börkr þann kost er hann hafði öðrum ætlað, 40; Þórarinn vann eið ... ok tíu menn aðrir, Th. and ten men besides, 48; þeir þóttust fyrir öðrum mönnum, ... over all other people, 20; góðr drengr um fram alla menn aðra, 30; af eyjum ok öðru sjófangi, other produce of the sea, 12; hann skal tvá menn nefna aðra en sik, ... besides himself, Grág. i. 57; hann var örvari af fé enn nokkurr annarr, ... than anybody else, Bret.; jafnt sem annat fúlgufé, as any other money, Grág. i. 432.  2. other, different, in the proverb, öl er annarr maðr, ale (a drunken man) is another man, is not the true man, never mind what he says, Grett. 98; the proverb is also used reversely, öl er innri (the inner) maðr, 'in vino veritas:' annað er gæfa ok görfuleiki, luck and achievements are two things (a proverb); önnur var þá æfi, viz. the reverse of what it is now (a proverb), Grett. 94 (in a verse); ætla ek þik annan mann en þú segir, Fms. xi. 192; hafi þér Danir heldr til annars gört, you deserve something different, worse than that, id.; varð þá annan veg, otherwise, Hkr. ii. 7; Björn varð þess víss at þau höfðu annan átrúnað, ... different religion, Eb. 12.  3. like ὁι ἄλλοι, reliqui, the rest, the remains; þá er eigi sagt hversu öðrum var skipað, Nj. 50; at hönd b. sé fyrir innan n., en annarr líkami hans (the rest of his body) fyrir utan, 1812. 18.  III. repeated in comparative clauses: annarr—annarr, or connected with einn, hvárr, hverr, ymsir: gékk annarr af öðrum at biðja hann, alius ex alio, one after another, Bs. i. 128; hverja nótt aðra sem aðra, every night in turn, Mag. 2; annat var orð Finns harðara enn annat, every word of Finn was harder than that which went before it, of a climax, Fms. v. 207: einn—annarr, alius atque alius, one and another, various; eina hluti ok aðra, Stj. 81; einar afleiðingar ok aðrar, Barl. 36; einir ok aðrir, various, Stj. 3; ef maðr telr svá, at hann var einn eðr annarr (that he was anybody, this or that man, viz. if he does not give the name precisely), ok er hinn eigi þá skyldr at rísa ór dómi, Grág. i. 28: ymsir—aðrir, in turn, now this, now the other; ymsir eiga högg í annars garð (a proverb); heita á helga menn, ok nefna ymsa ok aðra (now one, now another), Mar. 35: þágu þessir riddarar veizlur ymsir at öðrum, gave banquets one to another in turn, id.; færðu ymsir aðra niðr, now one was under water and now the other, of two men struggling whilst swimming, Fms. ii. 269: hvárr—annan, hverir—aðra, each other; mæltu hvárir vel fyrir öðrum; hétu hvárir öðrum atförum: of a rapid succession, hvert vandræði kom á bak öðru, misfortunes never come singly, but one on the back of the other, Fr.; við þau tiðindi urðu allir glaðir ok sagði hverr öðrum, one told the news to another, man to man, Fms. i. 21; þóttust hvárirtveggju meira vald at hafa í borginni en aðrir, 655 xvii. 1; hvárirtveggja—aðrir, ἀλλήλοις, mutually, reciprocally; skulu nú h. ganga til ok veita öðrum grið, Nj. 190.  IV. annat, n. used as a subst.; þetta sem annat, as other things, Fas. i. 517; skaltu eigi þora annat, en, Nj. 74; ef eigi bæri a. til, unless something happened, Bs. i. 350: at öllu annars, in everything else, Grág. ii. 141, K. Þ. K. 98: annars simply used adverb. = else = ella; now very freq. but very rare in old writers; stendr a. ríki þitt í mikilli hættu, Fas. i. 459, from a paper MS. and in a text most likely interpolated in the 17th century.  COMPDS: annars-konar, gen. as adv. of another kind, Hkr. i. 148.  annars-kostar, adv. else, otherwise; hvárt er hann vill... eðr a. vill hann, either he should prefer ..., K. Á. 58.  annars-staðar, adv. elsewhere, in other places; sem a., as in other similar cases, Grág. i. 228.  annars-vegar, adv. on the other hand, Fms. viii. 228, those on the opposite side.annarra- gen. pl. is used in annarra-bræðra, -bræðri, pl. fourth cousins, Grág. i. 285, ii. 172; cp. D. I. i. 185; v. næsta-bræðra = third cousins, þriðja-bræðra = fifth cousins.

annarr-hvárr (or in two words), adj. pron. in dual sense, [A. S. oþar-hveða], Lat. alteruter, either, one of the two; with gen., annan hvern þeirra sona Skallagríms, Eg. 256; væntir mik at aðra hvára (acc. sing. fem., now aðra hverja) skipan taki brátt, Fms. viii. 444. Dual, aðrir hvárir, in a collect. sense, either party, Sd. 138; neut. used as adv., annaðhvárt—eða, either—or (Lat. aut—aut), Fms. i. 127, Skálda 171, Nj. 190.

annarr-hverr, adj. pron. every other alternately; annan hvern dag, Fms. iv. 81, Symb. 57; annathvert orð, every other (second) word, Nj. 33, Fas. i. 527: at öðruhverju, used as adv., every now and then, Eg. 52, Sturl. i. 82, Hkr. ii. 292.

annarr-tveggja and annarr-tveggi, adj. or used adverbially, [-tveggja is a gen. form, -tveggi a nom.], plur. (dual) aðrirtveggju, dat. plur. -jum; in other cases tveggja, tveggi are indecl.:—one of twain, either; annattveggja þeirra, Grág. i. 236; ok er annattveggja til, at vera hér, hinn er annarr, there is choice of two, either to stay here, or ..., Fms. xi. 143, N. G. L. i. 117; ef annarrtveggi hefir haldit öðrum, Grág. i. 29: with gen., a. þeirra, either of them, 149: dual, either of two sides, en þá eru þeir skildir er aðrirtveggju eru lengra í burt komnir en ördrag, but then are they parted when either of the twain is come farther away than an arrow's flight, of combatants on the battle-field, Grág. ii. 19: neut., annattveggja, used as adv.; annattveggja—eðr, either—or; a. vestna eðr batna, Clem. 50. The word is rare in old writers, and is now quite out of use; as adv. annaðhvort—eða, either—or, is used.

annarsligr = annarligr; annarstaðar, elsewhere, v. annarsstaðar.

ANNÁLL, s, m. [Lat. annalis], an annal, record, chronological register, Bs. i. 789, 415. 13. It sometimes, esp. in deeds, appears to mean histories in general (cp. Lat. annales); annálar á tólf bókum norrænir, Vm. in a deed of the 14th century, where it probably means Sagas: fróðir annálar ok vísindabækr, histories, Pr. 402, Al. 29. The true old Icel. annalists cease in the year 1430, and were again resumed in the middle of the 16th century.

ann-boð, n. pl., rare in sing., proncd. amboð, [old Swed. ambud; Ivar Aasen ambo', from önn, labor (?)], agricultural implements, tools; a. nokkur, Dipl. v. 18, Jb. 258.

ann-fetlar, m. pl. a sword belt or shield belt, = handfetlar, Lex. Poët.

ann-friðr, ar, m. [önn], 'work-peace,' work-truce, commonly during April and May, the time when there were to be no lawsuits (Norse), N. G. L. iii. 19, 94, 95.

ann-kostr, m., also spelt öndkostr and önnkostr [önn], used only in the adverbial phrase, fyrir annkost (önn-önd-kost), wilfully, on purpose, Fms. viii. 367; en þó hafa ek fyrir önnkost (on purpose) svá ritað, Skálda 164; en þat er illvirki, er maðr vill spilla fé manna fyrir ö., Grág. i. 5, 130, 416, ii. 93, 94.

ann-kvista, t, ( = ann-kosta?), to take care (önn) of, Grág. ii. 251 ἅπ. λεγ. spelt anquista; the word is somewhat doubtful.

ann-laust, n. adj. easily, without toil, Lex. Poët.

ann-ríkt, n. adj. and annríki, n., eiga a., to be very busy, Rd. 283.

ann-samligr, adj. toilsome, laborious, Sks. 549, 550.

ann-samt, n. adj. in the phrase, eiga a., to be busy, Rd. 283: v. l. for angrsamt, full of cares, Fms. viii. 29.

ann-semð, f. business, trouble, concern; fá a. af e-u and bera a. fyrir e-u, to be troubled, concerned about, Bs. i. 686, 690.

annt, n. adj. [önn], in such phrases as, vera a. um e-t, to be busy, concerned, eager, anxious about, Hkr. i. 115; mörgum var a. heim, many were eager to get home, Fms. xi. 278; hví mun honum svá a. at hitta mik, why is he so eager? Eg. 742; ekki er a. um þat, it is not pressing, Sd. 174; Hánefr kvad sér a. um daga (had so much to do) svá at hann mátti þá eigi at vera, Rd. 241; vera annt til e-s, to be in a very great hurry, eager for, Fms. ii. 150, 41. Compar. annara, in impers. phrases, to be more eager, Fms. ii. 38; mér er ekki a. at vita forlög mín en fram koma, Fs. 19. Superl., vera annast til e-s, to be most eager, Fms. iii. 187: without prep., hvat er nú annt minum eingasyni, what hath my darling son at heart? Gg. 2.

antifona, u, f. antiphon (Gr. word), Hom. 137.

anti-kristr, m. Anti-Christ, Hom. 132, 71.

antvarða, að, to hand over (Germ. word), H. E. i. 435, in a Norse deed.

anugr, adj., commonly önugr, cross, uncivil, froward; also önug-lyndi, f. freaks, ill-temper.

anz, n. reply, now freq. in common language, v. following word.

anza, að, contr. form = andsvara, to pay attention to, take notice of; with dat., (þeim) sem hón a. minnr ok vanrækir, cares less about, Stj. 95, 81, 195.  2. to reply, answer (now freq.); a. e-u and til es; illú mun furða, ef nokkurr a. til, where it means to reply, but without the notion of speaking, Fms. i. 194; Oddr anzaði ok heldr stutt, where it seems to mean to return a greeting, but silently by signs, Fb. i. 254; konungr a. því ekki, a reply to a letter, Fms. ix. 339; hann sat kyrr ok a. engu, Bárd. 180; Mirmant heyrði til ræðu hennar ok a. fá, Mirm. 69.

apa, að, [Engl. to ape; Germ. äffen = deludere], to mock, make sport of; margan hefir auðr apat (a proverb), 'auri sacra fames,' Sl. 34, cp. Hm. 74: pass., apask at e-u, to become the fool of, Sl. 62. Now, a. e-t epter, to mock or imitate as an ape: also, a. e-n útúr, to pervert one's words in a mocking way.

apaldr, rs, m. pl. rar, [O. H. G. aphaltrâ; A. S. apuldre; Dan. abild; Swed. apel], doubtless a southern word, the inflective syllable dr being a mutilation of 'tré,' arbor, a word now almost extinct in Germany, (for a homely, common word such as 'tré' could not have been corrupted in the native tongue);—apaldr thus, etymologically as well as properly, means an apple-tree; fruits and fruit-trees were doubtless

APALDRSGARÐR—APTRHVARF. 23

imported into Scandinavia from abroad; the word appears only in the later heroic poems, such as the Hkv. Hjörv. 6; the verses in Sdm. 5 are in a different metre from the rest of the poem, and probably interpolated, Fas. i. 120; epli á apaldri, Sks. 106; tveir apaldar (with the radical r dropped), Fas. iii. 60; apaldrs flúr, Karl. 200, 311: as the etymological sense in the transmuted word soon got lost, a fresh pleonastic compound was made, viz. apaldrs-tré.  COMPDS: apaldrs-garðr, m. [Dan. abild-gaard], orchard of apple-trees, Þiðr., D. N.  apaldrs-klubba, u, f. club made of an a., El. 22.  apaldrs-tré, n. apple-tree, Þiðr. 58.

apal-grár, adj. dapple-gray, i. e. apple-gray, having the streaky colour of an apple (cp. Fr. pommelé), of a horse, Nj. 274, Karl. 426, Landn. 93 (where it is used of a river horse); of an ox, uxi a. at lit, Ld. 120.

API, a, m. [A. S. apa; Erse apa; Bohem. op; Germ. affe; all of them dropping the initial guttural tenuis: Sanskr. kapi], an ape. It appears in early times in the metaph. sense of a fool in the old poem Hm. and even in a proverb; so also in the poems Fm. 11 and Gm. 34, vide Lex. Poët. A giant is in Edda (Gl.) called api, no doubt because of the stupid nature of the giants. Apavatn, a farm in Icel., probably got its name from a nickname of one of the settlers, at the end of the 9th century. In Hým. 20 a giant is called áttrunnr apa, the kinsman of apes. The passage in the Hm. verse 74 appears to be corrupt, and ought to be restored thus, margr verðr af aurum api, the fool of earthly things, cp. the passage in Sl. 34, margan hefir auðr apat, which is another version of the very same proverb. It is esp. used in the connection, ósvinns-api or ósviðra-api, a baboon, big fool, Gm. l. c., Fm. l. c.; (the passage in Hm. 123 ought perhaps to be restored to ósvinns-apa or ósvinnra-apa in a single word; the sense is no doubt the same in all these passages.) Rare in old prose in the proper sense of ape, vide however 673. 55.  COMPD: apa-mynd, n. form of an ape, Th. 76.

APLI, a, m. in Edda (Gl.),  α. an ox, or  β. a horse, hackney: apli according to Björn s. v. means the embryo of animals, e. g. apla-kálfr and apla-lamb, n. abortive lamb or calf; apalgengr, adj. a hackney, a rough goer. Björn also mentions apalgrýti, n. aspretum, (an unknown and dubious word.)

appella and appellera, að, to cite, summon to the pope (eccles. Lat.), Fms. ix. 339, 486 (v. l.), x. 99, Bs. i. 776, K. Á. 218.

APR, adj. gen. rs (and thus not akin to api), cold, sharp, chilly; en aprasta hríð, sharp fighting, Ó. T. 59; sterkastr ok aprastr við at eiga, the worst to deal with, Þiðr. 183; erida vóru allöpr tilbrigðin (cold, malignant), 89; því föru vér aprir, we feel sad, chilly, a verse written in 1047, Lex. Poët.: a word quite obsolete. (Björn however mentions it as a living word.) Mod. Icel. napr, adj. nearly in the same sense, cold, chilly, of weather; cold, spiteful, snappish, of temper: nepja, u, f. a chill, piercing cold: nepringr, m. id.: [are these words identical (?).]

aprligr, adj. cold, chilly, of weather; a. veðr, Vápn. 11. MS.

APTAN and aftan, s, m., dat. aptni, pl. aptnar, sometimes spelt apni and apnar, [Hel. aband; Germ. abend; Engl. even, evening; in Ulf. we only find andanahti = Gr. ὀψέ, ὀψία; Swed. afton, Dan. aften,—as it is often spelt], evening; not very freq. in prose, where kveld is the common word. It prop. meant the time from 3 till 9 o'clock, like the Old English 'even;' miðraptan (middle-eve) is 6 o'clock; at 9 o'clock the night sets in, v. náttmál: a distinction is made between aptan and kveld, einn aptan at kveldi, an afternoon when the kveld (twilight) sets in, Edda 35: but gener. = kveld, um aptaninn síð er myrkt var orðit, Fms. iv. 308, viii. 228, xi. 113; at aptni, 623. 55, Fms. viii. 201, Grág. i. 146; of aptna (apna), Grág. ii. 224; á öptnum, Bjarn. 23; miðraptan, Hrafn. 9, Nj. 153; aptans bíðr óframs sök, a laggard's suit bides till even (a proverb).

aptan and aftan, adv. prop. from behind, behind, opp. to framan; augu a. í hnakka, N. G. L. i. 339; a. á milli herða, Vígl. 26; þá greip hann a. undir hendr honum (from behind), Eg. 747; hala sem leo, ok gadd í a., ... at the tip of the tail, Al. 168: now aptan í is opp. to framan í.  II. fyrir a., as prep. with acc., behind, opp. to fyrir framan; ek hjó varginn í sundr fyrir a. bóguna, I hewed the wolf in sunder, just behind the withers, Nj. 95; standa fyrir a., to stand behind, Fas. ii. 516.  β. a. at, with dat.; ganga, koma a. at e-m, to approach from behind.

aptan-drykkja, u, f. an evening carouse, Pr. 419.

aptan-langt, n. adj. even-long, all the evening, Karl. 95.

aptan-skæra, u, f. twilight, Lat. crepusculum (cp. morginskæra, dawn, aurora), Sighvat (in a verse).

aptan-stjarna, u, f. the evening star, Al. 54, Stj. 92; now kveld-stjarna.

aptan-söngr, m. even-song, evening service, Fms. vii. 152, K. Þ. K. 58.

aptari and aptastr, compar. and superl. latter, posterior, and last, v. eptri, epztr.

aptarla and aptarliga, adv. behind, far in the rear, Lex. Poët. (freq.)

aptna, að, to become evening; þartil at aptnaði, Fms. iii. 181. Dep., þá aptnaðisk, Greg. 51; now kvelda.

APTR and aftr (aptar, N. G. L. i. 347), adv., compar. aptar, superl. aptast, [Ulf. aftra = πάλιν], the spelling with p is borne out by the Gr. ἄψ.  I. Loc. back, back again:1. WITH MOTION, connected with verbs denoting to go or move, such as fara, ganga, koma, leiða, senda, snúa, sækja, etc., where aptr almost answers to Lat. re-, remittere, reducere, reverti ...; gefa a., reddere; bera a., refellere; kalla a., revocare; reka a., repellere: a. hverfr lygi þá er sönnu mætir (a proverb), a lie turns back when it meets truth, Bs. i. 639. 'aptr' implies a notion a loco or in locum, 'eptir' that of remaining in loco; thus skila a. means remittere; skilja eptir, relinquere; taka a., recipere, in a bad sense; taka eptir, animum attendere; fara a., redire; vera e., remanere, etc.; fara, snúa, koma, senda, sækja, hverfa a., Nj. 260, 281, Fms. x. 395, iv. 300, Edda 30, Eg. 271, Eb. 4, Fs. 6; færa a., to repay, N. G. L. i. 20; snúast a., Lækn. 472. Without actual motion,—as of sounds; þeir heyrðu a. í rjóðrit óp, they heard shouting behind them, Fms. iv. 300; nú skal eigi prestr ganga svá langt frá kirkju at hann heyri eigi klokkur hljóð aftar ( = aftr), he shall not go out of the sound of the bells, N. G. L. i. 347.  β. backwards; fram ok a., to and fro (freq.); reið hann suðr aptr, rode back again, Nj. 29; aptr á bak, supine, bent or turned back, Eg. 380; þeir settu hnakka á bak sér a., bent their necks backwards in order to be able to see, Edda 30; skreiðast a. af hestinum, to slip down backwards from the croup of a horse, to dismount, Fs. 65.  γ. connected with many verbs such as, láta, lúka a., to close, shut, opp. to láta, lúka upp, Fær. 264, Eg. 7, Landn. 162; in a reverse sense to Lat. recludere, reserere, rescindere, resolvere.2. WITHOUT MOTION = aptan, the hind part, the back of anything; þat er maðr fram (superne), en dýr a., the fore part a man, the hind part a beast, 673. 2; síðan lagði hann at tennrnar a. við huppinn, he caught the hip with his teeth, Vígl. 21. The English aft when used of a ship; breði a. ok fram, stern and stem (of a ship), Fms. ix. 310; Sigurðr sat a. á kistunni, sate aft on the stern-chest, vii. 201; a. ok frammi, of the parts of the body (of a seal), Sks. 179. Compar. aptarr, farther back, Fms. vi. 76.  II. Temp. again, πάλιν, iterum: this use of the word, general as it is at present, hardly appears in old writers; they seem to have had no special expression for again, but instead of it said síðan, enn, or used a periphrase, á nýja leik, öðru sinni, annat sinn, or some other substitute. It is, however, very freq. in Goth. aftra = πάλιν, Swed. åter, Dan. atter; some passages in the Sagas come near to the mod. use, e. g. bæta a., restituere, to give back (but not temp.); segja friði a., to recal, N. G. L. i. 103; hann maelti at engi mundi þann fald a. falda, El. 20, uncertain whether loc. (backward) or iterum, most likely the former. It is now used in a great many compounds, answering to Lat. re-, cp. also endr.

aptra, að, to take back, hinder, withdraw; with dat., a. ferð sinni, to desist from, delay, Fms. x. 17; Þorgrímr bað þá niðr setjast, ok skal eigi boði a., i. e. you shall be welcome as before, Valla L. 217; eigi mun ek a. mér (hesitate) at þessu, Grett. 116 A; hversu þeir öptruðu sér þá er þeir kómu á þingit, how they hesitated, wavered, withdrew, Bs. i. 741, Flor. 7: now a. e-u is to hinder, prohibit.

aptran and öptrun, f. a revoking, renouncing, keeping back, 655 xxvii.

aptr-bati, adj. ind. convalescent, on the road to recovery, Al. 150, Korm. 220: now used as a masc. (-bati, a, m.), vera í aptrbata, to be getting better, Fas. iii. 524.

aptr-beiðiligr, adj. reciprocal, Skálda 195.

aptr-borinn, adj. part. regenerate, born again; þars hón aptrborin aldri verði, the sense is doubtful, it seems to mean = endrborin, regenerate; it will suit the context only if we suppose that suicides could not be born again; they certainly could walk again, v. aptrganga. Högni seems to fear that, if she died a natural death, Brynhilda would perhaps be endrborin, Skv. 3. 44.

aptr-byggi, ja, m., esp. in pl. stern-sitters (opp. to frambyggjar) in a ship of war, Fms. ii. 312, Hkr. iii. 243.

aptr-dráttr, m. the undertow, outward suck of the tide, Barl. 130.

aptr-drepa, u, f. relapse, shock, adversity; meðan þeir vissu sér enga ván a., Bs. i. 752, Finnb. 312.

aptr-elding, f. = elding, dawning, Anal. 193.

aptr-ferð and aptr-för, f. return, Eg. 279.

aptr-færsla, u, f. bringing back, Gþl. 361.

aptr-ganga, u, f. [ganga aptr], a ghost, apparition, the French revenant; about this superstition vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 222-317, Grett. ch. 34-37 (the ghost Glám), Eb. ch. 34, 50-55, 63 (Thorolf Bægifót), Ld. ch. 17, Sd. ch. 17-22, 30 (Klaufi), Háv. 41, Flóam. ch. 28, etc. etc.

aptr-gangr, m. = aptrganga, Grett. ch. 78 new Ed.

aptr-gjald, n. repayment, Bs. i. 734.

aptr-hald, n. a checking, holding back.COMPD: aptrhalds-maðr, m. who impedes a thing, Bs. i. 733.

aptr-hlaup, n. a hurling back, recoil, Fs. 158.

aptr-hnekking, f. a bending backwards, metaph., Fms. ix. 509.

aptr-hryggr, m. the chine, the lower part of the back, of a slaughtered animal, Dipl. vi.

aptr-hvarf, n. a turning back, return, Sturl. ii. 16; illr aftrhvarfs, disinclined to face the enemy again, Fms. vii. 325.  β. relapse, Fms. ii. 47, where it is used of apostasy. Since the Reformation always used by theologians in a good sense, repentance, turning away from sin; iðran ok a. are freq. used together, iðran being repentance, the internal condition, aptrhvarf the movement away from sin, or the repentance put into act.

24 APTRKALL—ARI.

aptr-kall, n. withdrawal, recalling, Fr.

aptr-kast, n. a hurling back, repulse, Stj. 288.

aptr-kemba, u, f. one whose hair is combed back, Finnb. 250.

aptr-kváma and later form aptrkoma, u, f. return, coming back, Sks. 550 B; Fms. xi. 312, a vellum MS. of the end of the 15th century, has aptrkoma.

aptr-kvæmt, n. adj. return from exile, used substantively as a law term in the phrase, eiga (eigi) a., of a temporary or lifelong exile; þat varðar skóggang... eigi eigi a. nema lof biskupa ok lögréttumanna fáist framar, ... not to be suffered to return from exile unless the leave of the bishops and the legislature be first got, Grág. i. 347: in a gener. sense, sýnist mér sem engum várum sé a., ef hans er eigi hefnt, it seems to me that not one of us can shew his face again, if he be not revenged, Glúm. 332.

aptr-lausn, f. redemption, ransom, Hom. 118; a law term, right of redeeming, Gþl. 304: hence COMPD aptrlausnar-jörð, f. land which is redeemable, N. G. L. i. 344.

aptr-mjór, adj. tapering behind, Edda 40 (of the salmon's tail).

aptr-mundr, m. [munr], in the phrase, vera a. at e-u, to want a thing back again, Fas. iii. 278.

aptr-reka and aptr-reki, adj. ind. (navig.), verðr a., to be driven back by stress of weather, Landn. 148, Bs. i. 76, Grág. i. 274; a. skip, Ann. 1347, Bs. Laur. S.

aptr-rekstr, rs, m. a driving back, repulse, Grág. ii. 230 (of cattle grazing).

aptr-sjá, f. regret, longing, v. eptirsjá.

aptr-velting, f. recoil, rolling back, Stj. 49.

ap-ynja, u, f. [old Swed. epin], a she-ape, Stj. 68, 95, Sks. 115.

AR, n. (qs. arð?), an atom in a sunbeam, mote, Germ. sonnenstäubchen, vide Vídal. Post. 276 (Ed. 1829), Njóla.

arða, u, f. medic. scabrum, a little wart.

arðga, að, to make upright, and arðigr, adj. erect, arduus, v. örð-.

ARÐR, rs, m. [Lat. aratrum; Gael. arad; cp. erja, Ulf. arjan, arare; A. S. erian; Old Engl. ear, etc.; in Norse ar or al is a small plough], a sort of plough, probably different in size and shape from plógr, which is a later word, of foreign stamp, as are all that have p for their initial letter. The poem Rm. distinguishes between both, göra arðr (acc.) and keyra plóg, 19. The first colonisers of Iceland used arðr, as shewn by Landn. 35 (relating events of the year 875); hann átti einn oxa, ok lét hann þrælana draga arðrinn; eykr fyrir plógi eðr arðri (plough or ard), N. G. L. ii. 115; ef maðr stel jarni af arðri eðr plógi, id.; höggva má maðr sér til plógs eðr arðs (gen. dropping the radical r), id.; draga arðr, Al. 52; arðri (dat.), Karl. 471, Mar. (Fr.), Stj.: um allt þat er miklu varðar er betri sígandi arðr en svífandi (emend. of Dr. Hallgrim Scheving), a proverb, better a slow but deep trenching plough than a quick and shallow one, Bs. i. 139; the old arðr was probably bulky and heavy.  2. metaph. in Icel. at present arðr (gen. arðs, arðar, Snót 90), as well as plógr, means gain, produce, profit: arðsamr, adj. profitable.COMPD: arðs-geldingr, m. a plough-ox, Fms. vii. 21.

arðr-för, f. a plough-furrow, trench, Stj. 593, 1 Kings xviii. 32.

arðr-gangr, m. a coulter, goad, N. G. L. iii. 198.

arðr-járn, n. a coulter, ox goad, Stj. 386, Judges iii. 31.

arðr-oxi, a, m. a plough-ox, Grág. i. 502, Jb. 346.

arfa, u, f. [Ulf. arbio], an heiress, N. G. L. i. 191 (rare).

arf-borinn, adj. part., prop. a legitimate son or daughter, Fms. i. 86; defined, sá er a. er kominn er til alls réttar, N. G. L. ii. 211. Freq. spelt árborinn by suppressing the f (so N. G. L. ii. 50), and used in Norse law of a freeman, v. the quotation above from N. G. L., which clearly shews the identity of the two words, i. 171; algildis vitni tveggja manna árborinna ok skilvænna, ii. 211: the alliterated phrase alnir ok árbornir (the phrase aldir og óbornir may be a corruption from arb.), freeborn and freebred, 310. The passage in Stor. verse 2 is in Lex. Poët. explained by olim ablatus: the poet probably meant to say genuine, pure, in a metaph. sense, of the true poetic beverage, not the adulterated one, mentioned in the Edda 49; the cup from the right cask.

arf-gengr, adj. entitled to inherit, legitimate heir, Grág. i. 178, Eg. 345.

arfi, a, m. [Ulf. arbia; O. H. G. arpis, erpo; Germ. erbe; Hel. abaro = filius; A. S. eafora, afora per metath.], an heir, heiress (and poët. a son in gener.): with gen. pers., arfar veganda, his heirs, Gþl. 131; þar næst var Ósk hennar a., her heiress, heir to her property, Ld. 58; Guðríðr ok Þorgerðr lögligir arfar (heiresses) Sölva, Dipl. v. 1: with gen. of the thing, er hann þá a. hvársttveggja, heir of both things, Grág. i. 221; a. óðala, Gþl. 294; a. at e-u, heir to a property, Sturl. ii. 197. Not freq., erfingi being the common word.  II. an ox, bull, Edda (Gl.), vide arfr.

ARFI, sometimes spelt arbi, a, m. chickweed, alsine media; arfa-sáta, u, f. a weed rick, Nj. 194.

arfingi, ja, m. an heir, Eg. (in a verse), vide erfingi.

arf-kaup, n. sum paid for inheritance, Grág. i. 200.

arf-leiða, dd, to adopt as an heir, = ættleiða, Jb. 144 A.

arf-leiðing, f. adoption, Ann. 1271.

arf-nyti, ja, m. (poët.) an heir, Eb. (in a verse).

ARFR, s, m. [Ulf. arbi, neut.; A. S. yrfe.] It originally meant cattle, pecus, pecunia, as may be inferred from the A. S. orf = pecus, cattle, and yrfe = opes; Hel. arf and urf; Ormul. errfe; v. Ihre, Glossar., and Grimm R. A. p. 467. Edda (Gl.) also mentions an arfi or arfr, bos, v. above.  I. inheritance, patrimony; taka arf eptir e-n, Grág. i. 170, 178; hon á allan arf eptir mik, is my sole heir, Nj. 3, Eb. 162, Gþl. 252.  II. a bull, v. above.  COMPDS: arfa-skipti, n. and arfs-sókn, f., v. arf- below, Gþl. 267, Grág. i. 170.  arfa-þáttr, m. section of law treating of inheritance, Grág. i. 170.

arf-rán, n. injustice, cheating in matters of inheritance, Háv. 52.

arf-ræning, f. id., Mar. 656.

arf-ræningr, m. one stripped of his inheritance, Al. 105.

arf-sal, n. cession of right of inheritance, Grág. i. 205, 225, 227, (cp. branderfð, Dan. fledföre, mod. Icel. prófenta, and gefa prófentu sína); a law term, to hand over one's own property to another man on condition of getting succour and support for life. In the time of the Commonwealth, arfsal had a political sense, and was a sort of 'clientela;' the chiefs caused rich persons, freedmen, and monied men of low birth to bequeath them all their wealth, and in return supported them in lawsuits during life. Such is the case in Vápn. 13, Hænsaþór. S. ch. 7, Eb. ch. 31; eptir þat handsalaði Ulfarr (a wealthy freedman) Arnkatli fé sitt allt, ok gerðist hann (viz. Arnkell) þá varnaðarmaðr (protector) Úlfars: v. also Þórð. S., hann bjó á landi Skeggja ok hafði görzt arfsalsmaðr hans (his client), 50: it was humiliating; engar mátti hann (the bishop) ölmusur gefa af líkamlegri eign, heldr var hann haldinn sem arfsalsmaðr, Sturl. ii. 119. To the chiefs in olden times it was a source of wealth and influence, often in an unfair way.  COMPDS: arfsals-maðr, m., v. above.  arfsals-máldagi, a, m. a deed concerning arfsal, Grág. i. 227.

arf-skipti, n. sharing of arfr, Grág. i. 172, Gþl. 266, Fas. iii. 39.

arf-skot, n. fraud, cheating in matters of inheritance, Eb. 178, Grág. i. 202, 203, 267.

arf-sókn, f. a suit in a case of arfr, Gþl. 263.

arf-stóll, m. an hereditary throne, Eg. (in a verse).

arf-svik, n. pl. fraud, cheating in matters of arfr, Eb. 178, Gþl. 254, 292.

arf-svipting, f. disinheriting, cheating in matters of arfr, Stj. 425.

arf-tak, n. and arf-taka, u, f. the act of receiving arfsal; taka e-n arftaki, Grág. i. 267, 268, 187, 229.  COMPD: arftöku-maðr, m. an heir, successor to an inheritance, Grág. i. 62, Sturl. i. 98, Fms. v. 53.

arf-takari, a, m. and arf-taki, a, m. = arftökumaðr, Jb. 148 A, N. G. L. i. 234, Barl. 199.

arf-tekinn, adj. part. taken by inheritance, Fms. xi. 306.

arf-tekja, u, f. = arftaka, Grág. i. 219.  COMPD: arftekju-land, n. land taken by inheritance, patrimony, Fms. i. 117.

arf-tæki, n. = arftaka, Stj. 232.

arf-tækr, adj. = arfgengr, Eg. 343.

arfuni, a, m. [an old obsol. form], an heir, Edda 108 and in the compd skaporfoni (the vowel change is caused by the following o), legal heir, q. v.

arf-ván, f. hereditary expectancy, Grág. i. 200, Jb. 177, Sturl. i. 94.

arf-vörðr, m. [A. S. yrfeveard; Hel. erbivard], (poët.) an heir, Lex. Poët.

arf-þegi, ja, m. [cp. Ulf. arbinumja], (poët.) an heir, Id. 28.

arga-fas, n. [argr, craven, and fas = flas by dropping the l (?); flas, n. means praecipitatio, and flasa, að, precipitare, which are common words; this etymology is confirmed by the spelling of the word in Gþl. 188, where some of the MSS. have faas or fias, the last is perh. a false reading = flas; fas, n. gait, manner, is a modern word: v. Pál Vídal. in Skýr.; his etymology, however, is doubtless bad], a law term, a feint, a cowardly assault, an aiming at one's body and drawing deadly weapons without carrying the threat into effect, termed 'a coward's assault;' in Icel. it was punishable by fjörbaugsgarðr, cp. Grág.; ef maðr mundar til manns ok stöðvar sjálfr, ok varðar fjörbaugsgarð, ok á hinn eigi vígt í gegn (the injured party must not kill the offender on the spot) skal stefna heiman ok kveðja til níu heimilisbúa þess á þingi er sóttr er, Vsl. ch. 90: ef maðr hleypr at manni, ok heldr hann sér sjálfr; þat er a. ok er þat sektalaust (liable to no punishment, only a dishonourable act; so the Norse law), N. G. L. i. 164, Gþl. 188.

arga-skattr, m. an abusive word, a dog's tax, Ölkofr. 36.

arg-hola, u, f. scortum, Hb. 31 (1865).

ARGR, adj. [Paul Diac. inertem et inutilem et vulgari verbo 'arga,' 6. 24; A. S. earg, ignavus; the Scottish arch or argh, v. Jamieson sub voce; and the mod. Engl. arch, archness; Germ. arg; Gr. ἀργός], emasculate, effeminate, an abusive term; hefir þú börn borit, ok hugða ek þat args aðal, Ls. 24; mik munu æsir argan kalla, ef ek bindast læt brúðarlíni, Þkv. 17: it is more abusive than thrall, cp. the proverb, þrællinn hefnir en argr aldri, a thrall takes revenge, but not the a., Grett. 92; and, argr er sá sem engu verst (a proverb), he is truly an 'argr' who does not defend himself; argr and ragr are synonymous, vide the Grág.: þau eru orð þrjrú er skóggang varða öll, ef maðr kallar mann ragan eðr stroðinn eðr sorðinn, ii. 147.  2. metaph. a wretch, craven, coward; örg vættr, Fas. ii. 254, Fs. 147: cp. ergi and úargr.

arg-skapr, m. cowardice, cowardliness, Fas. i. 487 (in a verse).

arg-vítugr, adj. infamous, (cant.)

ARI, a, m. [Ulf. ara; O. H. G. aro; cp. Germ. adler = edel-aro; cp. also the lengthened Icel. form örn, A. S. earn, Engl. earn], an eagle, rare and

ARAHREIÐR—AT. 25

mostly in poetry; örn is the common word; Hom. 89, Stj. 71, Al. 160. In the Gloss. Royal Libr. Old Coll. Copenh. 1812 aquila is translated by ari.COMPD: ara-hreiðr, n. an eyrie, nest of an eagle, Fagrsk. 146. Ari is also a common pr. name.

arin-dómr m. gossip, 'judgment at the hearth-side,' Hom.; now palldómr.

arin-eldr, m. hearth-fire, Lat. focus; þeir eru a., there are three hearths (in a Norse dwelling), Gþl. 376.

arin-elja, u, f. a concubine if kept at home, med. Lat. focaria; the sense defined in N. G. L. i. 356, 16 (Norse).

arin-greypr, adj. occurs thrice in poetry as an epithet of the benches in a hall and of a helmet, encompassing the hearth, or shaped as an eagle's bill, Akv. 1, 3. 17.

arin-haukr, m. a chimney-sitter, an old man; in the phrase, áttræðr er a. ok eldaskári, an octogenarian is an a. and a poker, Lex. Run.

arin-hella, u, f. [Norse aarhelle or aarstadhyll, the pavement around the hearth], hearth-stone; í a. þar í stofunni, Bs. i. 680. Now in Icel. used in nursery tales of treasures or the like hidden under the arinhella.

ARINN s, m., dat. aarni = árni, Fs. 42, Rm. 2, [a word still freq. in Denmark and in Norway; Dan. arne, arnested; Norse aarstad, Ivar Aasen: in Icel. it is very rare], a hearth, Fs. (Vd.) 42; kom maðr um nóttina ok tók glæðr af árni, Sturl. ii. 101; þrjá vissa ek elda (fires), þrjá vissa ek arna (hearth-stones), Gh. 10; mæli malts af arni hverjum, viz. three for each farm (cp. arineldar, Gþl. 376), Hkr. ii. 384, Fms. x. 398, v. 101.  2. as a law term, used in the phrase, fara eldi ok arni, to remove one's homestead, fire and hearth together, Grág. ii. 253, 334 (where iarni is a corrupt reading). Now in Icel. eldstó.  3. metaph. an elevated balcony, pavement, story, scaffold; stafir fjórir stóðu upp ok syllur upp í milli, ok var þar a. á, Fms. viii. 429; í miðju húsinu var a. víðr (raised floor) ... en uppi á arninum var sæng mikil, v. 339, Karl. 190, Stj. 308.  β. of a ship, a hatchway, Edda (Gl.)  COMPDS: arins-horn, n. chimney-piece, chimney-corner; hann á mold at taka sem í lögum er mælt, taka at arinshornum fjórum ok í öndvegis sæti, of an act of conveyance, N. G. L. i. 96, cp. Eb. ch. 4, Landn. 254: arinn is symbolical of the sacredness of home, just as stalli is of a temple, or an altar of a church: the phrase, at drekka at arinshorni, Hkr. i. 43, reminds one of the large chimney-corners in old English farms.  arins-járn, n. iron belonging to a hearth, a poker, used in ordeals (járnburðr); karlmaðr skal ganga til arinsjárns en kona til ketiltaks, the man shall betake him to the poker and the woman shall grasp the kettle, N. G. L. i. 389.

ARKA, að, to limp, hobble, of a sluggish gait; láta arka at auðnu, to let matters take their own course, slow and sure like fate, Nj. 185. v. l., Am. 96.

arka- or arkar-, what belongs to a chest, v. örk.

arma, u, f. misery (ἅπ. λεγ.), Mart. 123; Martinus sá örmu á héranum; now, sjá aumr á e-m, to feel pity for: cp. Germ. arm (poor, wretched).

arm-baugr, m. an armlet, Ls. 13.

arm-brysti, n. [Engl. armbrust; old Dan. arburst], a cross bow, Fas. i. 503 (for. word).

arm-fylking, f. a wing (armr) of an army, Fms. x. 403; more freq. fylkingar armr.

armingi, ja, m., in Norse sense, a poor fellow, Hom. 117, 119: in Icel. a wretch.

arm-leggr, jar, and s, m. the arm, lacertus; hann fékk hvergi sveigt hans armleggi, Grett. 61; ofan eptir a. mjök at ölnboga, Sturl. i. 71, Symb. 25, Stj. 265. Exod. vi. 1 (with a strong band), Anecd. 4 (where it is opp. to handleggr, the fore arm). Sometimes armleggr and handleggr are used indifferently; ek mun bera þik á handlegg mér, I will carry thee on my arm; but below, ok bar þær í vinstra a. sér, Grett. ch. 67, Karl. 517.

armliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. pitifully, Fms. iv. 56, Gkv. 3. 11.

ARMR, s, m. [Lat. armus; Ulf. arms; Engl. arm; A. S. earm; Germ. arm].  1. Lat. brachium in general, the arm from the shoulder to the wrist; sometimes also used partic. of the upper arm or fore arm; the context only can decide. It is rare in Icel.; in prose armleggr and handleggr are more common; but it is often used in dignified style or in a metaph. sense; undir brynstúkuna í arminn, lacertus (?), Fms. viii. 387; gullhringr á armi, in the wrist, Odd. 18; þá lýsti af höndum hennar bæði lopt ok lög, Edda 22, where the corresponding passage of the poem Skm. reads armar, armar lýsa, her arms beamed, spread light.β. poët. phrases; sofa e-m á armi, leggja arma um, to embrace, cp. Germ. umarmen; koma á arm e-m, of a woman marrying, to come into one's embraces, Fms. xi. 100, Lex. Poët. Rings and bracelets are poët. called armlog, armblik, armlinnr, armsól, armsvell, the light, snake, ice of the arm or wrist; armr sólbrunninn, the sunburnt arms, Rm. 10.  2. metaph. the wing of a body, opp. to its centre; armar úthafsins, the arms of the ocean ... the bays and firths, Rb. 466; armar krossins, Hom. 103; a wing of a house or building, Sturl. ii. 50; borgar armr, the flanks of a castle, Fms. v. 280; the ends, extremities of a wave, Bs. ii. 50; the yard-arm, Mag. 6; esp. used of the wings of a host in battle (fylkingar armr), í annan arm fylkingar, Fms. i. 169, 170, vi. 406, 413, Fær. 81; in a sea-fight, of the line of ships, Fms. vi. 315; the ends of a bed, sofa upp í arminn, opp. to til fóta; and in many other cases.

ARMR, adj. [Ulf. arms; A. S. earm; Germ. arm], never occurs in the sense of Lat. inops, but only metaph. (as in Goth.), viz.:  1. Norse, poor, in a good sense (as in Germ.); þær armu sálur, poor souls, Hom. 144; sá armi maðr, poor fellow, 118.  2. Icel. in a bad sense, wretched, wicked, nearly always used so, where armr is an abusive, aumr a benevolent term: used in swearing, at fara, vera, manna armastr; þá mælti hann til Sigvalda, at hann skyldi fara m. a., Fms. xi. 141; en allir mæltu, at Egill skyldi fara allra manna a., Eg. 699; enn armi Bjarngrímr, the wretch, scoundrel Bjarngrim, Fær. 239; völvan arma, the accursed witch, Fms. iii. 214; þetta arma naut, Fas. iii. 498; örm vættr, Gkv. 1. 32, Þkv. 29, Sdm. 23, Og. 32; en arma kerling, the vile old witch, Grett. 154, Fas. i. 60; Inn armi, in exclamations, the wretch!

arm-skapaðr, adj. part. [A. S. earmsceapen], poor, miserable, misshapen, Hom. 114, 107 (Norse).

arm-vitugr, adj. (in Mart. 123 spelt harmv.), charitable, compassionate; Glúmr er a. ok vel skapi farinn, Rd. 308; er hann lítt a., hard-hearted, Sturl. iii. 209; a. við fátækja menn, Bs. i. 356.

ar-mæða, u, f. (qs. ör-mæða), distress, toil, Fas. i. 405, Bs. i. 849.

arnar-, belonging to an eagle, v. örn.

arning, f. [erja, arare], earing, tillage, ploughing, Bs. i. 350, 732. 17.

arn-súgr, m. (an ἅπ. λεγ.) periphr. from the poem Haustlöng, the 'sough' (Scot.) or rushing sound caused by the flight of an eagle (örn), Edda 16.

ARR, n. [Sanskr. arus, Engl. and Scot. arr], a scar, v. örr.

ars, m. podex, (later by metath. rass, Bs. i. 504. l. 2, etc.), Sturl. ii. 17, 39 C; ekki er þat sem annarr smali, engi er skaptr fyrir a. aptr hali, not like other cattle, having no tail, in a libel of the year 1213, Sturl. ii. 17.  COMPD: ars-görn, f. gut of the anus, Nj. rass.

ARTA, u, f. a bird, = Swed. årta, anas querquedula Linn., Edda (Gl.)

articulera, að, to articulate (Lat. word), Stj.

asalabia, u, f. an animal, perh. the sable; mjúkt skinn af dýri því er a. heitir, Bær. 19.

ASI, a, m. hurry (mod. word); cp. yss and ös.

ASKA, u, f. [a common Teut. word], ashes, lit. and metaph., Fms. i. 9, Stj. 208; mold ok aska, Nj. 161, 208; dust eitt ok a., 655 xi. 3: pl. öskum, Stj. 74 (transl. from Latin).  COMPDS: ösku-bakaðr, part. baked in ashes, Stj. 393. Judg. vii.  ösku-dagr, m. Ash-Wednesday, Fms. viii: also ösku-óðinsdagr, Stj. 40.  ösku-dreifðr, part. besprinkled with ashes, Sturl. ii. 186.  ösku-dyngja, u, f. a heap of ashes, Fas. iii. 217.  ösku-fall, n. a fall of ashes (from a volcano), Ann. 1300.  ösku-fölr, adj. ashy-pale, pale as ashes, Mag. 4.  ösku-haugr, m. a heap of ashes, Eb. 94.  ösku-stó, f. ash-pit.

ask-limar, f. pl. branches of an ash, Hkv. 2. 48.

ask-maðr, m. [A. S. äscmen, vide Adam Brem. below], a viking, pirate, a cognom., Eg., Fms., Hkr.

ASKR, s, m. [A. S. äsc, whence many Engl. local names; Germ. esche], an ash, fraxinus, Edda (Gl.); a. ygdrasils, Edda 10, 11, Pr. 431.  2. anything made of ash:α. a spear, prop. ashen spear shaft (cp. δόρυ μείλινον, ἐϋμμελίης), Þiðr. 304, Edda (Gl.)  β. a small ship, a bark (built of ash, cp. δόρυ, abies); en þeir sigla burt á einum aski, Fas. ii. 206, i. 421: it appears only two or three times in Icel. prose writers; hence may be explained the name of ascmanni, viking, pirate, in Adam Brem. ch. 212 [A. S. äscmen], cp. askmaðr.  γ. a small vessel of wood (freq. in Icel., and used instead of deep plates, often with a cover (asklok) in carved work); stórir askar fullir af skyri, Eg. 549, 550; cp. kyrnu-askr, skyr-askr.  δ. a Norse measure for liquids, equal to four bowls, or sixteen justur, Gþl. 525, N. G. L. i. 328, H. E. i. 396, Fms. vii. 203.  COMPDS: aska-smiðr, m. ship-wright (vide β.), Eg. 102.  aska-spillir, m. a ship-spoiler, i. e. a pirate, a cognom., Glúm., Landn.; v. l. akraspillir, less correctly.

askraki, a, m. probably a Finnish word; bjór (beaver), savala (sable) ok askraka (?), some animal with precious fur, Eg. 57; an ἅπ. λεγ.

askran, f. [askrast, to shudder, Ivar Aasen], horror, v. afskr-, B. K. 107.

ask-viðr, ar, m. ash-tree, Str. 17.

asna, u, f., Lat. asina, a she-ass, Stj. 183.  COMPD: ösnuligr, adj., ö. steinn, 655. Matth. xviii. 6, transl. of ὀνικὸς λίθος, the upper millstone.

ASNI, a, m., Lat. asinus, an ass, Mart. 131, Fas. iii. 416, Band. 12, = asellus, 1812. 16.  COMPDS: asna-höfuð, n. donkey-head, Stj.  asna-kjálki, a, m. jawbone of an ass, Stj., Greg. 48.

aspiciens-bók, f. a service-book, Vm. 6, 117, 139, Am. 35, Pm., D. I., etc.

aspiciens-skrá, f. id., Pm. 104, 75, etc.

ASSA, u, f. (qs. arnsa), an eagle.

AT and að, prep., often used ellipt. dropping the case and even merely as an adverb, [Lat. ad; Ulf. at = πρός and παρά, A. S. ät; Engl. at; Hel. ad = apud; O. H. G. az; lost in mod. Germ., and rare in Swed. and Dan.; in more freq. use in Engl. than any other kindred language, Icel. only excepted]:—the mod. pronunciation and spelling is (); this form is very old, and is found in Icel. vellum MSS. of the 12th century, e. g. aþ, 623. 60; yet in earlier times it was sounded with a tenuis, as we may infer from rhymes, e. g. jöfurr hyggi at | hve ek yrkja fat, Egill: Sighvat also makes it rhyme with a t. The verse by Thorodd—þar vastu at er fjáðr klæðið þvat (Skálda 162)—is hardly intelligible unless we accept the spelling with an aspirate (), and say that þvað is = þvá = þváði, lavabat; it may be that by the time of Thorodd and Ari the pure old pronunciation was lost, or is

26 AT.

'þvat' simply the A. S. þvât, secuit? The Icelanders still, however, keep the tenuis in compounds before a vowel, or before h, v, or the liquids l, r, thus—atyrða, atorka, athöfn, athugi, athvarf, athlægi; atvinna, atvik; atlaga, atlíðandði (slope), atriði, atreið, atróðr: but aðdjúpr, aðfinsla (critic), aðferð, aðkoma, aðsókn, aðsúgr (crowding), aðgæzla. In some words the pronunciation is irregular, e. g. atkvæði not aðkv-; atburðr, but aðbúnaðr; aðhjúkran not athjúkran; atgörvi not aðgörfi. At, to, towards; into; against; along, by; in regard to; after.

Mostly with dat.; rarely with acc.; and sometimes ellipt.—by dropping the words 'home,' 'house,' or the like—with gen.

 WITH DAT.

A. Loc.  I. WITH MOTION; gener. the motion to the borders, limits of an object, and thus opp. to frá:  1. towards, against, with or without the notion of arrival, esp. connected with verbs denoting motion (verba movendi et eundi), e. g. fara, ganga, koma, lúta, snúa, rétta at...; Otkell laut at Skamkatli, O. louted (i. e. bowed down) towards S., Nj. 77, Fms. xi. 102; sendimaðrinn sneri (turned) hjöltum sverðsins at konungi, towards the king, i. 15; hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge towards A., Nj. 220; rétta e-t at e-m, to reach, hand over, Ld. 132; ganga at, to step towards, Ísl. ii. 259.  2. denoting proximity, close up to, up to; Brynjólfr gengr ... allt at honum, B. goes quite up to him, Nj. 58; Gunnarr kom þangat at þeim örunum, G. reached them even there with his arrows, 115; þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters, id.; reið maðr at þeim (up to them), 274; þeir höfðu rakit sporin allt at (right up to) gammanum, Fms. i. 9; komu þeir at sjó fram, came down to the sea, Bárð. 180.  3. without reference to the space traversed, to or at; koma at landi, to land, Ld. 38, Fms. viii. 358; ríða at dyrurn, Boll. 344; hlaupa at e-m, to run up to, run at, Fms. vii. 218, viii. 358; af sjáfarganginum er hann gekk at landinu, of the surf dashing against the shore, xi. 6; vísa ólmum hundi at manni, to set a fierce hound at a man, Grág. ii. 118; leggja e-n at velli, to lay low, Eg. 426, Nj. 117; hníga at jörðu, at grasi, at moldu, to bite the dust, to die, Njarð. 378; ganga at dómi, a law term, to go into court, of a plaintiff, defendant, or bystander, Nj. 87 (freq.)  4. denoting a motion along, into, upon; ganga at stræti, to walk along the street, Korm. 228, Fms. vii. 39; at ísi, on the ice, Skálda 198, Fms. vii. 19, 246, viii. 168, Eb. 112 new Ed. (á is perh. wrong); máttu menn ganga bar yfir at skipum einum, of ships alone used as a bridge, Fas. i. 378; at höfðum, at nám, to trample on the slain on the battle-field, Lex. Poët.; at ám, along the rivers; at merkiósum, at the river's mouth, Grág. ii. 355; at endilöngu baki, all along its back, Sks. 100.  5. denoting hostility, to rush at, assault; renna at, hlaupa at, ganga, fara, ríða, sækja, at e-m, (v. those words), whence the nouns atrenna, athlaup, atgangr, atför, atreið, atsókn, etc.  β. metaph., kom at þeim svefnhöfgi, deep sleep fell on them, Nj. 104. Esp. of weather, in the impers. phrase, hríð, veðr, vind, storm görir at e-m, to be overtaken by a snow storm, gale, or the like; görði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog, Bárð. 171.  6. denoting around, of clothing or the like; bregða skikkju at höfði sér, to wrap his cloak over his head, Ld. 62; vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a snood round her head, 188; sauma at, to stick, cling close, as though sewn on; sauma at höndum sér, of tight gloves, Bs. i. 453; kyrtill svá þröngr sem saumaðr væri at honum, as though it were stitched to him, Nj. 214; vafit at vándum dreglum, tight laced with sorry tags, id.; hosa strengd fast at beini, of tight hose, Eg. 602; hann sveipar at sér iðrunum ok skyrtunni, he gathers up the entrails close to him and the skirt too, Gísl. 71; laz at síðu, a lace on the side, to keep the clothes tight, Eg. 602. p. of burying; bera grjót at einum, to heap stones upon the body, Eg. 719; var gör at þeim dys or grjóti, Ld. 152; gora kistu at líki, to make a coffin for a body, Eb. 264, Landn. 56, Ld. 142. γ of summoning troops or followers; stefna at sér mönnum, to summon men to him, Nj. 104; stefna at sér liði, Eg. 270; kippa mönnum at sér, to gather men in haste, Ld. 64.  7. denoting a business, engagement; ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after after horses, watching sheep, Glúm. 362, Nj. 75; fara at fé, to go to seek for sheep, Ld. 240; fara at heyi, to go a-haymaking, Dropl. 10; at veiðum, a-hunting; at fuglum, a-fowling; at dýrum, a-sbooting; at fiski, a-fishing; at veiðiskap, Landn. 154, Orkn. 416 (in a verse), Nj. 25; fara at landskuldum, to go a-collecling rents, Eg. 516; at Finnkaupum, a-marketing with Finns, 41; at féföngum, a-plundering, Fms. vii. 78; ganga at beina, to wait on guests, Nj. 50; starfa at matseld, to serve at table, Eb. 266; hitta e-n at nauðsynjum, on matters of business; at máli, to speak with one, etc., Fms. xi. 101; rekast at e-m, to pursue one, ix. 404; ganga at liði sér, to go suing for help, Grág. ii. 384. p. of festivals; snúa, fá at blóti, veizlu, brullaupi, to prepare for a sacrificial banquet, wedding, or the like, hence at-fangadagr, Eb. 6, Ld. 70; koma at hendi, to happen, befall; ganga at sínu, to come by one's own, to take it, Ld. 208; Egill drakk hvert full er at honum kom, drained every horn that came to him, Eg. 210; komast at keyptu, to purchase dearly, Húv. 46.  8. denoting imaginary motion, esp. of places, cp. Lat. spectare, vergere ad ..., to look or lie towards; horfði botninn at höfðanum, the bight of the bay looked toward the headland, Fms. i. 340, Landn. 35; also, skeiðgata liggr at læknum, leads to the brook, Ísl. ii. 339; á þann arminn er vissi at sjánum, on that wing which looked toward the sea, Fms. viii. 115; sár þau er horft höfðu at Knúti konungi, xi. 309.  β. even connected with verbs denoting motion; Gilsáreyrr gengr austan at Fljótinu, G. extends, projects to F. from the east, Hrafh. 25; hjá sundi því, er at gengr þingstöðinni, Fms. xi. 85.  II. WITHOUT MOTION; denoting presence at, near, by, at the side of, in, upon; connected with verbs like sitja, standa, vera...; at kirkju, at church, Fms. vii. 251, K. f). K. 16, Ld. 328, Ísl. ii. 270, Sks. 36; vera at skála, at húsi, to be in, at home, Landn. 154; at landi, Fms. i. 82; at skipi, on shipboard, Grág. i. 209, 215; at oldri, at a banquet, inter pocula; at áti, at dinner, at a feast, inter edendum, ii. 169, 170; at samförum ok samvistum, at public meetings, id.; at dómi, in a court; standa (to take one's stand) norðan, sunnan, austan, vestan at dómi, freq. in the proceedings at trials in lawsuits, Nj.; at þingi, present at the parliament, Grág. i. 142; at lögbergi, on the hill of laws, 17, Nj.; at baki e-m, at the back of.2. denoting presence, partaking in; sitja at mat, to sit at meat, Fms. i. 241; vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, nuptials, Nj. 51, Ld. 70: a law term, vera at vígi, to be an accessory in manslaying, Nj. 89, 100; vera at e-u simply means to be about, be busy in, Fms. iv. 237; standa at máli, to stand by one in a case, Grág. ii. 165, Nj. 214; vera at fóstri, to be fostered, Fms. i. 2; sitja at hégóma, to listen to nonsense, Ld. 322; vera at smíð, to be at one's work, Þórð. 62: now absol., vera at, to go on with, be busy at.3. the law term vinna eið at e-u has a double meaning: a. vinna eið at bók, at baugi, to make an oath upon the book by laying the band upon it, Landn. 258, Grág., Nj.; cp. Vkv. 31, Gkv. 3. 3, Hkv. 2. 29, etc.: 'við' is now used in this sense.  β. to confirm a fact (or the like) by an oath, to swear to, Grág. i. 9, 327.  γ. the law phrase, nefna vátta at e-u, of summoning witnesses to a deed, fact, or the like; nefna vátta at benjum, to produce evidence, witnesses as to the wounds, Nj., Grág.; at görð, Eg. 738; at svörum, Grág. i. 19: this summoning of witnesses served in old lawsuits the same purpose as modern pleadings and depositions; every step in a suit to be lawful must be followed by such a summoning or declaration.  4. used ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at; kvalararnir er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him; þar varstu at, you were there present, Skálda 162; at várum þar, Gísl. (in a verse): as a law term 'vera at' means to be guilty, Glúm. 388; vartattu at þar, Eg. (in a verse); hence the ambiguity of Glum's oath, vask at þar, 7 was there present: var þar at kona nokkur (was there busy) at binda sár manna, Fms. v. 91; hann var at ok smíðaði skot, Rd. 313; voru Varbelgir at (about) at taka af, þau lög ..., Fms. ix. 512; ek var at ok vafk, I was about weaving, xi. 49; þeir höfðu verit at þrjú sumur, they had been busy at it for three summers, x. 186 (now very freq.); koma at, come in, to arrive unexpectedly; Gunnarr kom at í því, G. came in at that moment; hvaðan komtú nú at, whence did you come? Nj. 68, Fms. iii. 200.  5. denoting the kingdom or residence of a king or princely person; konungr at Danmörk ok Noregi, king of..., Fms. i. 119, xi. 281; konungr, jarl, at öllum Noregi, king, earl, over all N., íb. 3, 13, Landn. 25; konungr at Dyflinni, king of Dublin, 25; but í or yfir England!, Eg. 263: cp. the phrase, sitja at landi, to reside, of a king when at home, Hkr. i. 34; at Joini, Fms. xi. 74: used of a bishop; biskup at Hólum, bishop of Hólar, Íb. 18, 19; but biskup í Skálaholti, 19: at Rómi, at Rome, Fbr. 198.  6. in denoting a man's abode (vide p. 5, col. 1, l. 27), the prep, 'at' is used where the local name implies the notion of by the side of, and is therefore esp. applied to words denoting a river, brook, rock, mountain, grove, or the like, and in some other instances, by, at, e. g. at Hofi (a temple), Landn. 198; at Borg (a castle), 57; at Helgafelli (a mountain), Eb. constantly so; at Mosfelli, Landn. 190; at Hálsi (a hill), Fms. xi. 22; at Bjargi, Grett. 90; Hálsum, Landn. 143; at Á (river), 296, 268; at Bægisá, 212; Giljá, 332; Myrká, 211; Vatnsá, id.; þverá, Glúm. 323; at Fossi (a 'force' or waterfall), Landn. 73; at Lækjamoti (waters-meeting), 332; at Hlíðarenda (end of the lithe or hill), at Bergþórshváli, Nj.; at Lundi (a grove), at Melum (sandhill), Landn. 70: the prep. 'á' is now used in most of these cases, e. g. á Á, á Hofi, Helgafelli, Felli, Hálsi, etc.  β. particularly, and without any regard to etymology, used of the abode of kings or princes, to reside at; at Uppsölum, at Haugi, Alreksstöðum, at Hlöðum, Landn., Fms.  γ. konungr lét kalla at stofudyrum, the king made a call at the hall door, Eg. 88; þeir kölluðu at herberginu, they called at the inn, Fms. ix. 475.  7. used ellipt. with a gen., esp. if connected with such words as gista, to be a guest, lodge, dine, sup (of festivals or the like) at one's home; at Marðar, Nj. 4; at hans, 74; þingfesti at þess bóanda, Grág. i. 152; at sín, at one's own home, Eg. 371, K. Jj. K. 62; hafa náttstað at Freyju, at the abode of goddess Freyja, Eg. 603; at Ránar, at Ran's, i. e. at Ran's house, of drowned men who belong to the queen of the sea, Ran, Eb. 274; at hins heilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave's church, Fms. vi. 63: cp. ad Veneris, ἐις Κίμωνος

B. Temp.I. at, denoting a point or period of time; at upphafi, at first, in the beginning, Ld. 104; at lyktum, at síðustu, at lokum, at last; at lesti, at last, Lex. Poët., more freq. á lesti; at skilnaði, at parting, at last, Band. 3; at fornu, in times of yore, formerly, Eg. 267, D. I. 1. 635; at sinni, as yet, at present; at nýju, anew, of present time; at eilífu, for ever and ever; at skömmu, soon, shortly, Ísl. ii. 272, v. l.

AT. 27

II. of the very moment when anything happens, the beginning of a term; denoting the seasons of the year, months, weeks, the hours of the day; at Jólum, at Yule, Nj. 46; at Pálmadegi, on Palm Sunday, 273; at Páskum, at Easter; at Ólafsvöku, on St. Olave's eve, 29th of July, Fms.; at vetri, at the beginning of the winter, on the day when winter sets in, Grág. 1. 151; at sumarmálum, at vetrnáttum; at Tvímánaði, when the Double month (August) begins, Ld. 256, Grág. i. 152; at kveldi, at eventide, Eg. 3; at því meli, at that time; at eindaga, at the term, 395; at eykð, at 4 o'clock p. m., 198; at öndverðri æfi Abra hams, Ver. II; at sinni, now at once, Fms. vi. 71; at öðruhverju, every now and then.β. where the point of time is marked by some event; at þingi, at the meeting of parliament (18th to the 24th of June), Ld. 182; at féránsdómi, at the court of execution, Grág. i. 132, 133; at þinglausnum, at the close of the parliament (beginning of July), 140; at festarmálum, eðr at eiginorði, at betrothal or nuptials, 174; at skilnaði, when they parted, Nj. 106 (above); at öllum minnum, at the general drinking of the toasts, Eg. 253; at fjöru, at the ebb; at flæðum, at flood tide, Fms. viii. 306, Orkn. 428; at hrörum, at an inquest, Grág. i. 50 (cp. ii. 141, 389); at sökum, at prosecutions, 30; at sinni, now, as yet, v. that word.  III. ellipt., or adding 'komanda' or 'er kemr,' of the future time:  1. ellipt., komanda or the like being understood, with reference to the seasons of the year; at sumri, at vetri, at hausti, at vári, next summer, winter ..., Ísl. ii. 242; at miðju sumri, at ári, at Midsummer, next year, Fas. i. 516; at miðjum vetri, Fms. iv. 237.  2. adding 'komanda' or 'er kemr;' at ári komanda, Bárð. 177; at vári er kemr, Dipl. iii. 6.  IV. used with an absolute dat. and with a pres. part.:  1. with pres. part.; at morni komanda, on the coming morrow, Fms. i. 263; at sér lifanda, in vivo, in his life time, Grág. ii. 202; at þeim sofundum, illis dormientibus, Hkr. i. 234; at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all, Fms. x. 329; at úvitanda konungi, illo nesciente, without his knowledge, 227; at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the chief's bearing, 235.  2. of past time with a past part. (Lat. abl. absol.); at hræjum fundnum, on the bodies being found, Grág. ii. 87; at háðum dómum ok föstu þingi, during the session, the courts being set, i. 484; at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks past, Band. 13; at svá búnu, so goru, svá komnu, svá mæltu (Lat. quibus rebus gestis, dictis, quo facto, dicto, etc.), v. those words; at úreyndu, without trial, without put ting one to the test, Ld. 76; at honum önduðum, illo mortuo.3. ellipt. without 'at;' en þessum hlutum fram komnum, when all this has been done, Eb. 132.  V. in some phrases with a slight temp, notion; at görðum gildum, the fences being strong, Gþl. 387; at vörmu spori, at once, whilst the trail is warm; at úvörum, unawares, suddenly, Nj. 95, Ld. 132; at þessu, at this cost, on that condition, Eb. 38, Nj. 55; at illum leiki, to have a narrow escape, now við illan leik, Fms. ix. 473; at því, that granted, Grág. ii. 33: at því, at pessu, thereafter, thereupon, Nj. 76. 2. denoting succession, without interruption, one after another; hverr at öðrum, annarr maðr at öðrum, aðrir at öðrum; eina konu at annarri, Eg. 91, Fms. ii. 236, vi. 25, Bs. i. 22, 625. 80, H. E. i. 522.

C. Metaph. and in various cases:  I. denoting a transformation or change into, to, with the notion of destruction; brenna at ösku, at köldum kolum, to burn to ashes, to be quite destroyed, Fms. i. 105, Edda 3, Sturl. ii. 51: with the notion of transformation or transfiguration, in such phrases as, verða at e-u, göra e-t at e-u, to turn it into: a. by a spell; verða at ormi, to become a snake, Fms. xi. 158; at flugdrekum, Gullþ. 7; urðu þau bönd at járni, Edda 40.  β. by a natural process it can often be translated by an acc. or by as; göra e-n at urðarmanni, to make him an outlaw, Eg. 728; græða e-n at orkumlamanni, to heal him so as to maim him for life, of bad treatment by a leech, Eb. 244: in the law terms, sár görist at ben, a wound turning into a ben, proving to be mortal, Grág., Nj.; verða at ljúgvætti, to prove to be a false evidence, Grág. i. 44; verða at sætt, to turn into reconciliation, Fms. i. 13; göra e-t at reiði málum, to take offence at, Fs. 20; at nýjum tíðindum, to tell as news, Nj. 14; verða fátt at orðum, to be sparing of words, 18; kveðr (svá) at orði, to speak, utter, 10; verða at þrifnaði, to geton well, Fms. vii. 196: at liði, at skaða, to be a help or hurt to one; at bana, to cause one's death, Nj. 223, Eg. 21, Grág. ii. 29: at undrum, at hlátri, to become a wonder, a laughing-stock, 623. 35, Eg. 553.  II. denoting capacity, where it may be translated merely by as or for; gefa at Jólagjöf, to give for a Christmas-box, Eg. 516; at gjöf, for a present; at erfð, at láni, launum, as an inheritance, a loan; at kaupum ok sökum, for buying and selling, Ísl. ii. 223, Grág. i. 423; at solum, ii. 204; at herfangi, as spoil or plunder; at sakbótum, at niðgjöldum, as a compensation, weregeld, i. 339, ii. 171, Hkr. ii. 168; taka at gíslingu, to take as an hostage, Edda 15; eiga e-n at vin, at óvin, to have one as friend or foe, illt er at eiga þræl at eingavin, 'tis ill to have a thrall for one's bosom friend (a proverb), Nj. 77; fæða, eiga, at sonum (syni), to beget a son, Edda 8, Bs. i. 60 (but eiga at dóttur cannot be said); hafa möttul at yfirhöfn, Fms. vii. 201; verða nökkut at manni (mönnum), to turn out to be a worthy man; verða ekki at manni, to turn out a worthless person, xi. 79, 268. 2. in such phrases as, verða at orðum, to come towards, Nj. 26; var þat at erindum, Eg. 148; hafa at veizlum, to draw veizlur (dues) from, Fms. iv. 275, Eg. 647; gora e-t at álitum, to take it into consideration, Nj. 3.  III. denoting belonging to, fitting, of parts of the whole or the like; vóru at honum (viz. the sword) hjölt gullbúin, the sword was ornamented with a hilt of gold, Ld. 330; umgörð at (belonging to) sverði, Fs. 97 (Hs.) in a verse; en ef mór er eigi at landinu, if there be no turf moor belonging to the land, Grág. ii. 338; svá at eigi brotnaði nokkuð at Orminum, so that no harm happened to the ship Worm, Fms. x. 356; hvatki er meiðir at skipinu eðr at reiðinu eðr at viðum, damage done to ..., Grág. ii. 403; lesta (to injure) hús at lásum, við eðr torfi, 110; ef land hefir batnað at húsum, if the land has been bettered as to its buildings, 210; cp. the phrase, göra at e-u, to repair: hamlaðr at höndum eðr fótum, maimed as to hands or feet, Eg. 14; heill at höndum en hrumr at fótum, sound in band, palsied in foot, Fms. vii. 12; lykill at skrá, a key belonging, fitting, to the latch; hurð at húsi; a key 'gengr at' (fits) skrá; and many other phrases.  2. denoting the part by which a thing is held or to which it belongs, by; fá, taka at..., to grasp by ...; þú tókt við sverði hans at hjöltunum, you took it by the bill, Fms. i. 15; draga út björninn at hlustum, to pull out the bear by the ears, Fas. ii. 237; at fótum, by the feet, Fms. viii. 363; mæla (to measure) at hrygg ok at jaðri, by the edge or middle of the stuff, Grág. i. 498; kasta e-m at höfði, head foremost, Nj. 84; kjósa e-n at fótum, by the feet alone, Edda 46; hefja frændsemi at bræðrum, eða at systkynum, to reckon kinship by the brother's or the sister's side, Grág. i. 28; kjósa at afli, at álitum, by strength, sight, Gs. 8, belongs rather to the following.  IV. in respect of, as regards, in regard to, as to; auðigr at fé, wealthy of goods, Nj. 16, 30, 51; beztir hestar at reið, the best racehorses, 186; spekingr at viti, a man of great intellect, Ld. 124; vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face, Nj. 30, Bs. i. 61; kvenna vænst at ásjónu ok vits munum, of surpassing beauty and intellect, Ld. 122; fullkominn at hyggju, 18; um fram aðra menn at vinsældum ok harðfengi, of surpassing popularity and hardihood, Eb. 30.  2. a law term, of challenging jurors, judges, or the like, on account of, by reason of; ryðja (to challenge) at mægðum, guðsifjum, frændsemi, hrörum ...; at leiðarlengd, on account of distance, Grág. i. 30, 50, Nj. (freq.)  3. in arithm. denoting proportion; at helmingi, þriðjungi, fjórðungi, tíunda hluta, cp. Lat. ex asse, quadrante, for the half, third... part; máttr skal at magni (a proverb), might and main go together, Hkr. ii. 236; þú munt vera at því mikill fræðimaðr á kvæði, in the same proportion, as great, Fms. vi. 391, iii. 41; at e-s hluta, at... leiti, for one's part, in turn, as far as one is con cerned, Grág. i. 322, Eg. 309, Fms. iii. 26 (freq.): at öðrum kosti, in the other case, otherwise (freq.) More gener., at öllu, öngu, in all (no) respects; at sumu, einhverju, nokkru, partly; at flestu, mestu, chiefly.4. as a paraphrase of a genitive; faðir, móðir at barni (= barns); aðili at sök (= sakar a.); morðingi at barni (= barns), faðerni at barni (barns); illvirki at fé manna (cp. Lat. felo de se), niðrfall at sökum (saka), land gangr at fiskum (fiska), Fms. iv. 274, Grág. i. 277, 416, N. G. L. i. 340, K. Þ. K. 112, Nj. 21.  5. the phrase 'at sér,' of himself or in himself, either ellipt. or by adding the participle görr, and with the adverbs vel, illa, or the like; denoting breeding, bearing, endowments, character ...; væn kona, kurteis ok vel at sér, an accomplished, well-bred, gifted lady, Nj. 1; vitr maðr ok vel at sér, a wise man and thoroughly good in feeling and bearing, 5; þú ert maðr vaskr ok vel at þér, 49; gerr at sér, accomplished, 51; bezt at sér görr, the finest, best bred man, 39, Ld. 124; en þó er hann svá vel at sér, so generous, Nj. 77; þeir höfðingjar er svá vóru vel at sér, so noble-minded, 198, Fms. i. 160: the phrase 'at sér' is now only used of knowledge, thus maðr vel að sér means clever, a man of great knowledge; illa að sér, a blockhead.6. denoting relations to colour, size, value, age, and the like; hvitr, svartr, grár, rauðr ... at lit, white, swarthy, gray, red ... of colour, Bjarn. 55, 28, Ísl. ii. 213, etc.; mikill, litill, at stærð, vexti, tall, small of size, etc.; ungr, gamall, barn, at aldri, young, old, a child of age; tvítugr, þrítugr ... at aldri, twenty, thirty ... years of age (freq.): of animals; kyr at fyrsta, öðrum ... kálfi, a cow having calved once, twice..., Jb. 346: value, amount, currency of money, kaupa e-t at mörk, at a mark, N. G. L. 1. 352; ok er eyririnn at mörk, amounts to a mark, of the value of money, Grág. i. 392; verðr þá at hálfri murk vaðmála eyrir, amounts to a half a mark, 500.  β. metaph. of value, connected with verbs denoting to esteem, hold; meta, hafa, halda at miklu, litlu, vettugi, engu, or the like, to hold in high or low esteem, to care or not to care for (freq.): geta e-s at góðu, illú, öngu, to mention one favourably, unfavourably, indifferently ... (freq.), prop. in connection with. In many cases it may be translated by in; ekki er mark at draumum, there is no meaning in dreams, no heed is to be paid to dreams, Sturl. ii. 217; bragð er at þá barnið finnr, it goes too far, when even a child takes offence (a proverb): hvat er at því, what does it mean? Nj. 11; hvert þat skip er vöxtr er at, any ship of mark, i. e. however small, Fms. xi. 20.  V. denoting the source of a thing:  1. source of infor mation, to learn, perceive, get information from; Ari nam ok marga fræði at Þuríði, learnt as her pupil, at her hands, as St. Paul at the feet of Gamaliel, (just as the Scotch say to speer or ask at a person); Ari nam at Þorgeiri afraðskoll, Hkr. (pref.); nema kunnáttu at e-m, used of

28 AT.

a pupil, Fms. i. 8; nema fræði at e-m, xi. 396.  2. of receiving, acquiring, buying, from; þiggja e-t at e-m, to receive a thing at his hands, Nj. 51; líf, to be pardoned, Fms. x. 173; kaupa land at e-m, to buy it from, Landn. 72, Íb. 11, (now af is more freq. in this sense); geta e-t at e-m, to obtain, procure at one's hands, impetrare; þeirra manna er þeir megu þat geta at, who are willing to do that, Grág. i. I; heimta e-t at e-m (now af), to call in, demand (a debt, money), 279; fala e-t at e-m (now af), to chaffer for or cheapen anything, Nj. 73; sækja e-t at e-m, to ask, seek for; sækja heilræði ok traust at e-m, 98; leiga e-t at e-m (now af), to borrow, Grág. ii. 334; eiga e-t (fé, skuld) at e-m, to be owed money by any one, i. 399: metaph. to deserve of one, Nj. 113; eiga mikit at e-m, to have much to do with, 138; hafa veg, virðing, styrk, at, to derive honour, power from, Fms. vi. 71, Eg. 44, Bárð. 174; gagn, to be of use, Ld. 216; mein, tálma, mischief, disadvantage, 158, 216, cp. Eg. 546; ótta, awe, Nj. 68.  VI. denoting conformity, according to, Lat. secundum, ex, after; at fornum sið, Fms. i. 112; at sögn Ara prests, as Ari relates, on his authority, 55; at ráði allra vitrustu manna, at the advice of, Ísl. ii. 259, Ld. 62; at lögum, at landslögum, by the law of the land, Grág., Nj.; at líkindum, in all likelihood, Ld. 272; at sköpum, in due course (poët.); at hinum sama hætti, in the very same manner, Grág. i. 90; at vánum, as was to be expected, Nj. 255; at leyfi e-s, by one's leave, Eg. 35; úlofi, Grág. ii. 215; at ósk, vilja e-s, as one likes...; at mun, id. (poët.); at sólu, happily (following the course of the sun), Bs. i. 70, 137; at því sem ..., as to infer from ..., Nj. 124:' fara, láta, ganga at' denotes to yield, agree to, to comply with, give in, Ld. 168, Eg. 18, Fms. x. 368.  VII. in phrases nearly or quite adverbial; gróa, vera græddr, at heilu, to be quite healed, Bárð. 167, Eb. 148; bíta at snöggu, to bite it bare, Fms. xi. 6; at þurru, till it becomes dry, Eb. 276; at endilöngu, all along, Fas. ii; vinnast at litlu, to avail little, 655 x. 14; at fullu, fully, Nj. 257, Hkr. i. 171; at vísu, of a surety, surely, Ld. 40; at frjálsu, freely, 308; at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same, Hom. 80, Nj. 267; at röngu, wrongly, 686 B. 2; at hófi, temperately, Lex. Poët.; at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent; at hringum, utterly, all round, (rare), Fms. x. 389; at einu, yet, Orkn. 358; svá at einu, því at einu, allt at einu, yet, however, nevertheless.VIII. connected with comparatives of adverbs and adjectives, and strengthening the sense, as in Engl. 'the,' so much the more, all the more; 'at' heldr tveimr, at ek munda gjarna veita yðr öllum, where it may be translated by so much the more to two, as I would willingly grant it to all of you; hon grét at meir, she grat (wept) the more, Eg. 483; þykir oss at líkara, all the more likely, Fms. viii. 6; þess at harðari, all the harder, Sturl. iii. 202 C; svá at hinn sé bana at nær, Grág. ii. 117; at auðnara, at hólpnara, the more happy, Al. 19, Grett. 116 B; þess at meiri, Fms. v. 64; auvirðismaðr at meiri, Sturl. ii. 139; maðr at vaskari, id.; at feigri, any the more fey, Km. 22; maðr at verri, all the worse, Nj. 168; ok er' at' firr..., at ek vil miklu heldr, cp. Lat. tantum abest... ut, Eg. 60.  β. following after a negation; eigi at síðr, no less, Nj. 160, Ld. 146; eigi... at meiri maðr, any better, Eg. 425, 489; erat héra at borgnara, any the better off for that, Fms. vii. 116; eigi at minni, no less for that, Edda (pref.) 146; eigi at minna, Ld. 216, Fms. ix. 50; ekki at verri drengr, not a bit worse for that, Ld. 42; er mér ekki son minn at bættari, þótt..., 216; at eigi vissi at nær, any more, Fas. iii. 74.  IX. following many words:  1. verbs, esp. those denoting,  α. to ask, enquire, attend, seek, e. g. spyrja at, to speer (ask) for; leita at, to seek for; gæta, geyma at, to pay attention to; huga, hyggja at; hence atspurn, to enquire, aðgæzla, athugi, attention, etc.  β. verbs denoting laughter, play, joy, game, cp. the Engl. to play at ..., to laugh at ...; hlæja, brosa at e-u, to laugh, smile at it; leika (sér) at e-u, to play at; þykja gaman at, to enjoy; hæða, göra gys at ..., to make sport at ...γ. verbs denoting assistance, help; standa, veita, vinna, hjálpa at; hence atstoð, atvinna, atverk:—mode, proceeding; fara at, to proceed, hence atför and atferli:—compliance; láta, fara at e-u, v. above:—fault; e-t er at e-u, there is some fault in it, Fms. x. 418; skorta at e-u, to fall short of, xi. 98:—care, attendance; hjúkra at, hlýja at, v. these words:—gathering, collecting; draga, reiða, flytja, fá at, congerere:—engagement, arrival, etc.; sækja at, to attack; ganga at, vera at, to be about; koma at, ellipt. to arrive: göra at, to repair: lesta at, to impair (v. above); finna at, to criticise (mod.); telja at, id.: bera at, to happen; kveða at e-m, to address one, 625. 15, (kveða at (ellipt.) now means to pronounce, and of a child to utter (read) whole syllables); falla at, of the flood-tide (ellipt.): metaph. of pains or straits surrounding one; þreyngja, herða at, to press hard: of frost and cold, with regard to the seasons; frjósa at, kólna at, to get really cold (SI. 44), as it were from the cold stiffening all things: also of the seasons themselves; hausta, vetra að, when the season really sets in; esp. the cold seasons, 'sumra at' cannot be used, yet we may say 'vára að' when the spring sets in, and the air gets mild.  δ. in numberless other cases which may partly be seen below.  2. connected ellipt. with adverbs denoting motion from a place; norðan, austan, sunnan, vestan at, those from the north, east...; utan at, innan at, from the outside or inside.3. with adjectives (but rarely), e. g. kærr, elskr, virkr (affectionate), vandr (zealous), at e-m; v, these words.

 WITH ACC.

Temp.: Lat. post, after, upon, esp. freq. in poetry, but rare in prose writers, who use eptir; nema reisi niðr at nið (= maðr eptir mann), in succession, of erecting a monument, Hm. 71; in prose, at þat, posthac, deinde, Fms. x. 323, cp. Rm., where it occurs several times, 2, 6, 9, 14, 18, 24, 28, 30, 35; sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, has to take the inheritance after his father, Grág. i. 170 new Ed.; eiga féránsdóm at e-n, Grág. i. 89; at Gamla fallinn, after the death of G., Fms. x. 382; in Edda (Gl.) 113 ought to be restored, grét ok at Oð, gulli Freyja, she grat (wept) tears of gold for her lost husband Od. It is doubtful if it is ever used in a purely loc. sense; at land, Grág. (Sb.)ii. 211, is probably corrupt; at hönd = á hönd, Grág. (Sb.) i. 135; at mót = at móti, v. this word.

 ☞ In compounds (v. below) at- or að- answers in turn to Lat. ad- or in- or con-; atdráttr e. g. denotes collecting; atkoma is adventus: it may also answer to Lat. ob-, in atburðr = accidence, but might also be compared with Lat. occurrere.

AT and að, the mark of the infinitive [cp. Goth. du; A. S. and Engl. to; Germ. zu]. Except in the case of a few verbs 'at' is always placed immediately before the infinitive, so as to be almost an inseparable part of the verb.  I. it is used either,  1. as, a simple mark of the infinitive, only denoting an action and independent of the subject, e. g. at ganga, at hlaupa, at vita, to go, to run, to know; or,  2. in an objective sense when following such verbs as bjóða segja ..., to invite, command ...; hann bauð þeim at ganga, at sitja, be bade, ordered them to go, sit, or the like; or as gefa and fá; gefa e-m at drekka, at eta, to give one to drink or to eat, etc. etc.  β. with the additional notion of intention, esp. when following verba cogitandi; hann ætlaði, hafði í hyggju at fara, he had it in his mind to go (where 'to go' is the real object to ætlaði and hafði í hyggju).  3. answering to the Gr. ἵνα denoting intention, design, in order to; hann gékk í borg at kaupa silfr, in order to buy, Nj. 280; hann sendi riddara sína með þeim at varðveita þær, 623. 45: in order to make the phrase more plain, 'svá' and 'til' are frequently added, esp. in mod. writers, 'svá at' and contr. 'svát' (the last however is rare), 'til at" and 'til þess at,' etc.  II. in the earlier times the infin., as in Greek and Lat., had no such mark; and some verbs remain that cannot be followed by 'at;' these verbs are almost the same in Icel. as in Engl.: a. the auxiliary verbs vil, mun (μέλλω), skal; as in Engl. to is never used after the auxiliaries shall, will, must; ek vil ganga, I will go; ek mun fara, (as in North. E.) I mun go; ek skal göra þat, I shall do that, etc.  β. the verbs kunna, mega, as in Engl. I can or may do, I dare say; svá hygginn at hann kunni fyrir sökum ráða, Grág. ii. 75; í öllu er prýða má góðan höfðingja, Nj. 90; vera má, it may be; vera kann þat, id.: kunnu, however, takes 'at' whenever it means to know, and esp. in common language in phrases such as, það kann að vera, but vera kann þat, v. above.  γ. lata, biðja, as in Engl. to let, to bid; hann let (bað) þá fara, he let (bade) them go.δ. þykkja, þykjast, to seem; hann þykir vera, he is thought to be: reflex., hann þykist vera, sibi videtur: impers., mér þykir vera, mibi videtur, in all cases without 'at.' So also freq. the verbs hugsa, hyggja, ætla, halda, to think, when denoting merely the act of thinking; but if there be any notion of intention or purpose, they assume the 'at;' thus hann ætlaði, hugði, þá vera góða menn, he thought them to be, acc. c. inf.; but ætlaði at fara, meant to go, etc.  ε. the verbs denoting to see, bear; sjá, líta, horfa á ... (videre); heyra, audire, as in Engl. I saw them come, I heard him tell, ek sá þá koma, ek heyrði hann tala.  ζ. sometimes after the verbs eiga and ganga; hann gékk steikja, be went to roast, Vkv. 9; eiga, esp. when a mere periphrasis instead of skal, móður sína á maðr fyrst fram færa (better at færa), Grág. i. 232; á þann kvið einskis meta, 59; but at meta, id. l. 24; ráða, nema, göra ..., freq. in poetry, when they are used as simple auxiliary verbs, e. g. nam hann sér Högna hvetja at rúnum, Skv. 3. 43.  η. hljóta and verða, when used in the sense of must (as in Engl. he must go), and when placed after the infin. of another verb; hér muntu vera hljóta, Nj. 129; but hljóta at vera: fara hlýtr þú, Fms. 1. 159; but þú hlýtr at fara: verða vita, ii. 146; but verða at vita: hann man verða sækja, þó verðr (= skal) maðr eptir mann lifa, Fms. viii. 19, Fas. ii. 552, are exceptional cases.  θ. in poetry, verbs with the verbal neg. suffix '-at,' freq. for the case of euphony, take no mark of the infinitive, where it would be indispensable with the simple verb, vide Lex. Poët. Exceptional cases; hvárt sem hann vill 'at' verja þá sök, eða, whatever he chooses, either, Grág. i. 64; fyrr viljum vér enga kórónu at bera, en nokkut ófrelsi á oss at taka, we would rather bear no crown than ..., Fms. x. 12; the context is peculiar, and the 'at' purposely added. It may be left out ellipt.; e. g. þá er guð gefr oss finnast (= at finnast), Dipl. ii. 14; gef honum drekka (= at drekka), Pr. 470; but mostly in unclassical writers, in deeds, or the like, written nastily and in an abrupt style.

AT and að, conj. [Goth. þatei = ὅτι; A. S. þät; Engl. that; Germ. dass; the Ormul. and Scot. at, see the quotations sub voce in Jamieson; in all South-Teutonic idioms with an initial dental: the Scandinavian idioms form an exception, having all dropped this consonant; Swed. åt, Dan. at]. In Icel. the Bible translation (of the 16th century) was chiefly based upon that of Luther; the hymns and the great bulk of theol. translations of

AT—ATFOR. 29

that time were also derived from Germany; therefore the germanised form það frequently appears in the Bible, and was often employed by theol. authors in sermons since the time of the Reformation. Jón Vidalin, the greatest modern Icel. preacher, who died in 1720, in spite of his thoroughly classical style, abounds in the use of this form; but it never took root in the language, and has never passed into the spoken dialect. After a relative or demonstr. pronoun, it freq. in mod. writers assumes the form eð, hver eð, hverir eð, hvað eð, þar eð. Before the prep, þú (t u), þ changes into t, and is spelt in a single word attú, which is freq. in some MS.;—now, however, pronounced aððú, aððeir, aððið ..., = að þú..., with the soft Engl. th sound. It gener. answers to Lat. ut, or to the relat. pron. qui.I. that, relative to svá, to denote proportion, degree, so ..., that, Lat. tam, tantus, tot ..., ut; svá mikill lagamaðr, at ..., so great a lawyer, that ..., Nj. 1; hárið svá mikit, at þat ..., 2; svá kom um síðir því máli, at Sigvaldi, it came so far, that..., Fms. xi. 95, Edda 33. Rarely and unclass., ellipt. without svá; Bæringr var til seinn eptir honum, at hann ... (= svá at), Bær. 15; hlífði honum, at hann sakaði ekki, Fas. iii. 441.  II. it is used,  1. with indic, in a narrative sense, answering partly to Gr. ὅτι Lat. quod, ut, in such phrases as, it came to pass, happened that ...; þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, Nj. 2; þat var á palmdrottinsdag, at Ólafr konungr gékk út um stræti, Fms. ii. 244.  2. with subj. answering to Lat. acc. with infin., to mark the relation of an object to the chief verb, e. g. vilda ek at þú réðist, I wished that yon -would, Nj. 57.  β. or in an oblique sentence, answering to ita ut...;.; ef svá kann verða at þeir láti..., if it may be so that they might..., Fms. xi. 94.  γ. with a subj. denoting design, answering to ἵνα or Lat. ut with subj., in order that; at öll veraldar bygðin viti, ut sciat totus orbis, Stj.; þeir skáru fyrir þá melinn, at þeir dæi eigi af sulti, ut ne fame perirent, Nj. 265; fyrsti hlutr bókarinnar er Kristindómsbálkr, at menn skili, in order that men may understand, Gþl. p. viii.  III. used in connection with conjunctions,  1. esp. þó, því, svá; þó at freq. contr. þótt; svát is rare and obsolete.  α. þóat, þótt (North. E. 'thof'), followed by a subjunctive, though, although, Lat. etsi, quamquam (very freq.); þóat nokkurum mönnum sýnist þetta með freku sett... þá viljum vér, Fms. vi. 21: phrases as, gef þú mér þó at úverðugri, etsi indignae (dat.), Stj. MS. col. 315, are unclass., and influenced by the Latin: sometimes ellipt. without 'þó,' eigi mundi hón þá meir hvata göngu sinni, at (= þóat) hon hraeddist bana sinn, Edda 7, Nj. 64: 'þó' and 'at' separated, svarar hann þó rétt, at hann svari svá, Grág. i. 23; þó er rétt at nýta, at hann sé fyrr skorinn, answering to Engl. yetthough, Lat. attamenetsi, K. Þ. K.  β. því at, because, Lat. nam, quia, with indic.; því at allir vóru gerfiligir synir hans, Ld. 68; því at af íþróttum verðr maðr fróðr, Sks. 16: separated, því þegi ek, at ek undrumst, Fms. iii. 201; því er þessa getið, at þat þótti, it is mentioned because ..., Ld. 68.  γ. svá at, so that, Lat. ut, ita ut; grátrinn kom upp, svá at eingi mátti öðrum segja, Edda 37: separated, so ... that, svá úsvúst at ..., so bad weather, that, Bs. i. 339, etc.  2. it is freq. used superfluously, esp. after relatives; hver at = hverr, quis; því at = því, igitur; hverr at þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða, Fms. v. 159; hvern stvrk at hann mundi fá, 44; ek undrumst hvé mikil ógnarraust at liggr í þér, iii. 201; því at ek mátti eigi þar vera elligar, því at þar var kristni vel haldin, Fas. i. 340.  IV. as a relat. conj.:  1. temp, when, Lat. quum; jafnan er (est) mér þá verra er (quum) ek fer á braut þaðan, en þá at (quum) ek kem, Grett. 150 A; þar til at vér vitum, till we know, Fms. v. 52; þá at ek lýsta (= þá er), when, Nj. 233.  2. since, because; ek færi yðr (hann), at þér eruð í einum hrepp allir, because of your being all of the same Rape, Grág. i. 260; eigi er kynlegt at (though) Skarphéðinn sé hraustr, at þat er mælt at..., because (since) it is a saying that..., Nj. 64.  V. in mod. writers it is also freq. superfluously joined to the conjunctions, ef að = ef, si, (Lv. 45 is from a paper MS.), meðan að = meðan, dum; nema að, nisi; fyrst að = fyrst, quoniam; eptir að, síðan að, postquam; hvárt að = hvárt, Lat. an. In the law we find passages such as, þá er um er dæmt eina sök, at þá eigu þeir aptr at ganga í dóminn, Grág. i. 79; ef þing ber á hina helgu viku, at þat á eigi fyrir þeim málum at standa, 106; þat er ok, at þeir skulu reifa mál manna, 64; at þeir skulu með váttorð þá sök sækja, 65: in all these cases 'at' is either superfluous or, which is more likely, of an ellipt. nature, 'the law decrees' or 'it is decreed' being understood. The passages Sks. 551, 552, 568, 718 B, at lokit (= at ek hefi lokit), at hugleitt (= at ek hefi h.), at sent (= at ek hefi sent) are quite exceptional

AT and að, an indecl. relat. pronoun [Ulf. þatei = ὅς, ὃς ἄν, ὅστις, ὅσπερ, οἷος etc.; Engl. that, Ormul. at], with the initial letter dropped, as in the conj. at, (cp. also the Old Engl. at, which is both a conj. and a pronoun, e. g. Barbour vi. 24 in Jamieson: 'I drede that his gret wassalage, | And his travail may bring till end, | That at men quhilc full litil wend.' | 'His mestyr speryt quhat tithings at he saw.'—Wyntoun v. 3. 89.) In Icel. 'er' (the relat. pronoun) and 'at' are used indifferently, so that where one MS. reads 'er,' another reads 'at,' and vice versâ; this may easily be seen by looking at the MSS.; yet as a rule 'er' is much more freq. used. In mod. writers 'at' is freq. turned into 'eð,' esp. as a superfluous particle after the relative pron. hverr (hver eð, hvað eð, hverir eð, etc.), or the demonstr. sá (sá eð, þeir eð, hinir eð, etc.):—who, which, that, enn bezta grip at (which) hafði til Íslands komið, Ld. 202; en engi mun sá at (cui) minnisamara mun vera, 242; sem blótnaut at (quae) stærst verða, Fms. iii. 214; þau tiðendi, at mér þætti verri, Nj. 64, etc. etc.

AT, n. collision (poët.); odda at, crossing of spears, crash of spears, Höfuðl. 8.  β. a fight or bait of wild animals, esp. of horses, v. hesta-at and etja.

AT, the negative verbal suffix, v. -a.

ata, u, f. an obscure word, and probably a corrupt reading; nú skýtr maðr á hval í atu ok hnekkir Guðs gáfu, N. G. L. i. 59.

ata, að, to stain, defile, smear; líkþrá Naaman skal atast á þik ok þína ætt, Stj. 618. 2 Kings vi. 27 (now freq.)

atall, ötul, atalt, adj. [at, n.; Ormul. attel = turpis], fierce, Lat. atrox; ötul augu, fierce, piercing eyes, Hkv. i. 3; þetta folk er atalt ok illt, Hkr. iii. 313: ötul, amatlig, fierce and loathsome, used of a witch, Hkv. 1. 38: Atli ek heiti, a. skal ek þér vera, where the poet plays on the likeness between the pr. name Atli and the adj. atall, my name is 'Savage;' savage shall I prove to thee, Hkv. Hjörv. 15. At the present day, freq. in the changed form ötull, in a good sense, brisk, strenuous.

atan or ötun, f. defiling.

atatata, an onomatopoëtic interj., imitating the chattering of the teeth through cold, Orkn. 326 (in a verse).

at-beini, a, m. assistance, support, Fms. vi. 66; vera í a. með e-m, to assist one, Fas. i. 265.

at-bot, f. repair (now aðgjörð), Vm. 4, Dipl. ii. 13.

at-burðr, ar, m. pl. ir, [bera at, accidere.]  1. a chance, hap, accident; verðr sá a., it so happened, Nj. 54, Vápn. 49; af (með) atburð, accidentally, perchance, Mart. 126, El. 5, 9, Mar. 656 ii. 16; með hverjum atburðum, how, by what chance? Róm. 287, Eluc. 12; slikt kalla ek a. en eigi jartein, such things I call an accident but not a miracle, Sturl. ii. 54; fyrir a. sakir hreysti hans, because of his valour, Skálda 189, Sks. 147.  2. esp. in pl., events, matters, circumstances; dráp Bárðar ok þá atburði er þar höfðu orðit, Bard's death and the events that had happened, Eg. 222; Ólafr sagði honum alla atburði um sitt mál, O. told him minutely how his matters stood, Hkr. i. 193; þær sem skýra í hverjum atburðum menn fella á sik fullkomið bann, under what circumstances ..., H. E. i. 462.

at-búnaðr, ar, m. attention, care, especially of funeral rites; veita a. dauðum mönnum, to lay out dead bodies, Eg. 34, v. l.  2. now gener. accommodation or assistance in all that regards domestic life, esp. clothing; góðr, illr a.

at-djúp and atdýpi, n. deep water close to shore, Háv. 48.

at-djupt, n. adj. id., 623. 45; superl. aðdjúpast, Fms. xi. 70.

at-dráttr, ar, m. pl. drættir, [draga at], provisions, supplies for household use; hafði hann a. at þeirra búi, he supplied their household, Háv. 39; atdrættir ok útvegar, means and provisions, Fms. xi. 423; a. af fiskum, Hrafn. 22.  β. metaph. support, H. E. i. 244.  COMPD: atdrátta-maðr, m., mikill a., a good housekeeper, Eb. 26.

at-dugnaðr, m. [at-duga, to assist], assistance, Fas. ii. 296.

at-eggjan, f. egging on, instigation, Al. 5.

at-fall, n. [falla at], 'on-fall,' = of the flood-tide, Ld. 56, Orkn. 428.

at-fang, n. [fá at, to provide], only in pl., provisions, victuals, Bs. i. 130. Esp. used with dagr, or kveld, of the eve of great festivals, and partic. that of Yule: atfanga-dagr, pronounced affanga, m., a. Jóla, Yule Eve, Christmas Eve, Grett. 97, 140, Fms. ii. 37, Ísl. ii. 232, Orkn. 186 old Ed., where the new Ed. p. 242 reads atfangs- (in sing.), which is very rare, Þórð. 11.  atfangadags-kveld, n. Christmas Eve, Bárð. 176.  atfanga-maðr, m. = atdráttamaðr, Grett. 119 A.

at-fara-, v. atför.

at-ferð, f. (neut. 655 xxxii.) a. aggression, incursion, in a hostile sense, Fms. ix. 11, v. l.  β. more freq. in a good sense, exertion, activity, Fs. 4; vikjast eptir atferðum enna fyrri frænda þinna, to imitate their good deeds, id.; atferð ok eljun, energy, Ld. 318.  γ. a law term, execution; með dómrofum ok atferðum, Gþl. 183.  δ. behaviour, proceeding, conduct; hverja a. vér skulum hafa, Nj. 194, Rb. 390, Sks. 239, 655 xxxii. 2;—now freq. in the last sense.  COMPDS: atferðar-leysi, n. idleness, inactivity, helplessness, Fær. 232, 544. 23.  atferðar-maðr, m. a skilful man, Bs. i. 639.

atferð-ligr, adj, fit or manly, Fms. viii. 53, v. l.

at-ferli, n. [ferill], action, proceeding, used esp. as a law term, proceeding, procedure; með enu sama a., Grág. ii. 405: plur. skal sá slík atferli hafa öll um lýsingar sem áðr er tint, 27, H. E. ii. 75.  β. method; þá eru mörg a. jafnrett til þess, Rb. 38.  γ. hann spurðist fyrir um a. héraðsmanna, what they were doing, Grett. 123 A.  δ. gramm., a. parta (modi partium orationis) eru tólf, Skálda 185.

at-flutning, f. (now ingr, m.), purveyance, supply, in plur., Eg. 275, Fms. ii. 68, viii. 179.

at-fylgi, n. and atfylgja, u, f. help, backing, support, Fms. ii. 105, Stj. 384, Hom. 139, Fms. x. 60, v. l.

at-færsla, u, f. exertion, courage, K. Þ. K. 94 (rare).  COMPD: at-fœrslu-maðr, m. a man of vigour, Bret. 12, 155.

at-för, ar, f.  1. prop. a going to; as a Norse law term, execution, domr ok atför, Gþl. 361, 389: mod. Dan. adfœrd, cp. atferð, 7.  2. in

30 ATFARARDOMR—ATORKUSEMI.

Icel. commonly of an onslaught or armed aggression, Fms. i. 54, Nj. 93, 93, 99, 113, Sturl. iii. 237, Ann. 1252. 3. method = aðferð, Fms. ii. 328.  COMPDS: atfarar-dómr, m. sentence of execution for payment, Gþl., N. G. L. i. 154.  atfarar-þing, n. court of execution, MS. 302, 172 (Norse).  atfara-lauat, n. adj. quiet, with no act of violence between tivo hostile parties, Eb. 244, Sturl. ii. 40.

at-ganga, u, f.  1. attack in a fight, onslaught, Fms. i. 36, Nj. 36, Lv. 13, Bret. 6.  2. peaceful help, Fms. xi. 86, Nj. 99, Ísl. ii. 210.  COMPD: atgongu-mikill, adj. unruly, quarrelsome, aggressive, Fs. 41.

at-gangr, m.  1. fighting, combat, aggression, Ísl. ii. 268, Korm. 242: injury, violence, = ágangr, Fms. vi. 239.  2. help, co-operation, Grett. 157, 162, Vígl. 19.  3. now, redress, recovery of a claim.COMPD: atgangs-mikill, adj. = energetic, Grett. 129 A.

at-geirr, m. (false spelling arngeirr), a bill or halberd, undoubtedly a foreign weapon, rarely mentioned in the Sagas, but famous as the favourite weapon of Gunnar of Hlíðarendi; mentioned besides in Sks. 392, Landn. 163, Eb. 120, Fms. iii. 100, v. 249, Fas. iii. 462, but esp. Nj. 44, 45, 84, 95, 97, 108, 114, 119: in the Nj. used generally of thrusting, but also of hewing; Högni hjó í sundr spiót skaptið með atgeirinum, en rekr atgeirinn i gegnum hann, H. hewed in sunder the spearshaft with the bill, and drives the bill through him, Nj. 119; in Landn. 163 mentioned as a javelin.

at-gengiligr, adj. acceptable, inviting, Bs. i. 372.

at-gerð, atgervi, atgeyrð, v. atgörð, -görvi.

at-gœzla, u, f. supeærintendance, care, caution, Sturl. iii. 58 (now freq.)

atgörð, f.  1. plur. measures, steps taken; litlar atgöðir, small measures, Ísl. ii. 355, Fs. 4; var eigi vaent til atgerða, few expedients, Grett. 124.  2. repair of a building or the like (now freq.), Dipl. v. 145.  β. a surgical operation, medical help, Bs. i. 108, 618, 644: Sturl. i. 43 is a bad reading.  COMPDS: atgörða-lauss, adj. helpless, lazy, inactive, Al. 25: neut., atgörðarlaust er um e-t, no steps are taken, Fms. vi. 38.  atgörða-maðr, m. a ready man, El. 15, Sturl. ii. 127.  atgörðar-mikill, adj. active, Nj. 56.

at-görvi, atgerfl, atgjörfl, f.; neut., Fms. x. 293 C. [görr at sér, accomplished] ; endowments, accomplishments derived from good training added to natural gifts; in olden times esp. those of an athletic or physical kind; fríðleik, vöxt, afl, ok alla a., beauty, stature, strength, and all accomplishments whatever, Eg. 29, Fbr. 56, Fms. vi. 5, 268, i. 30, viii 140, x. 293; at íþróttum, a. ok vinsæld, Hkr. i. 212: of spiritual qualities and character (rare in old writers), af Guðs góðgipt ok sjálfs sins a. göfgastr maðr á Íslandi, Bs. i. (Hv.) 70; at lærdómi, vitrleik ok a., 130. Páls S.  COMPD: atgörvi-maðr, and more freq.  atgörvis-maðr, m. a man of great (physical) accomplishments, Fms. i. 17, Eg. 685 (where it is used of a young promising poet), 22, Ld. 12; used of an artist, Ísl. ii. 171: a. um marga hluti, man of great capacity, 191; used of a musician, Grett. 158.

at-hald, n. constraint, coercion, restraint, Fbr. 2, Fms. xi. 228.

at-hjúkan (now aðhjúkrun), f. [hjuka at e-m], heed, attention, care in the most tender sense of that word, e. g. that of a mother to her sick child; attention to a sick, frozen, shipwrecked, or destitute person, Fms. viii. 444, Finnb. 234, v. l.

at-hlaup, n. onslaught, assault, Fms. viii. 35, Bjarn. 37; í einu a., in one rush in a battle, Ld. 64; veita manni a. eðr sár, violence or wound, K. Á. 48; tókst nú þegar a., a hand to hand fight, Gullþ. 12.

at-hlátr, m. [hlægja at], a laughing-stock, Fms. ii. 182.

at-hlægi, n. ridicule, mockery; með a. ok sköm, ridicule and shame, Fms. x. 279; ef a. er vert, if it be ridicule, vi. 208; a. eðr úmannan, a laughing-stock and a wretch, Sturl. iii. 240.

at-hlægiligr, adj. ridiculous, Band. 13.

at-huga, að, to heed, bethink oneself, pay attention to, consider; a. sik, to take heed, Sturl. iv. 75 in a mod. MS.; cp. Bs. i. 744 (now freq.)

at-hugall, adj. heedful, careful, Sturl. iii. 125, Sks. 296.

at-hugi, a, m. heed, care, attention, consideration, Hom. 52; af öllum a., carefully, Post. 656 B; hið elzta (barn) hefir ekki a. hit minsta, the eldest bairn has no head on his shoulders, El. 19, Sks. 482; með a. ok áhyggju, with care and concern, Fms. x. 281.  COMPDS: athuga-lauss, adj. heedless.athuga-leysi, n. beedlessness, Stj. 6, Fas. i. 245; hlýtr jafnan íllt af a., 'Don't care' comes ever to a bad end (a proverb), Grett. 118 A.  athugaliga, adv. attentively, Sks. 360.  athuga-litill, adj. little careful, heedless, Bs. i. 190.  athuga-sarnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. attentively, attentive, Sks. 600, 360, 6, 472.  athuga-samr, adj. heedful, attentive, Hom. 58, Fms. viii. 447.   athuga-verðr, adj. worthy of attention, Fms. x. 276.

at-hvarf, n. [hverfa at, to turn towards]: a. in the phrase, göra e-m a., to pay one compliments, pay attention to, Bs. i. 801; hann er vel við þormóð ok görði meir at athvarfi við hann, he treated Th. respectfully or cultivated his friendship, Fbr. 119; Sighvatr görði at athvarfi um sendimenn konungs, ok spurði þá margra tíðenda, he communicated with them or paid themvisits, attended to them, Hkr. ii. 214.  β. athvarf is now freq. in the sense of shelter, refuge.

at-hygli, f. [athugall], beedfulness, attention; með a., Sks. 1, 445 B, 564, Fms. vi. 446, (now used as neut.)

at-hyllast, t, dep. (qs. athyglast), to lean towards, be on the side of, do homage to; with acc., af því skolu vér a. þenna engil í beonum varum, to cultivate his friendship, Hom. A. M. 237. 7; at a. ok sækja e-n at ámaðar orði, 655 xiii. B. 4, Bs. i. 202; setlum vér þann yðvarn at a. er mestan görir várn sóma, take his part, who ..., Fms. v. 273.

at-hæfi (not athœfi, vide Sks. B., which carefully distinguishes between œ and œ), n. conduct, behaviour; a. kristinna manna, their rites, service, Fms. ii. 37, cp. Ld. 174; í öllu sínu a., conduct, proceeding, Fms. xi. 78, viii. 253: manners, ceremonies, Sks. 301; konunga a., royal manners, Hom.: þetta hefir verit a. (instinct) þessa skrímsls, Sks.: deeds, doings; skal nú þar standa fyrst um a. þeirra, Mag. 11. Now freq. in a theol. sense.

at-hæfiligr, adj. . fit, fitting, due, Eg. 103, Finnb. 228.

at-höfn, f. [hafast at, to commit], conduct, behaviour, business; hvat er hann hafði frétt um a. Skota konungs, his doings and whereabouts, Eg. 271; fengin var þeim önnur a., occupation, Fbr. 19; ganga til skripta ok segja sínar athafnir, to go to shrift and confess his behaviour, Fms. i. 301; í athöfnum margir, en sumir í kaupferðum, Orkn. 298; er þat ok likligt at þú fylgir þar eptir þinni a., (ironically) that you will go your own foolish way, Fs. 4.  COMPDS: athafnar-lauss, adj. inactive, Fms. iii. 128, 154.  athafnar-leysi, n. inactivity.athafnar-maðr and athafna-, m. a busy enterprising man, Hkr. ii. 255, Fær. 209. In a bad sense, a laughing-stock; gora e-n at athafnarmanni, to make a butt of him, Sturl. i. 24, 181, this last sense seems to be peculiar to the first and second part (þáttr) of the Sturl., which were not written by Sturla himself, but by an unknown author.

at-kall, n. demand, call, request, solicitation, Bs. i. 735, Al. 64, Ver. 48.

at-kast, n. a casting in one's teeth, a rebuke, reproach, Mag. 65.

at-keri, anchor, v. akkeri.

at-kváma, and later form aðkoma or atkoma, u, f. arrival, Ld. 78, Fms. vi. 239; metaph. (eccl.) pain, visitation, Hom. 68, 121. Now used in many compds: aðkomu-maðr, m. a guest, etc.

at-kvæði, n. [kveða at orði].  I. a technical phrase, esp. in law; svá skal sækja at öllu um fjártökuna, sem þjófsök fyrir utan a., the proceeding is all the same with the exception of the technical terms, Grág. ii. 190; at þeim atkvæðum er Helgi hafði í stefnu við þik, the expressions used by Helgi in summoning thee, Boll. 354.  β. a word, expression in general; þat er þrífalt a., mannvit, siðgæði ok hæverska, Sks. 431, 303; en þó vér mælim alla þessa hluti með breiðu a., in broad, general terms, Anecd. 21, Þiðr. 1.  γ. now used gramm. for a syllable, and in many compds such as, eins atkvæðis orð, a monosyllable; tveggja, þriggja ... atkvæða ..., etc., a dissyllable, etc.: 'kveða at' also means to collect the letters into syllables, used of children when they begin to spell. Old writers use atkvæði differently in a grammatical sense, viz. = pronunciation, sound, now framburðr; þeir stafir megu hafa tveggja samhljóðenda a., hverr einn, Skálda (Thorodd) 165; eins stafs a.; a. nafns hvers þeirra; þá er þat a. hans í hverju máli sem eptir lifir nafnsins (in the last passage = the name of the letter), 168.  II. a decision, sentence, almost always in plur.; beið hann þinna atkvæða, Nj. 78; var því vikit til atkvæða (decision) Marðar, 207; bíða atkvæða Magnúss konungs um álög ok pyntingar, Fms. vi. 192: sing., var þat biskups a., his decision, v. 106; hvi gegnir þetta a. (sentence) jarl, rangliga dæmir þú, 656 B; þínu boði ok a., command and decisive vote, Stj. 203; af atkvæði guðanna, by their decree, Edda 9, Bret. 53.  β. now a law term = vote, and in a great many compds: atkvæða-greiðsla, division; atkvzða-fjöldi, votes; a. munr, majority, etc.  III. a decree of fate, a spell, charm, in a supernatural sense, = ákvæði; af forlogum ok a. ramra hluta, Fs. 23; konungr sagði úhægt at göra við atkvæðum, ... to resist charms (MS. akvedni, where it is uncertain whether the reading is ákv- or atkv-); a. Finnunnar, the spell of the Finnish witch, 22; svá mikil a. (pl.) ok ilska fylgði þessum álögum, Fas. i. 404, iii. 239, Fms. x. 172.  COMPDS: atkvæða-lauss, adj. [kveða at, to be important], unimportant, of no consequence, Fas. ii. 242.  atkvæða-maðr, m. a man of weighty utterance, of importance, Fms. xi. 223.  atkvæða-mikill, adj. of weight, note, authority, Nj. 51

atla, að, to 'ettle', intend, purpose, Bret. 144; so according to the modern pronunciation of ætla, q. v.

at-laga, u, f. an attack in a sea fight, of the act of laying ships alongside; skipa til a., Fms. i. 169, iv. 103; hörð a., hard fight, xi. 133, Hkr. ii. 272, Nj. 125, Sturl. iii. 63, etc.: more rarely of an attack on land, Fms. vii. 244, Al. 122, Ísl. ii. 83, Bret. 50.  β. an advance, landing, without notion of fight, Fms. ix. 430.  COMPDS: atlögu-flokkr, m. the name of a poem describing a battle by sea, Sturl. iii. 63.  atlögu-skip, n. a ship engaged in battle, Fms. viii. 382.

at-lát, n. [láta at e-u, to comply with], compliance, Hom. 47; synda a., indulgence in sin, Greg. 31. Now, atlæti, n. and atlot, n. pl. treatment; gott atlæti, kindness; ill atlot, harshness, esp. in respect to children.

at-lega, u, f. shelter for sheep and cattle on the common pastures; hagbeit á vetrum ok a. fé sínu at selinu, Dipl. v. 4 (rare).

at-mæli, n. abuse, offensive language, Bs. ii. 181.

atoma, u, f. an atom, Rb. 114; a weight, subdivision of an ounce, 532. 1.

at-orka, u, f. energy, activity.COMPDS: atorku-maðr, m. an active man.atorku-samr, adj. active. atorku-semi, f. activity.

ATRAS—AUÐMJUKLIGA. 31

at-rás, f. an on-rush, charge, attack, Fms. viii. 413, v. árás.

at-reið, f. (milit.) a riding at, a charge of horse, Fms. vi. 417, in the description of the battle at Stamford Bridge: Hkr. iii. 162 has áreið, but some MSS. atreið, vii. 57.  β. the act of riding at or over, Nj. 21; esp. in the translation of French romances of tilting in tournaments, Str. (freq.)  COMPD: atreiðar-áss, m. a quintain pole, at which to ride a-tilt, El. 15.

at-rekandi, m. pressing efforts, exertions; svá mikill a. var görr um leitina, the search was carried on so thoroughly, Band. 4 C; cp. reki.

at-renna, u, f. a slip.  COMPD: atrennu-lykkja, u, f. a running knot, a noose, Fms. vi. 368.

at-rið, now atriði, n.  1. = atreið, movement, in the phrase, hann hafði allt eitt atriðit, he did both things at once, in the twinkling of an eye, Grett. 95 new Ed.  2. a gramm. term in the compd atriðs-klauf, f. probably = ἀσύνδετον, Edda (Ht.) 124, cp. Ed. Havn. ii. 154, cp. Skálda 193; atrið would thus mean a word, sentence. It is now very freq. in the form atriði, n. in a metaph. sense, the chief point in a sentence, or a part, paragraph, and used in many compds.  Atriðr, m. is one of the poët. names of Odin, the wise (?).

at-róðr, rs, m. a rowing at, i. e. an attack made (by a ship) with oars, Fms. ii. 310, Hkr. ii. 272, etc.  β. gener. rowing towards, Jb. 308.

at-samr, adj. [at, n.], quarrelsome, an ἅπ. λεγ., Fms. iv. 205; cp. Hkr. ii. l. c.

at-seta, u, f. a royal residence; hafa a., to reside, used especially of kings, Fms. i. 23, x. 209, Hkr. i. 63, Eg. 170, Nj. 5, etc.

at-setr, rs, n. id., vide konungs-atsetr.

at-skiljanligr, adj. [Dan. adskellig], various, different, Karl. 206, (an unclass. word.)

at-skilnaðr, ar, m., in mod. Icel. = parting, separation.β. discord, Grett. 88; A, B, C, however, have áskilnaðr.

at-sókn, f. [sækja at], onslaught, attack, Fms. i. 64, Nj. 100, etc.  β. a throng of guests or visitors seeking hospitality; föng vóru lítil en a. mikill, Bs. i. 63 (now freq.)  γ. in popular superstition, the foreboding of a guest's arrival; sleep, drowsiness, or the like, caused, as people believe, by the fylgja or 'fetch' of the guest, his sure forerunner; the Icelanders speak of a good, agreeable aðsókn, or a bad, disagreeable one; a man may 'sækja vel eðr illa að,' as he is an agreeable guest or not. Only a 'fey' man's fylgja follows after him. Vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 354 sqq.  COMPD: atsóknar-maðr, m. aggressor, Fs. 70.

at-spurning, f. [spyrja at], 'speering' at, inquiry, in the phrase, leiða atspurningum, which ought, however, to be in two words, Fb. i. 216.

at-staða, u, f., now aðstoð, n. a standing by, backing, support, Bs. i. 846.  β. earnest request, Mar. (Fr.)

at-stuðning, f. and -ingr, m. [styðja at], support, Fas. i. 24.

at-súgr, m. prop. pressure [súgr] caused by crowding; now freq. in the phrase, göra a. að e-m, to mob one.β. the phrase, bora frekan atsúg um e-t (where the metaphor is taken from boring), to deal harshly with, pierce through to the marrow, Orkn. 144: cp. Fms. vii. 29.

at-svif, n. incident, bearing, Sks. 682.  β. medic. lipothymia, a fainting fit, swoon, Fél. ix. 185; cp. að svífa yfir e-n, to be taken in a fit, Sturl. iii. 286.

at-tú, by assimilation = at þú, that thou, freq. e. g. in the Orkn. new Ed.

at-tönn, f. [at, n.], a tusk, Fas. i. 366.

at-veizla, u, f. [veita at], assistance, Fms. x. 60, v. l.

at-verknaðr, m. work, especially in haymaking; Þórgunnu var ætlað nautsfóðr til atverknaðar, to toss and dry it, Eb. 26: now, vinna at heyi, to toss it for drying.

at-vik, n. [víkja at], mostly in plur. details, particulars; in the phrases, eptir atvikum, according to the circumstances of each case, Gþl. 403; atvik sakar, the particulars of a case, Sks. 663; með atvikum, circumstantially, chapter and verse, Fas. iii. 330: in Stj. 179 it seems to mean gestures.II. an onset, prob. only another way of spelling atvígi, N. G. L. ii. 65; at ek geta eigi hefnt þessa atviks er mér er gört, that I cannot get this affront avenged which has been done me, Grett. 151 A.

at-vinna, u, f. means of subsistence, support, Grág. i. 294, Jb. 151, Fær. 37, Stj. 143, 291, 623. 41, 656 A, 655. 20, Clem. 56, Jb. 151, Fms. v. 239: labour, occupation, Anecd. 20, Sks. 603, (now very freq.)  COMPD: atvinnu-lauss, adj. without means of subsistence, Fms. ii. 97.

at-vist, f. [vesa at], presence, esp. as a law term, opp. to an alibi, the act of being present at a crime: the law distinguishes between ráð (plotting), tilför (partaking), and a. (presence), Grág. ii. 37; vera í atsókn ak a., to be present and a partaker in the onslaught, Nj. 100.  β. transl. of the Lat. assiduitas, 677. 12.

at-vígi, n. onset, onslaught, N. G. L. ii. 65, cp. i. 126, Fas. ii. 244.

at-yrði, n. pl. abusive words, Fs. 5, Fms. iii. 154.

AUÐ-, adverbial prefix to a great many adjectives, adverbs, and participles, seldom to subst. nouns, [not found in Ulf.; A. S. eâð, as in eâð-medu, humilitas, and also as a separate adj. eâde. facilis; Old Engl. 'eath,' 'uneath,' for 'easy,' 'uneasy;' Hel. ôð and ôði, facilis, unôði, difficilis], easy, opp. to tor-. To this 'aud' and not to 'old' may perhaps be referred some of the compds of aud and awd in Scottish and provincial English. Thus 'audie' in Scotch means an easy careless fellow; 'aud farand,' or 'auld farand,' may both mean easy going: v. the words in Jamieson and the Craven Glossary.

auða, u, f. desolation, Þiðr. 2.

auð-beðinn, adj. part. [A. S. eâðbede], easily persuaded to do a thing, with gen. of the thing, Eg. 17, 467.

auð-bættr, adj. part. easily compensated for, Glúm. (in a verse).

auð-eggjaðr, adj. part. easily egged on to do, with gen., Fms. v. 62.

auð-fenginn, adj. part. easy to get, Fs. 62, Grett. 113 A, Mag. I, where it is spelt auðu-; cp. toru- = tor-.

auð-fengr, adj. id., Hým. 18; a. var lið, 655 xxviii, Fms. v. 274.

auð-fundinn, adj. part. easy to find, in promptu, Hkr. ii. III; neut. used metaph. easy to perceive, clear, Eg. 54, Ld. 194, v. l.

auð-fyndr, adj. an older form, id., used only as neut. easily perceived, clear; þat var a., at..., it could easily be seen, that..., Ld. 194.

auðga, að, [Ulf. auþagjan = μακαρίζειν; A. S. eâðigjan = beatum facere], to enrich, Bs. i. 320, Stj. 68; reflex., hafði Noregr mikit auðgast, N. had grown very wealthy, Fms. vi. 448:—to make happy, er alla elskar ok auðgar, i. 281, Th. 77.

auð-gengr, adj. easy to pass; stígr a., 677. 5.

auð-ginntr, adj. part. easily cheated, credulous, Lex. Poët.

auð-gætligr, adj. easy to get, common, Fms. i. 261.

auð-gætt, n. adj. easy to get, = auðfundit, Lex. Poët., Hb. 6 (1865).

auð-görr and later form auð-görðr, adj. part. easily done, Fas. i. 74.

auð-heyrt, n. adj. part. easily heard, clear, evident, Ld. 266.

auðigr and auðugr, adj. [Ulf. auþags = μακάριος, auþagei, f. = μακαρισμός; Hel. ódag = beatus, dives; A. S. eâðig, beatus, opulentus; O. H. G. ôtag], contracted before an initial vowel into auðgan, auðgir, auðgum; uncontr. form auðigan = auðgan, Fms. i. 112, etc.; now used uncontracted throughout, auðugir, auðugar, etc.; rich, opulent; ríkr ok a., powerful and opulent, Eg. 22, 83; at fé, wealthy, Fas. i. 49, Ísl. ii. 323, Nj. 16, Post. 656 C; skip mikit ok a., with a rich lading, Fms. xi. 238; a. at kvikfé, Ld. 96; superl. auðgastr, Eg. 25, Ísl. ii. 124; England er auðgast at lausafé allra Norðrlanda, Fms. xi. 203.

AUÐIT, n. part. of an obsolete verb analogous to auka ('ablaut' au—jó—au), [cp. Swed. öde, fatum; auðna, luck; auðr, opes, etc.], used in many phrases, and often answering to the Gr. αἶσα, πεπρωμένον, with dat. pers. and gen. of the thing; e-m er, verðr, auðit e-s, it falls to one's lot; úlíkligt er at oss verði þeirrar hamingju a., it is unlikely that this good fortune is destined for us, Eg. 107; koma mun til mín feigðin..., ef mér verðr þess a., if that be ordained for me, Nj. 103; þó at mér verði lífs a., though life may be granted to me, Fms. i. 47; konungr lét græða menn sína sem lífs var a., those whose lot it was to live, who were not mortally wounded, Eg. 34; hafði þeim orðit sigrs a., had won the day, Eg. 86; var þeim eigi erfingja a., to them was no heir granted by fate, 625. 83: with 'at' and an infin., mun oss eigi a. verða at fá þvílíkan, Fms. x. 339: absol., hafi þeir gagn er a. er, let them gain the day to whom the god of battles grants it, xi. 66: with the addition of 'til;' ek ætla okkr lítt til ástafunda a. hafa orðit, we have had bad luck in love, 310: auðinn, masc. appears twice or thrice in poetry, auðins fjár, means possessed, Skv. 3. 37: in prose in Al. 21 (by Bishop Brand), láta auðins bíða, to submit to fate, to be unconcerned; even in compar., hvárt hyggit ér manni nokkuru at auðnara (any more chance), at hann fái knúta þessa leysta, of the Gordian knot, 19, at auðnu, v. auðna [cp. A. S. eâden, datus, concessus; Hel. ôdan, genitus, natus: cp. also jóð, proles, a word perhaps of the same root.]

auð-kendr, adj. part. easy to 'ken' or recognise, of distinguished appearance, Al. 21, Fms. i. 44.

auð-kenni, n. (= einkenni), mark, distinction, Karl. 180.

auð-kenniligr, adj. = auðkendr, Hrafn. 13.

auð-kenning, f. a clear mark, sure sign, Sturl. i. 70. MS. A. M. 122 B; áminning suits better, so the Ed. and Brit. Mus. 11, 127.

auð-keyptr, adj. part. easily bought, cheap, Hkr. iii. 246.

auð-kjörinn, adj. part. easily chosen, easy to decide between, Sd. 170.

auð-kumall, adj. (now viðkvæmr), very touchy, tender, sensitive; a. ok lasmeyrr, of a snake's belly, easy to wound, Stj. 98; öngvær (depressed) ok auðkumul, (fem.) touchy, Bs. i. 323; a. í skapi, irritable, 353.

auð-kvisi, v. aukvisi.

auð-kvæðr, adj. easily talked over, easily moved, obsequious, pliable; eptirlátr ok a., N. G. L. ii. 400; ertú ok eigi a. (hard to move) til fylgðar, Grett. 122 new Ed. = auðbeðinn.

axið-kymli, f. [auðkumall], touchiness, sensitiveness; a. konunnar, a woman's touchiness or weakness, 623. 36.

auð-kýfingr, m. [kúfa, accumulare], poët. a heaper up of riches, a wealthy man, a Croesus; örr maðr er a., Edda 107; in prose in Sturl. i. 38, Al. 5; ríkismenn ok a., Post. 656 C. 30.

auð-lagðr, adj. part. wealthy, whence auðlegð, Lex. Poët.

auð-lattr, adj. part. docile, easily kept in check, Glúm. 396 (in a verse).

auð-látinn, adj. [lát, manners], of easy affable manners, Str. 36.

auð-legð, f. easy circumstances, wealth, Bs. i. (Laur. S.) 836; now freq.

auð-ligr, adj. happy, lucky, Fms. vi. 420 (in a verse).

auð-maðr, m. a wealthy man, Fms. ii. 21, Ísl. ii. 385, 125.

auð-mjúkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. humbly, Bs. i. 773, Grett. 207 new Ed.

32 AUDMJUKR—AUFUSA.

auð-mjúkr, adj. humble, meek, compar. auðmjúkari, Sturl. i. 45; a. iðran, devoted repentance, H. E. i. 510.

auð-munaðr, adj. part. easily remembered, not to be forgotten, Fms. vi. 249, v. l.

auð-mýkja, t and ð, to humble; a. sik, to humble oneself, Bs. i. 854.

auð-mýkt, f. meekness, humility, Fms. viii. 54, v. l.; now freq. in theol. writers.

auðn, f. [auðr, adj.], a wilderness, desert; auðn Sinai, Stj. 300.  β. land which has no owner or is waste, uninhabited; bygðust þá margar auðnir víða, many wide wastes were then peopled, Eg. 15; alla auðn landsins, Fms. i. 5, viii. 33, Greg. 33: the auðn was claimed as a royal domain; konungr á hér a. alla í landi, Fms. xi. 225; um þær auðnir er menn vilja byggja, þá skal sá ráða er a. á, the owner of the waste, N. G. L. i. 125: different from almenningr, compascuum or common.2. more specially a deserted farm or habitation; sá bær hét síðan á Hrappstöðum, þar er nú a., Ld. 24; liggja í a., to lie waste, 96, Grág. ii. 214, cp. 278. 3. destruction; auðn borgarinnar (viz. Jerusalem), Greg. 40, Rb. 332, Ver. 43, Sd. 179 (where auðnu, f.); ríki mitt stendr mjök til auðnar, is in a state of desolation, Fms. xi. 320, Bret. 68: insolvency, utter poverty, Grág. i. 62.  COMPDS: auðnar-hús, n. deserted huts, on mountains or in deserts, Grág. ii. 158.  auðnar-óðal, n. impoverished estates, Sks. 333.  auðnar-sel, n. deserted shielings, Orkn. 458.

auðna, u, f. desolation, Sd. 179, bad reading.

auðna, u, f. [auðit], fortune, and then, like αἶσα, good luck, one's good star, happiness, (cp. heill, hamingja, gæfa, all of them feminines,—good luck personified as a female guardian), in the phrase, a. ræðr, rules; auðna mun því ráða, Fate must settle that, Nj. 46, Lv. 65; ræðr a. lífi (a proverb), Orkn. 28; arka at auðnu (or perh. better dat. from auðinn), v. arka, Nj. 185, v. l.; at auðnu, adv. prosperously, Sl. 25; blanda úgiptu við a., Fms. ii. 61; með auðnu þeirri at þorkatli var lengra lífs auðit, by that good fortune which destined Thorkel for a longer life, Orkn. 18 (50). Cp. the Craven word aund in the expression I's aund to'ot, 'I am ordained to it, it is my fate.'  COMPDS: auðnu-lauss, adj. luckless, Fas. ii. 240.  auðnu-leysi, n. ill fate.auðnu-leysingi, a, m. a luckless man.auðmi-maðr, m. a lucky man, luck's favourite, Gullþ. 28, Ld. 40, Fas. i. 340.  auðnu-samliga, adv. fortunately, Finnb. 344.

auðna, að, impers. to be ordained by fate; ef honum auðnaði eigi aptr at koma, if it was not ordained by fate that he should come back, Fms. ix. 350; sem auðnar, as luck decides, Fb. i. 160, Fas. iii. 601, Lv. 30: with gen., ef Guð vill at þess auðni, that it shall succeed, Bs. i. 159, v. l., þat is less correct: now freq. in a dep. form, e-m auðnast, one is successful, with following infin.

auð-næmiligr, adj. [nema], easy to learn, teachable, Sks. 16.

auð-næmr, adj. easily learned, soon got by heart, Sks. 247 B; auðnæm er ill Danska, bad Danish is soon learnt (a proverb); auðnæmast þó hið vonda er, Pass. 22. 10.

auð-prófaðr, adj. part. easily proved, Laur. S. MS. 180. 85.

AUÐR, f. [Swed. ôde, fatum], fate, destiny, only used in poetry in the phrase, fá auðar, to die, Ísl. ii. 389 (in a verse); haga til auðar, to avail towards one's happiness, Gísl. 59 (in a verse). Auðr is also a fem. pr. name.

AUÐR, adj. [Ulf. auþs = ἔρημος; O. H. G. odi; Hel. odi = inanis: cp. A. S. ydan and édan, vastare; Germ. öde and öden: the root is rare in A. S. and lost in Engl.]:—empty, void, desert, desolate; húsin voru auð, uninhabited, Ld. 96; koma at auðu landi, of the first colonists when coming to Iceland, Landn. 316, opp. to 'koma at bygðu landi,' or 'land numið;' auð búð, Eg. 727; auð borð, void of defenders, of ships that have lost their men in fight, Fms. ii. 329; auð skip (= hroðin), all the crew being slain or put to flight, Hkr. iii. 126.  β. metaph., auðr at yndi, cheerless, distressed, Stj. 421; sitja auðum höndum, now used of being idle: in the Ad. 22, með a. hendr means empty-handed, without gifts; so also in Stj. 437. 1 Sam. vi. 3, answering to 'empty' in the Engl. text.

AUÐR, s, and poët. ar, m. [Goth. auds = μακαρία is suggested; it only appears in Ulf. in compds or derivatives, audags adj. beatus, audagei f. beatitudo, audagian, beare; A. S. eâd, n. means opes; Hel. od = bonum, possessio: it is probably akin to óðal; cp. also feudal (A. S. feoh = fee), alodial]:—riches, wealth, opulence; auð fjár (only in acc.), abundance, is a freq. phrase; also, auð landa ok fjár, Edda 15; oss er þar mikit af sagt auð þeim, Band. 8, Fms. ii. 80, 623. 21; draga saman auð, id. In proverbs, margan hefir auðr apat; auðrinn er valtastr vina, wealth is the ficklest of friends, Hm. 77 etc.

auð-ráðinn, adj. easily to 'read' or explain, Fas. iii. 561.  β. easy to manage, v. úauðráðinn.

auð-ráðr, adj. easily guided, pliable, yielding, Bs. i. 265.

auðræði, n. pl. means, property, wealth, Bs. i. 146, 129, 136 (where it = income), 158, 68 (where the gen. auðráða = auðræða), Stj. 345, Hom. 68, Fms. iv. 111; not very freq., auðæfi is a more current word.

auð-sagt, part. easily told.

auð-salr, m. treasury (poët.), Fsm. 7.

auð-sénn, part., now auðséðr (cp. however Pass. 6. 4, 7), easily seen, evident, Hrafn. 13, K. Å. 214.

auð-skeptr, part. (in a proverb), Ad. 21, eigi eru a. almanna spjör, it is not easy to make shafts to all people's spear heads, i. e. to act so that all shall be pleased, cp. Hm. 127; auð-skæf (as given in the Skálda, where this line is cited) may be a better reading = not easily carved or made so as to suit everybody.

auð-skilligr, adj. easy to distinguish, understand, Skálda 167.

auð-skæðr, adj. part. easily injured, Eg. 770; delicate, tender, Stj. 345. Deut. xxviii. 56, Bs. i. 353.

auð-snúit, n. part. easily turned, Hkr. ii. 271.

auð-sóttligr, adj. easy to perform, an easy task, Fms. xi. 282.

auð-sóttr, part. easily won, easy to win; mál a., Eg. 38, 200, in both cases of a happy suitor; a. land, land lightly won, Fms. iii. 49; auðsóttr til bæna, pliable, yielding, Al. 4: eigi a., not easily matched, Valla L. 205.

auð-sveipr (and now also auðsveipinn, whence auðsveipni, f.), adj. pliable, yielding, now esp. used of good, obedient children, Bs.

auð-sýna, d, to shew, exhibit, Bs. i. 274; má þat vel auðsýnast, to be seen, Stj. 13.

auð-sýniligr, adj. evident, and -liga, adv. clearly, Fms. i. 142, Stj. 14, 26.

auð-sýning, f. show, exhibition, Skálda 199. transl. of Lat. demonstratio; H. E. i. 517. proof, demonstration.

auð-sýnn, adj. easily seen, clear; hon var síðan kölluð Delos svá sem a., Stj. 87, 250: neut. = evident, Hom. 154, Eg. 736, Fms. i. 72.

auð-sæligr, adj. id., Fms. vii. 148.

auð-sær, adj., neut. auðsætt, fem. auðsae, easily seen, clear, Bjarn. 63, Fms. x. 175, 655 xi. 1: metaph. clear, evident, Magn. 436, 625. 174: neut. evident, Fms. i. 42, Hrafn. 13: compar. auðsærri, more conspicuous, Fms. ii. 322: superl. auðsæstr, Ld. 236; auðsæust, Fms. iv. 321.

auð-trúa, adj. ind. credulous, Lex. Poët. (freq.)

auð-tryggi, f. ind., now auðtryggni, f. credulity, Gísl. 62.

auð-tryggr, adj. credulous, Stj. 199. Grett. 130 A, Fms. viii. 447.

auð-van, n. bad luck, Lex. Poët.

auð-vandr, adj. very painstaking in doing one's duties, Bs. i. 141, an ἅπ. λεγ.

auð-ván, f. expectancy of fortunes (poët.), Lex. Poët.

auð-velda, d, to take lightly, make easy, Orkn. ch. 68.

auð-veldi, n. easiness, facility, Hom. 7. transl. of Lat. facultas; með a., as adv. easily, Fms. vii. 116, Karl. 131, 142: auðvelda-verk, n. an easy task, Grett. 127 new Ed.

auð-veldliga and -velliga, adv. easily, lightly, Fms. i. 87, Stj. 99, Hkr. i. 200; taka a. á e-u, to make light of a thing, Fms. xi. 124: compar. -ligar, i. 262, Stj. 130.

auð-veldligr and -velligr, adj. easy, Stj. 8, 356. Josh. vii. 2.

auð-veldr, adj. easy, Eg. 39: superl. -veldastr, Ld. 14; metaph. compliant, Bs. i. 256, Sturl. i. etc.

auð-vinr, m. (poët.) a charitable friend [A. S. eâðvine]; in the old poets freq. spelt otvin, v. Lex. Poët.  β. as a pr. name Auðunn; the etymology in Hkr. i. 12 is bad; and so is also the popular etymology of this word = none, fr. auðr, vacuus.

auð-virðiligr, etc., v. auvirð-.

auð-vitað, n. part. easy to know, clear, evident, Ld. 78, Finnb. 232: now often adv. = clearly, to be sure.

auð-víst, n. adj. sure, certain, Karl. 181.

auð-þeystr, adj. part. easy to make flow, Stor. 2 (dub. passage).

auð-þrifligr, adj. [probably = ör-þrifligr, fr. ör- priv. and þrifligr, robust, strong], feeble, weakly, Ísl. ii. 456, Fb. i. 275 (of weak frame).

auð-æfi qs. auðöfi, n. pl. ['auðr,' opes, and 'of;' = ofa-fé, q. v.; Lat. opes], opulence, abundance, wealth, riches, in the Grág. freq. = means of subsistence, emoluments, i. 269, 277 (twice), ii. 213, cp. Íb. 16, where it means emoluments: in the proper sense wealth, Hkr. i. 13, where it means gold and treasures, Sks. 334, 442; veg ok a., power and wealth, Greg. 23; himnesk a., Joh. 21; jarðlig a., Greg. 32. Matth. vi. 19, 20; mörg a., Eluc. 53, Hom. 151, etc.

aufi, interj. [a for. word; Germ. au weh], woe! alas! used with dat., a. mér, Mar. 167; acc., a. mik, 175; absol., 147: after the Reformation 'áví' and 'ó vei' occur, or 'vei' alone.

aufusa, u, f., in Norse MSS. spelt afusa, Dipl. i. 3; avusa, Str. 27, 54, Sks. 775 B; afuusa, N. G. L. i. 446. In Icel. always spelt with au, av, or ö, by changing the vowel, öfusa, aufusa, Ó. H. 155, where, however, some MSS. have aufussa, avfusa, Fms. viii. 39, 250; öfusa, Fs. 123; ofusa, 677. 3, Band. 6; öfussa, Bs. i. 481: the change of vowel is caused by the following f (v). The word is now quite obsolete, and its etymology is somewhat uncertain; it may be qs. á-fúss, or af-fúss, an 'af-' intens. and 'fúss,' willing, this last suggestion would best suit the Norse form. Its sense is thanks, gratitude, satisfaction, pleasure, and is almost exclusively used either as a supplement to 'þökk' or in such phrases as, kunna e-m au., or e-m er au. á e-u, to be pleased, gratified with; þakka með mikilli a., to thank heartily, Str. 27; ef yðr er þar nokkur a. á, if it be any pleasure to you, Fms. ix. 495; kunna e-m au. e-s, or with 'at,' to be thankful, Fb. ii. 257, Eg. 111, Ó. H. 56, Fms. viii. l. c., Bs. i. 481, H. E. i. 432, Eg. 522, Sturl. iii. 125, Fær. 209, 677. 3; leggja at móti þökk ok au., Ó. H. 155; viljum vér au. gefa þeim góðum

AUFUSUGESTR—AUK. 33

mönnum, we will thank them, Fms. viii. 250; var mönnum mikil ö. á því, much pleased by it, Fs. 123; hafa í móti þökk ok ö., Band. 19 new Ed.  COMPDS: aufusu-gestr, m. a welcome guest, Valla L. 217, Sturl. i. 178.  aufusu-orð, n. thanks, Gísl. 100.  aufvisu-svipr, m. friendly mien; sýna á sér au., Fs. 14.

au-fúss, adj. in a verse by Arnór, perhaps akin to the above, meaning eager, Orkn. 126: vide, however, Lex. Poët. s. v. ófur.

AUGA, n., gen. pl. augna, [Lat. oculus, a dimin. of an obsolete ocus; Gr. οφθαλμός (Boeot. ὀκταλμός); Sanskr. aksha: the word is common to Sanskrit with the Slavonic, Greek, Roman, and Teutonic idioms: Goth. augo; Germ. auge; A. S. eâge; Engl. eye; Scot. ee; Swed. öga; Dan. öje, etc. Grimm s. v. suggests a relationship to Lat. acies, acutus, etc. The letter n appears in the plur. of the mod. northern languages; the Swedes say 'ögon,' oculi, the Danes 'öjne;' with the article 'ögonen' and 'öjnene;' Old Engl. 'eyne;' Scot. 'een']:—an eye It is used in Icel. in a great many proverbs, e. g. betr sjá augu en auga, 'two eyes see better than one,' i. e. it is good to yield to advice: referring to love, unir auga meðan á sér, the eye is pleased whilst it can behold (viz. the object of its affection), Fas. i. 125, cp. Völs. rím. 4. 189; eigi leyna augu, ef ann kona manni, the eyes cannot bide it, if a woman love a man, i. e. they tell their own tale, Ísl. ii. 251. This pretty proverb is an ἅπ. λεγ. l. c. and is now out of use; it is no doubt taken from a poem in a dróttkvætt metre, (old proverbs have alliteration, but neither rhymes nor assonance, rhyming proverbs are of a comparatively late date): medic., eigi er sá heill er í augun verkir, Fbr. 75; sá drepr opt fæti (slips) er augnanna missir, Bs. i. 742; hætt er einu auganu nema vel fari, he who has only one eye to lose will take care of it (comm.); húsbóndans auga sér bezt, the master's eye sees best; glögt er gests augat, a guest's eye is sharp; mörg eru dags augu, the day has many eyes, i. e. what is to be hidden must not be done in broad daylight, Hm. 81; náið er nef augum, the nose is near akin to the eyes (tua res agitur paries quum proximus ardet), Nj. 21; opt verðr slíkt á sæ, kvað selr, var skotinn í auga, this often happens at sea, quoth the seal, when he was shot in the eye, of one who is in a scrape, Fms. viii. 402. In many phrases, at unna (to love) e-m sem augum í höfði sér, as one's own eye-balls, Nj. 217; þótti mér slökt it sætasta ljós augna minna, by his death the sweetest light of my eyes was quenched, 187: hvert grætr þú nú Skarphéðinn? eigi er þat segir Skarphéðinn, en hitt er satt at súrnar í augum, the eyes smart from smoke, 200: renna, líta augum, to seek with the eyes, to look upon: it is used in various connections, renna, líta ástaraugum, vánaraugum, vinaraugum, trúaraugum, öfundaraugum, girndarauga, with eyes of love, hope, friendship, faith, envy, desire: mæna a. denotes an upward or praying look; stara, fixed; horfa, attentive; lygna, blundskaka, stupid or slow; blína, glápa, góna, vacant or silly; skima, wandering; hvessa augu, a threatening look; leiða e-n a., to measure one with the eyes; gjóta, or skjóta hornauga, or skjóta a. í skjálg, to throw a side glance of dislike or ill-will; gjóta augum is always in a bad sense; renna, líta mostly in a good sense: gefa e-u auga, oculum adjicere alicui; hafa auga á e-u, to keep an eye on it; segja e-m e-t í augu upp, to one's face, Orkn. 454; at augum, adverb. with open eyes, Hervar. S. (in a verse), etc. As regards various movements of the eyes; ljúka upp augum, to open the eyes; láta aptr augun, to shut the eyes; draga auga í pung, to draw the eye into a purse, i. e. shut one eye; depla augum, to blink; at drepa titlinga (Germ. äugeln, blinzen), to wink, to kill tits with the suppressed glances of the eye; glóðarauga, a suffusion on the eye, hyposphagma; kýrauga. proptosis; vagl á auga, a beam in the eye; skjálgr, Lat. limus; ský, albugo; tekinn til augnanna, with sunken eyes, etc., Fél. ix. 192; a. bresta, in death: hafa stýrur í augum, to have prickles in the eyes, when the eyes ache for want of sleep: vatna músum, 'to water mice,' used esp. of children weeping silently and trying to hide their tears. As to the look or expression of the eyes there are sundry metaph. phrases, e. g. hafa fékróka í augum, to have wrinkles at the corners of the eyes, of a shrewd money getting fellow, Fms. ii. 84, cp. Orkn. 330, 188, where krókauga is a cognom.; kvenna-króka, one insinuating with the fair sex; hafa ægishjalm í augum is a metaphor of one with a piercing, commanding eye, an old mythical term for the magical power of the eye, v. Grimm's D. Mythol. under Ægishjalmr: vera mjótt á milli augnanna, the distance between the eyes being short, is a popular saying, denoting a close, stingy man, hence mjóeygr means close: e-m vex e-t í augu (now augum), to shrink back from, of a thing waxing and growing before one's eyes so that one dares not face it. As to the shape, colour, etc. of the eye, vide the adj. 'eygr' or 'eygðr' in its many compds. Lastly we may mention the belief, that when the water in baptism touches the eyes, the child is thereby in future life prevented from seeing ghosts or goblins, vide the words úfreskr and skygn. No spell can touch the human eye; en er harm sá augu hans (that of Loki in the shape of a bird), þá grunaði hann (the giant) at maðr mundi vera, Edda 60; í bessum birni þykist hón kenna augu Bjarnar konungs sonar, Fas. i. 51, vide Ísl. Þjóðs.  II. meton. and metaph. auga is used in a great many connections:  α. astron.; þjaza augu, the eyes of the giant Thiazi, is a constellation, probably the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux; the story is told in the Edda 47, cp. Harbarðsljóð 19; (Snorri attributes it to Odin, the poem to Thor.)  β. botan., auga = Lat. gemma, Hjalt. 38; kattarauga, cat's eye, is the flower forget-me-not.γ. the spots that form the numbers on dice, Magn. 530.  δ. the hole in a millstone; kvarnarauga, Edda 79, 221, Hkr. i. 121: the opening into which an axe handle is fastened, Sturl. ii. 91: a pit full of water, Fs. 45: nálarauga, a needle's eye: vindauga, wind's eye or window (which orig. had no glass in it), A. S. eag-dura (eye-door); also gluggi, q. v.: gleraugu, spectacles.ε. anatom., the pan of the hip joint, v. augnakarl, Fms. iii. 392: gagnaugu, temples.ζ. hafsauga, the bottom of the ocean, in the popular phrase, fara út í hafsauga, descendere ad tartara.η. poët. the sun is called heimsauga, dagsauga, Jónas 119.  COMPDS either with sing. auga or pl. augna; in the latter case mod. usage sometimes drops the connecting vowel a, e. g. augn-dapr, augn-depra, augn-fagr, etc.  auga-bragð (augna-), n. the twinkling of an eye, Hm. 77; á einu a., in the twinkling of an eye, Ver. 32, Edda (pref.) 146, Sks. 559, Rb. 568: a glance, look, snart a., Fms. ii. 174; mikit a., v. 335; úfagrligt a., Fs. 43; hafa a. af e-u, to cast a look at, Fbr. 49, Fms. xi. 424: in the phrase, at hafa e-n (or verða) at augabragði, metaph. to make sport of, to mock, deride, gaze at, Stj. 627, 567, Hm. 5, 29.  auga-brún, f. the eye-brow.auga-staðr, m. an eye-mark; hafa a. á e-u, to mark with the eye.auga-steinn (augna-), m. the eye-ball, Hkr. iii. 365, Fms. v. 152.  augna-bending, f. a warning glance, Pr. 452.  augna-blik, n. mod. = augnabragð, s.  augna-bólga, u, f. ophthalmia.augna-brá, f. the eye-lid, D. N. i. 216.  augna-fagr and aug-fagr, adj. fair-eyed, Fas. ii. 365, Fms. v. 200.  augna-fró, f. a plant, eye-bright, euphrasia, also augna-gras, Hjalt. 231.  augna-fræ, n. lychnis alpina.augna-gaman, n. a sport, delight for the eyes to gaze at, Ld. 202, Bær. 17, Fsm. 5 (love, sweetheart).  augna-gróm, n. (medic.) a spot in the eye; metaph., ekki a., no mere speck, of whatever can easily be seen.  augna-hár, n. an eye-lash.augna-hvannr, m. the eye-lid.augna-hvita, u, f. albugo.augna-karl, n. the pan of the hip joint; slíta or slitna or augnaköllunum, Fas. iii. 392.  augna-kast, n. a wild glance, Barl. 167.  augna-kláði, a, m. psorophthalmi.augna-krókr, n. the corner of the eye.augna-lag, n. a look, Ld. 154.  augna-lok, n. 'eye-covers,' eye-lids.augna-mein, n. a disease of the eye.augna-mjörkvi, a, m. dimness of the eye, Pr. 471.  augna-ráð, n. expression of the eye.augna-skot, n. a look askance, Gþl. 286, Fs. 44 (of cats).  augna-slím, n. glaucoma.augna-staðr, m. the socket of the eye, Magn. 532.  augna-sveinn, m. a lad leading a blind man, Str. 46.  augn-tepra, u, f. hippus.augna-topt, f. the socket of the eye.augna-verkr, m. pain in the eye, Hkr. ii. 257, Bs. i. 451, Pr. 471, Bjarn. 58.  augna-vik, n. pl. = augnakrókr.  augna-þungi, a, m. heaviness of the eye, Hkr. ii. 257.

aug-dapr, adj. weak-sighted, Fms. ii. 8: augdepra, u, f. amblyopia, Fél. ix. 191.

aug-lit, n. a face, countenance; fyrir a. alls lýðs, Stj. 326; fyrir Guðs a., before the face of God, Orkn. 170; í a. postulans, 623. 25, Ver. 7. Gen. vii. I ('before me'); fyrir konungs a., Sks. 283. Now much used, esp. theol.

aug-ljós, n. 'eye light,' in the phrase, koma í a., to appear. Fas. i. 80.

aug-ljóss, adj. clear, manifest, Fms. i. 229, Hkr. ii. 225.

aug-lýsa, t, to make known, manifest: subst. auglýsing, f.

aug-sjándi, part. seeing ocularily, Mart. 117.

aug-súrr, adj. blear-eyed, Stj. 171 (of Leah): súreygr is more freq.

aug-sýn, f. sight; koma í a. e-m, to appear before him, Eg. 458, 623. 12; í a. e-m, in the face of, Blas. 46.

aug-sýna, d, to shew, Fms. v. 200.

aug-sýniligr, adj. and -liga, adv. evident, visible, Gþl. 42.

AUK, adv. [cp. Goth. auk, freq. used by Ulf. as translation of Gr. γάρ; jah auk = καὶ γάρ; A. S. eâc; Engl. eke; Germ. auch].  I. it originally was a noun = augmentum, but this form only remains in the adverbial phrase, at auk, to boot, besides, Bs. i. 317 (freq.): adverbially and without 'at' besides; hundrað manna ok auk kappar hans, a hundred men and eke his champions, Fas. i. 77; þriggja marka fé, en konungr þat er auk er, the surplus, N. G. L. i. 350: cp. also such phrases as, auk þess at, besides that; auk heldr, v. heldr.  II. as a conj. also, Lat. etiam, occurs in very old prose, and in poetry; svá mun ek auk bletza þá konu es þú baðsk fyr, 655 ix. B. 2 (MS. of the 12th century), Hkr. ii. 370 (in a poem of Sighvat); this form, however, is very rare, as the word soon passed into ok, q. v.  III. used to head a sentence, nearly as Lat. deinde, deinceps, the Hebrew וּ‎, or the like; the Ormulum uses ac in the same way; in MSS. it is usually spelt ok; but it may be seen from poetic assonances that it was pronounced auk, e. g. auk und jöfri fræknum; hitt var auk at eykir, Vellekla, Hkr. i. 216: auk at járna leiki, Lex. Poët.; it is sometimes even spelt so, e. g. auk nær aptni skaltu Óðinn koma, Hm. 97, Hkr. i. 29, v. 1.; it is also freq. in the Cod. Fris. of the Hkr. This use of auk' or 'ok' is esp. freq. in old narrative poems such as the Ynglingatal (where it occurs about thirty-five times), in the Háleygjatal (about six times), and the Vellekla (about ten times): vide ok.  IV. simply for ok, and, as spelt on some Runic stones, but seldom, if ever, in written documents.

34 AUKA—AURR.

AUKA, jók, jóku (mod. juku), aukit [Lat. augere; Gr. ἄγξειν Ulf. aukan; A. S. eacan or ecan; Engl. to eche or eke; O. H. G. auhon]; pres. ind. eyk; subj. eyki or yki, mod. jyki. A weak form (aukar, aukaði, aukat) also occurs, esp. in Norse, and (as a Norwegianism) in Icel. writers, esp. after the year 1260, e. g. aukaðu, augebant, Barl. 138; aukaðist, augebatur, aukaði, augebat. Barl. 180, Fms. i. 140, 184, x. 21 (MSS. aukuðu or aukaði, and some even jóku), Róm. 234; subj. aukaðist, augeretur, Fms. vii. 158 in three Icel. vellum MSS.; only one has ykist, the strong genuine form. Pres. aukar, auget, and aukast, augetur, instead of eykr, eykst, Stj. 32: part. aukat (= aukit), O. H. L. 46; aukuð, aucta, Fms. x. 236. Even Snorri in the Edda has aukaðist, p. 3, both in the vellum MSS. Ob. and Eb.,—a form which is thoroughly unclassical; the poets use the strong form, and so Ari, who has jókk = jók ek, in the preface to Íb.;—so also the great bulk of the classical literature. Since the Reformation the strong form is the only one used either in speaking or writing.  I. Lat. augere, to augment, increase, with acc., eykr hann þar ætt sína, Fms. iii. 82; jók Njáll ekki hjón sín, Nj. 59; hét hann þeim at auka virðing þeirra, Eg. 33; þessi orð jóku mjök sök Adams, Sks. 542; jók nafn hans, Hom. 51, Nj. 33; var þá síðan aukuð (= aukin) veizlan, Fms. x. 236: absol., þat hálft er eykr, that half which is over and above, Js. 75: in the phrase, aukanda ferr um e-t, a thing is increasing, Nj. 139.  II. Lat. addere, to add to the whole of a thing; with the thing added in the dat., ok jókk (= jók ek) því es mér varð síðan kunnara, Íb. (pref.): impers., jók miklu við, increased greatly, Ld. 54; þá eykst enn ellefu nóttum við, eleven nights are still added, Rb. 28: followed by 'við,' auka e-u við e-t, to add to it, Nj. 41; 'til' is rare and unclassical, and seems almost a Danism, as 'föie til,' þetta til aukist, Vm. 7: auka synd (dat.) á synd (acc.) ofan, to heap sin upon sin, Stj. 274: aukast orðum við, to come to words, speak, Eg. ch. 58, v. l. (rare); ef þú eykr orði, if thou say'st a word more, Lex. Poët.  β. with acc. (a rare and unclassical Latinism), auka ny vandræði (= nyjum vandræðum) á hin fornu, Bs. i. 751.  γ. impers. in the phrase, aukar á, it increases, Róm. 234.  III. to surpass, exceed; þat er eykr sex aura, þá á konungr hálft þat er eykr, if it exceeds six ounces, the king takes half the excess, N. G. L. i. 281, Js. § 71; en ármaðr taki þat er aukit er, what is over and above, N. G. L. i. 165. Esp. used adverbially in the part. pass. aukit, aukin, more than, above, of numbers; aukin þrjú hundruð manna, three hundred men well told, Eg. 530, Fms. ix. 524, v. l.; með aukit hundrað manna, x. 184, Ld. 196; aukin hálf vætt, Grett. 141 new Ed.  β. in the phrases, þat er (eigi) aukat (aukit), it is no exaggeration, Jd. verse 22, the Ed. in Fms. xi. 169 has 'árla' (a false reading); pat er aukat, O. H. L. l. c.; orðum aukið, exaggerated, Thom. 73.

aukan, f. increase, K. Á. 20.

auki, a, m. eke [A. S. eaca; Old Engl. and Scot. eke or eik], increase, addition; Abram tók þann auka nafns síns, Ver. 14; a. öfundar ok hatrs, Stj. 192: cp. also in the phrase, verða at moldar auka, to become dust, to die, in a verse in the Hervar. S. Fas. i. 580; cp. maðr er moldu samr, man is but dust, Sl. 47; and another proverb, lauki er lítið gæft til auka, used by Sighvat (Lex. Poët.), the leek needs but little care to grow; sárs-auki, pain, Mirm. 47; Danmerkr auki is a poët. name of Zealand used by Bragi, Edda I: the phrase, í miklum auka, in a huge, colossal shape, Glúm. 345 (in a verse); hence perhaps comes the popular phrase, að færast í aukana (or haukana), to exert to the utmost one's bodily strength, Glámr færðist í alla auka (of one wrestling), Grett. 114 A, (Ed. 1853 has færðist í aukana.)  2. metaph. seed, germs, thou hast given me no seed, Stj. III. Gen. xv. 2; esp. the sperm of whales, amber, Sks. 137.  β. produce of the earth, Barl. 193, 200. γ interest of capital, N. G. L. ii. 380; vide áauki, sársauki, sakauki, i. 187.  COMPDS: auka-dagr, m. 'eke-day,' dies intercalaris, Rb. 488.  auka-hlutr, m. in the phrase, at aukahlut, to boot, Hom. 129.  auka-nafn, n. 'eke-name,' nickname, or additional name, Sks. 272.  auka-smíði, n. a superfluous thing, a mere appendix, Fms. ii. 359.  auka-tungl, n. intercalary moon, Rb. 116.  auka-verk, n. by-work, Bs. i. 326.  auka-vika, u, f. 'eke-week,' intercalary week, v. hlaupár.

auk-nafn, n. = aukanafn, 'eke-name.'

auk-nefna, d, to nickname, Landn. 243.

auk-nefni, n. 'eke-name,' a nickname:α. a defamatory name, punishable with the lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 146.  β. in a less strong sense; hann var svartr á hár ok hörund, ok því þótti honum a. gefit er hann var Birtingr kallaðr, he was swarth of hair and skin, and for that it seemed a nickname was given him when he was called 'Brighting,' Fms. vii. 157: Helgi átti kenningar nafn, ok var kallaðr hvíti; ok var þat eigi a., því at hann var vænn maðr ok vel hærðr, hvítr á hár, Helgi had a surname (in a good sense), and was called 'White;' and that was no nickname, for he was a handsome man and well-haired, white of hair, Fbr. 80: þú hyggr at ek muna vilja giptast einum bastarði,—eigi em ek bastarðr nema at a., of William the Conqueror, Fb. iii. 464. In old times, esp. at the time of the colonisation of Iceland, such nicknames were in freq. use, as may be seen from the index in the Landnama; they gradually went out of use, but still occur now and then throughout the whole of the Saga period in Icel. down to the 14th century.

aukning, f., Old Engl. 'eeking,' increase, Stj. 100, 176, Sks. 137.

au-kvisi, a, m. [prop. auð-kvisi, from auð, easy, and kveistinn, touchy; cp. kveisa, f. ulcus, dolor]; in old writers it is spelt with au or av, and sometimes with a double k, ökkvisi, Bs. i. 497 vellum MS. A. M. 499; auðkvisi, Ld. 236 C and the vellum MS. A. M. 122 A to Sturl. ii. 8; aukvisi, MS. 122 B; O. H. (Ed. 1853) reads aucvisi; it means a weakly, irritable, touchy person. Used esp. in the proverb, einn er au. ættar hverrar, cp. the Engl. there is a black sheep in every flock, Hkr. ii. 238: mun ek son minn láta heita Gizur; lítt hafa þeir aukvisar verit í Haukdæla ætt er svá hafa heitið hér til, Sturl. ii. 8, at the birth of earl Gizur. [The name Gizur was a famous name in this family, Gizur hviti, Gizur biskup, Gizur Hallsson, etc.]

AULANDI, an indecl. adj., qs. al-landi, an ἅπ. λεγ. in the proverb Nj. 10, illt er þeim er au. er alinn. [The root is prob. al- (Lat. alius), land, cp. A. S. ellend or elland (Hel. elilendi), alienus, peregrinus; Old Engl. alyant; O. H. G. alilanta (whence N. H. G. elend, miser): there is in Icel. also a form erlendr, prob. a corruption for ellendr. This root is quite lost in the Scandin. idioms with the single exception of the proverb mentioned above, and the altered form er-.] The MSS. of the Nj. l. c. differ; some of them have á úlandi in two words, in terra malâ; Johnsonius has not made out the meaning: the proper sense seems to be exul ubique infelix. In olden times peregrinus and miser were synonymous, the first in a proper, the last in a metaphorical sense: so the Lat. hostis ( = hospes) passed into the sense of enemy. The spelling with ö (ölandi) ought perhaps to be preferred, although the change of vowel cannot be easily accounted for.

auli, a, m. a dunce, aulaligr adj., aula-skapr m., aulast dep., etc., do not occur, as it seems, in old writers; prop. a slug (?); cp. Ivar Aasen s. vv. aula, auling.

aum-hjartaðr, adj. tender-hearted, charitable, Stj. 547, Hom. 109.

aumindi, n. painful feeling from a wound or the like, Fél. ix. 192.

aumingi, ja, m. a wretch, in Icel. in a compassionate sense; Guðs a., 655 xxxii. 15, Bs. i. 74, Hom. 87.

aumka, að, to bewail, to complain, esp. in the impers. phrase, a. sik, to feel compassion for, Bær. 11, Al. 10, Róm. 182, Bret. 98, Fagrsk. ch. 34; now freq. used in reflex., aumkast yfir e-t, to pity.

aumkan, f. lamentation, wailing. El. 10.

aumleikr, m. misery, Stj. 428, Bs. i. 321; now also used of the sore feeling of a wound or the like, v. aumr.

aumligr, adj. and -liga, adv. [A. S. earmlic], poorly, wretched, Grett. 161, Fms. i. 138, v. 218, Sturl. ii. 13, Bær. 4, Magn. 432, H. E. iii. 366.

aum-neglurr, more correctly anneglur, cp. the Engl. agnail, hangnail, or naugnail, Fél. ix. 192; the lunula unguium is in Icel. called anneglur, and so is the skin round the finger-nail, id.

AUMR, adj. [Ulf. has arms = miser; Dan. and Swed. öm], seems with all its compounds to be a Scandin. word. It originally probably meant sore, aching, touchy, tender. In mod. Icel. it is sometimes used in this sense, in Dan. and Swed. only = sore, and metaph. tender.2. metaph. poorly, miserable, unhappy; styrkstú, aumr, strengthen thyself, wretched man, Orkn. 153, Hom. 15, 16, Th. 6, 16: in a bad sense = armr, Fms. ix. 414.

aum-staddr, adj. part. in a poor, wretched state, Stj. 475.

AUNGR, adj. pron., Lat. nullus, none, v. engi, enginn.

AUNGR, adj. narrow, Lat. angustus, v. ongr.

aung-vit, n., medic. lipothymia, a fainting-fit, Fél. ix. 193.

AURAR, m. pl. money, aura- in compds, v. eyrir.

aur-borð, n. the second plank from the keel of a boat, Vellekla and Edda (Gl.)

aur-falr, s, m. [aurr, lutum, falr], the spike at the butt-end of a spear, Gr. σαυρωτηρ þeir settu niðr aurfalina er þeir stóðu ok studdust við spjót sín, Fms. i. 280; síðan mældi hann grundvöll húsgörðarinnar fyrir þórhalli með aurfalnum á spjóti sínu, ii. 230; Abner sneri spjótinu í hendi sér ok lagði aurfalnum framan í kviðinn, Stj. 497, 2 Sam. ii. 23 (in Engl. Vers. 'the hinder end of the spear'), Art. 105.  β. used of an arrow, Fb. iii. 406.

aur-gáti, a, m. [qs. ör-gáti, ör- and geta], a tit-bit, good cheer, good treatment, a rare and now obsolete word; mun ekki af sparat, at veita oss allan þann a. er til er, Fms. xi. 341; um tilföng veizlunnar, sem bezt búandi allan a., Mar. 97; af þeim örgáta sem hon hafði framast föng til, 655 xxxi. 2.

aurigr, adj., only in the contr. forms aurgan (acc.), aurgu (dat.), clayey, muddy, Vsp. 31, Ls. 48; cp. úrigr, madidus.

AURR, s, m., prop. wet clay or loam, but also in Eggert Itin. p. 682 of a sort of clay, cp. Ivar Aasen s. v. aur. In A. S. eâr is humus; in the Alvismál one of the names of the earth is aurr (kalla aur uppregin). In the Völuspá the purling water of the well of Urda is called aurr; hence the paraphrase in the Edda, þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum, ok með aurinn (the clay, humus) er liggr um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir askinn. Elsewhere used simply of mud, wet soil, aurr etr iljar en ofan kuldi, Gs. 15; auri trödd und jóa fótum, Gh. 16; ok við aur ægir hjarna, bragnings burs of blandinn varð, his brains were mixed with the mud,

AURRIÐI—AUSTRRUM. 35

Ýt. 16; aurr ok saurr, mud and dirt, Ann. 1362; hylja auri, humo condere, in a verse in the Konn. S.

aurriði, örriði, mod. urriði, a, m. salmo trutta, salmon-trout, Fél. i. II; salmo squamis argenteis, maculis nigris brunneo cinctis, pinna pectorali punctulis sex notata, Eggert Itin. p. 595: deriv. from örr, celer, and -riði, or from aurr (?); the Norse form aure indicates a diphthong, Gþl. 421, Edda (Gl.)  COMPDS: aurriða-bekkr, m. a 'beck' full of trout, Bolt.  aurriða-fiski, f. trout-fishing, Bolt.  aurriða-net, n. a trout-net, Gísl. 104.  aurriða-vatn, n. a water stocked with trout, Bolt.

aur-skór, m. (prop. 'mud-shoe'), a horse shoe, an ἅπ. λεγ. in the story Fms. iii. 210, each of the shoes weighing 1½ lb. The story is a pendant to that told of king Augustus of Poland and the blacksmith.

aur-skriða, u, f. a land slip, avalanche, Fbr. 84, Fs. 59.

aurvandils-tá (aurvantá, Ub.), f. Aurvandil's toe, probably the star Rigel in Orion, v. Edda 59.

AUSA, jós, josu (mod. jusu), ausit; pres. ind. eyss; subj. eysi or ysi, mod. jysi (hauriret), cp. Lat. haurio, haus-it; not found in Goth. or in Germ.  I. to sprinkle, with dat. of the liquid, and the object in acc. or with a prep.; þær taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum, ok ausa (viz. því) upp yfir askinn, ... pour it over the ash-boughs, Edda. 11; ef maðr eyss eldi (fire, embers,) Grág. ii. 128; a. síld ór netjum, to empty the nets of the herrings, Gþl. 427: a. út, to pour out, fé, Grett. 126.  2. ausa moldu, to sprinkle with mould, bury; hlóðu þeir at grjóti ok jósu at moldu, Eg. 300; er hann höfðu moldu ausit, Bjarn. II; salr ausinn moldu, his chamber sprinkled with mould (poët.), Hervar. S.; ausinn haugi, Ýt. 26.  β. ausa vatni is a standing phrase for a sort of baptism used in the last centuries, at least, of the heathen age. The child when born was sprinkled with water and named, yet without the intervention of a priest; this rite is mentioned as early as in the Hávamál, one of the very oldest mythological didactic poems on record, where it is attributed even to Odin; ef ek skal þegn ungan verpa vatni á, if I am to throw water on a young thane, 159; Jósu vatni Jarl létu heita, Jóð ól Edda jósu vatni, hörvi svartan, hétu þræl, Rm. 7, 31; sá var siðr göfigra manna, at vanda menn mjök til at ausa vatni ok gefa nafn; ... Sigurðr jarl jós sveininn vatni ok kallaði Hákon, Hkr. i. 118; Eiríkr ok Gunnhildr áttu son er Haraldr konungr jós vatni ok gaf nafn sitt, 122; eptir um daginn jós Hákon konungr þann svein vatni ok gaf nafn sitt, 135, Fms. i. 66, xi. 2; fæddi Þóra sveinbarn ok var Grimr nefndr er vatni var ausinn, Eb. 26; enn áttu þau Skallagrímr son, sá var vatni ausinn ok nafn gefit ok kallaðr Egill, Eg. 146, 147, 166, Ld. 108, Gísl. 32 (of Snorre Gode); and so in many instances from Icel., Norway, and the Orkneys, all of them of the heathen age. The Christian term is skíra, q. v.  3. metaph. of scolding or abuse; hrópi ok rógi ef þú eyss á holl regin, Ls. 4; ausa sauri á e-n, to bespatter with foul language, ausask sauri á (recipr.), Bjarn. 33; a. e-m e-u í augu upp, to throw in one's face, Eg. 576; hann jós upp (poured out) þar fyrir alþýðu öllum glæpum föður síns, Mart. 80; um verka þann er hverr jós á annan, Bjarn. 42.  II. of a horse, to kick or lash out with his hinder feet, opp. to prjóna, to rear up and strike with the fore feet; hestrinn tók at frýsa, blása ok ausa, Greg. 49; at merrin eysi, Sturl. ii. 40 C.  III. to pump, esp. a ship, with the ship in acc.; Hallfreðr jós at sínum hlut, Fs. 113, Grett. 95 A, Fbr. 173, N. G. L. i. 102: a. bát sinn, to make water, Fms. vii. 331.

ausa, u, f. a ladle, ekki er sopið kálið þó í ausuna sé komit (a proverb), many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip, Grett. 132, Þórð. 51.

aus-ker, n. = austr-ker, Shetl. auskerrie, a scoop, v. Jamieson Suppl. sub voce, Fs. 147.

ausli, v. auvisli.

austan, adv. [A. S. eastan; Hel. ôstan], from the east, Eg. 183, Eb. 4: of the direction of the wind (cp. vestan, sunnan, norðan), used with a preceding prep, á, á vestan, austan..., blowing from west, east..., Bs. ii. 48.  β. fyrir a. used as a prep. with acc. east of; fyrir a. mitt haf, Grág. ch. 85, p. 142 new Ed., Nj. 36, 81, Eg. 100, Landn. 228.  γ. with gen. in phrases like austan lands, a. fjarðar, cp. norðan, sunnan, vestan, Hkr. iii. 201.  COMPDS: austan-ferð, f. a journey from the east, Fms. vii. 128.  austan-fjarðar, gen. loci, used as adverb, in the east of the firth, Hkr. ii. 295, Fms. i. 278, iv. 37.  austan-gola, u, f. a light breeze from the east, Sturl. iii. 59 (Ed. austræn).  austan-kváma, u, f. arrival from the east, Fms. vi. 23.  austan-maðr, m. a man from the east, Old Engl. easterling, Sturl. iii. 248.  austan-sjór, m. the east sea, nickname of a man, Fms. ix. 316.  austan-veðr, rs, m. an easterly gale, Rb. 438.  austan-verðr, adj. eastern (cp. norðan-, sunnan-, vestan-verðr), Landn. 25, Stj. 75, A. A. 286.  austan-vindr, m. an east wind, Sks. 38, cp. norðan-, vestan-, sunnan-vindr.

austarliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. easterly, Fms. xi. 389.

austastr, superl. easternmost, v. eystri.

austfirðingr, m., esp. in pl. an eastfirther, one from the east of Iceland, Sturl. ii. 158.  COMPDS: austfirðinga-búð, f., v. búð.  austfirðinga-dómr, m. the court for the east quarter, v. dómr.  austfirðinga-fjórðungr, m. the east quarter of Iceland, v. fjórðungr.

aust-firðir, m. pl. the east firths of Iceland, opp. to vestfirðir, Landn.

aust-firzkr, adj. one from the east firths in Icel., Nj. 54, Lv. 57.

aust-för, f. = austrför.

aust-ker, n. a scoop, bucket, v. auss-ker.

aust-kylfir, m. pl. easterlings, cp. Kylfingar, an old Russian population, Kolbiager, east of the Baltic; in a poem of Hornklofi, Fagrsk. 9.

aust-lægr, adj. easterly, of the wind.,

aust-maðr, m., pl. austmenn, in Icel. and in the northern part of the British Islands a standing name of those who came from the Scandinavian continent, esp. Norse merchants, vide the old Irish chronicles, and the Sagas, passim. The English used 'easterling' in the same sense, and sterling is an abbreviation of the word from the coin which the 'easterlings' brought with them in trade. Eyvindr austmaðr, Landn., Nj. 81, Eg. 744, Ísl. ii. 192, 128, Sturl. ii. 47, Lv. 23, Valla L. 216, Landn. 36, 290, 305, Eb. 104, 196, etc. In the Norse Gþl. 450 it is used of Swedes in Norway: austmanna-skelfir, m. 'skelper' (conqueror, terror) of the east men, a nickname, Landn. 305.

aust-marr, m. the east sea, the east Baltic (Estmere of king Alfred, Oros. Ed. Bosworth, p. 22), Ýt. 18.

aust-mál, n. = austrmál, N. G. L. i. 335.

aust-mörk, f. the east mark, i. e. the east, Ýt. 4.

AUSTR, rs, m. [A. S. and Engl. east; Hel. ôstar; Germ. ost, osten], the east; sól í austri, Grág. ii. 224, Rb. 92, Landn. 276; ór austri, Sturl. ii. 25.  2. as adv. towards east, eastward, Nj. 151, Eg. 72, Grág. i. 96, 189.

austr, rs and rar, m. [ausa], the act of drawing water in buckets, pumping; v. dæluaustr and byttuaustr, Grett. ch. 19; standa í austri, to toil hard at the pump, Fas. ii. 520, Sturl. iii. 68; til austrar, Grett. 94 B.  β. the water pumped or to be pumped, bilge water, Gr. ἄντλος, Sturl. iii. 67, 68; skipið fullt af austri, full of bilge water, Fb. ii. 204 (Fbr.), Finnb. 234; standa í a., v. above.  COMPD: austrs-ker, austker (N. G. L. i. 59), a scoop, pump-bucket (cp. ausker), Gþl. 424.

austr-álfa, v. austrhálfa.

austr-átt and -ætt, f. eastern region, east; í austr., towards east, in eastern direction, Fms. ii. 49, x. 267, Sks. 38. 655 xiv. B. i.

austr-biti, a, m. a cross-beam nearest the pumping-place in a ship, Fs. 153.

austr-ferð and austr-för, f. voyage to the east, esp. to Russia or the east Baltic, Fb. i. 130, Ls. 60, the last passage in a mythical sense.  COMPDS: austrfarar-knorr, m. a vessel bound for the Baltic, Fms. vii. 256.  austrfarar-skip, n. id., Fms. viii. 61, Orkn. 274 old Ed., where the new Ed. 334 has útfararskip, a ship bound for the Mediterranean (better).

austr-hálfa, u, f. [Hel. ôstarhalba = oriens], often spelt -álfa by dropping the h; the east, in old writers freq. of the Austria of the peace of Verdun, A. D. 843, including the Baltic and the east of Europe; sometimes also of the true east; um Garðaríki (Russia Minor) ok víða um a. heims, Fms. i. 96; í Görðum austr ok austrhólfunni, x. 275; í a. heims eru þrjú Indialönd, A. A. 283; Licinius lagði undir sik víða a., Blas. 37; Adam ok Eva bygðu síðan í a. þar sem Hebron heitir, Ver. 5, Stj. 67, 43: now used in Icel. = Asia, Vestrhálfa = America, Suðrhálfa = Africa, Norðrhálfa = Europe, Eyjaálfa = Australia.COMPDS: austrhálfu-lýðr, m. people of the east, Stj. 392. Judges vi. 33.  austrhálfu-þjóð, f. id., Stj. 389.

austr-kendr, adj. part. eastern, of wind, Bs. i. 388.

austrligr, adj. eastern, Stj, 336.

austr-lönd, n. pl. the east, orient, the eastern part of Europe, in old writers often synonymous to Austr-halfa, and opp. to Norðrlönd, Scandinavia; Suðrlönd, South Germany, etc.; Vestrlönd, the British Islands, Normandy, Bretagne, etc., Post. 656 C. 39, Fms. ii. 183, Post. 645. 102, Hkr. i. 134 in a poem of the 10th century used of Russia; cp. Brocm. 101.

austr-mál, n. (navig.), the pumping-watch, the crew being told off two and two, to hand the buckets up, one of them standing in the bilge water down below and the other on deck, vide the Fbr. 131, Grett. ch. 19; en hverr þeirra manna er síðar kemr en a. komi til hans, þá er hann sekr níu ertogum, N. G. L. i. 335 [ausmaal, bilge water, Ivar Aasen].

austr-oka, að, [austr], to lavish, squander, with dat. an ἅπ. λεγ. as it seems, Fas. iii. 198, 202, where a. fé sínu; cp. Gr. ἀντλέω.

austr-ríki, n. the eastern empire, esp. the east of Europe (Russia, Austria, sometimes also including Turkey of the present time); the term is often vague, and synonymous to Austrvegr, Austrlönd, or referring to the Germany of the year 843; (the mod. sense is = Austria); Ívarr víðfaðmi eignaðist allt Danaveldi, ok mikinn hluta Saxlands ok allt A., Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 45, Fms. vi. 8; Constantinopolis er æðst borga í A., Ver. 49; Þeodosius inn mikli var sex vetr konungr í A., 50; Licinius hét konungr í A., Blas. 37, in these last passages = the eastern empire (of Rome); þá er ek (viz. king David) lifða ok vask konungr kallaðr í A. (in the east), Niðrst. 4, cp. Baut. nos. 780, 979.

austr-rúm, n. the part of a vessel's hold near the stern where the pump is, Hkr. i. 82, Stj. 57, Fbr. 158, Edda 35; an aft and fore pumping-place (eptra ok fremra austrrúm) is mentioned Fms. viii. 139.

36 AUSTRTROG—Á.

austr-trog, n. a scoop, bucket,

austr-vegr, s, m. the eastern way, east, esp. Russia, Wenden, the east Baltic; fara í Austrveg is a standing phrase for trading or piratical expeditions in the Baltic, opp. to víking or vestr-víking, which only refer to expeditions to the British Islands, Normandy, Brittany, etc.; austr-víking, Landn. 221, is a false reading; hann var farmaðr mikill (Hólmgarðs-fari) ok kaupmaðr; fór opt í Austrveg (Baltic), Landn. 169, Nj. 41, Eg. 228, Fms. freq., vide vol. xii, s. v. In the Edda fara í A. is a standing phrase for the expeditions of Thor against giants, Þórr var farinn í A. at berja tröll, 26, cp. Ls. 59, where a. means the eastern region of heaven. Sometimes it is used of the east in general, Ver. 9, Rb. 412, 623. 13, Baut. 110. 813.  COMPDS: austrvegs-konungar, m. pl. the three kings or Magi ('wise men') from the east, Stj. 16; a king of Russia, Fms. x. 397.  austrvegs-maðr, m. an inhabitant of Austrvegir, Hkr. i. 44.

austr-ætt, v. austrátt.

aust-rœna, u, f. eastern breeze.

aust-rœnn, adj. [Hel. ostroni; A. S. easterne; cp. norrænn, suðrænn], eastern, of the wind; a. gola, eastern breeze, Sturl. iii. 59; vindr, Orkn. (in a verse); viðr, timber from Norway or Scandinavia, Grág. i. 149, the Eistland tymmer of the old Scotch inventories (Jamieson, Suppl. s. v.); Austrænir menn, Norsemen in Iceland, Fms. ix. 276; as a nickname, Eb. 12, and Landn. The name denotes the inhabitants of the Scandinavian continent as opp. to the British Islands and Iceland.

aust-skota, u, f. = austrsker, Grág. ii. 171; Ísl. ii. 382 spelt ausskota.

au-virð and auvirði, mod. auðvirði, n. [af, off, and verð, value; the change of letter caused by the following v; a purely Icel. form, the Norse being 'afv-;' the mod. Icel. form is auð-v., as if it were to be derived from auð- and verð]:  1. a worthless wretch, a laggard, bungler; sel þú upp, auvirðit, knálegar bytturnar, Bungler! hand thou up stoutly the buckets, Fbr. 131; hygg ek at eingi maðr eigi jafnmikil a. at frændum sem ek, Hrafn. 11; verða at a., Bret. 163, Sturl. i. 73.  2. a law term, damage, anything impairing the value of a thing; hann ábyrgist við þeim auvirðum er þat fær af því skaða, Grág. i. 431.  COMPDS: auvirðs-maðr, m. a wretch, laggard, 655, vide Sturl. ii. 139, Fær. 74, Þorf. Karl. 426.  auvirðs-skapr, m. naughtiness, Gullþ. 12.

au-virðast, d, to become worthless, Eg. 103, Glúm. 377 C. 2. in the act. to think unworthy, disparage, Barl. 21, 57, 123, 190, Mar. 83: seldom used except in Norse writers, and consequently spelt with an 'af-:' in reflex. sense. Stj. 483.

au-virðliga, Norse afvirð-, and mod. Icel. auðvirðil-, adv. despicably, Sturl. iii. 220, Fs. 71.

au-virðligr, etc., adj. worthless, Fas. i. 87, Bret. 31, 72, Sturl. iii. 225, Barl. 75; at skurðarskírn sé afvirðilig (indigna) Kristnum mönnum, 159.

au-visli, and contr. ausli and usli, a, m.; etym. uncertain, ausli, Gþl. 385 A; usli, N. G. L. i. 246, Fms. i. 202, viii. 341, xi. 35, Edda (Gl.) In the Grág. auvisli, spelt with au or av; in the Ed. of 1829 sometimes with ö where the MSS. have au:I. a law term, damages, Lat. damnum; bæta auvisla is a standing law term for to pay compensation for damages done, the amount of which was to be fixed by a jury; bæta skal hann a. á fjórtán nóttum sem búar fimm virða, Grág. i. 383, 418, ii. 229, 121, 223 (Ed. 1853), 225 (twice): hence auvislabót. In Norse law, gjalda a., Gþl. 384; ábyrgi honum garðinn ok allan ausla þann er, 385 A; beiða usla bótar, N. G. L. i. 246.  II. metaph. hurt, injury in general; mondi þeim þá ekki vera gjört til auvisla, Ld. 76; ok er þat þó líkast, at þú setir eigi undan öllum avvisla (thou wilt not get off unscathed), ef þú tekr eigi við, Fms. iii. 144.  2. devastation, Fms. xi. 81: esp. by fire and sword in the alliterative phrase, eldr (fire) ok usli; fara með eld ok usla, i. 202; heldr en þar léki yfir eldr ok usli, viii. 341; þá görði á mikit regn, ok slökði þann eld vandliga, svá at menn máttu þá þegar fara yfir usla þann inn mikla (embers and ruins), xi. 35. In the Edda (Gl.) usli is recorded as one of the sixty names of fire: cp. also the mod. verb ösla, to plunge through: auvisli is now an obsolete word, usli a common word, gjöra usla, to desolate, in the metaph. sense.  COMPDS: auvisla-bót and usla-bót (N. G. L. i. 246), f. a law term, compensation fixed by a jury of five, cp. above; distinction is made between a. hin meiri and hin minni, first rate or second rate compensation, Grág. ii. 344: in pl. 225: ausla-gjald and usla-gjald, n. compensation, Gþl. 387.

AX, n. [Goth. aks, cp. Goth. asans = harvest], an ear of corn, Stj. 201, Thom. 98.

axar-, v. öx, an axe.

ax-helma, u, f. a blade of corn, ear and stem, Stj. 422, Ruth ii. 2 (Engl. Vers. 'ears of corn').

ax-korn, n. an ear of corn, Edda (Ub.) ii. 283.

axla, að, to shoulder, Fms. iii. 228.

axlar-, v. öxl, shoulder.

axl-byrðr, f. a shoulder-load, Orkn. 346, Grett, 177 new Ed.

axl-hár, adj. shoulder high, Js. 101.

axull, m., v. öxull, axis, an axle-tree.

ay, interj. dolendi, ay mér veslugri, Mar. Fr.

Á

Á, á, prep., often used elliptically, or even adverbially, [Goth. ana; Engl. on; Germ. an. In the Scandinavian idioms the liquid n is absorbed. In English the same has been supposed to happen in adverbial phrases, e. g. 'along, away, abroad, afoot, again, agate, ahead, aloft, alone, askew, aside, astray, awry,' etc. It is indeed true that the Ormulum in its northern dialect freq. uses o, even in common phrases, such as 'o boke, o land, o life, o slæpe, o strande, o write, o naht, o loft,' etc., v. the glossary; and we may compare on foot and afoot, on sleep (Engl. Vers. of Bible) and asleep; A. S. a-butan and on-butan (about); agen and ongean (again, against); on bæc, aback; on life, alive; on middan, amid. But it is more than likely that in the expressions quoted above, as well as in numberless others, as well in old as in modern English, the English a- as well as the o- of the Ormulum and the modern Scottish and north of England o- are in reality remains of this very á pronounced au or ow, which was brought by the Scandinavian settlers into the north of England. In the struggle for supremacy between the English dialects after the Conquest, the Scandinavian form á or a won the day in many cases to the exclusion of the Anglo-Saxon on. Some of these adverbs have representatives only in the Scandinavian tongues, not in Anglo-Saxon; see below, with dat. B. II, C. VII; with acc. C. I. and VI. The prep. á denotes the surface or outside; í and ór the inside; at, til, and frá, nearness measured to or from an object: á thus answers to the Gr. ἐπί the Lat. in includes á and i together.]

With dat. and acc.: in the first case with the notion of remaining on a place, answering to Lat. in with abl.; in the last with the notion of motion to the place, = Lat. in with acc.

WITH DAT.

A. Loc.I. generally on, upon; á gólfi, on the floor, Nj. 2; á hendi, on the hand (of a ring), 48, 225; á palli, 50; á steini, 108; á vegg, 115; á sjá ok á landi, on sea and land. In some instances the distinction between d and i is loose and wavering, but in most cases common sense and usage decide; thus 'á bók' merely denotes the letters, the penmanship, 'í' the contents of a book; mod. usage, however, prefers 'í,' lesa í bók, but stafr á bók. Old writers on the other hand; á bókum Enskum, in English books, Landn. 24, but í Aldafars bók, 23 (in the book De Mensurâ Temporum, by Bede), cp. Grág. i. 76, where á is a false reading instead of at; á bréfi, the contents of a letter: of clothing or arms, mítr á höfði, sverð á hlið, mitre on head, sword on side, Fms. i. 266, viii. 404; hafa lykil á sér, on one's person, 655 xxvii. 22; möttull á tyglum, a mantle hanging on (i. e. fastened by) laces, Fms. vii. 201: á þingi means to be present at a meeting; í þingi, to abide within a jurisdiction; á himni, á jörðu, on (Engl. in) heaven and earth, e. g. in the Lord's Prayer, but í helviti, in hell; á Gimli, Edda (of a heavenly abode); á báti, á skipi denote crew and cargo,' í' the timber or materials of which a ship is built, Eg. 385; vera í stafni á skipi, 177: á skógi, to be abroad in a wood (of a hunter, robber, deer); but to be situated (a house), at work (to fell timber), í skógi, 573, Fs. 5, Fms. iii. 122, viii. 31, xi. 1, Glúm. 330, Landn. 173; á mörkinni, Fms. i. 8, but í mörk, of a farm; á firðinum means lying in a firth, of ships or islands (on the surface of the water), þær eyjar liggja á Breiðafirði, Ld. 36; but í firði, living in a district named Firth; á landi, Nj. 98, Fms. xi. 386.  II. á is commonly used in connection with the pr. names or countries terminating in 'land,' Engl. in, á Englandi, Írlandi, Skotlandi, Bretlandi, Saxlandi, Vindlandi, Vínlandi, Grænalandi, Íslandi, Hálogalandi, Rogalandi, Jótlandi, Frakklandi, Hjaltlandi, Jamtalandi, Hvítramannalandi, Norðrlöndum, etc., vide Landn. and the index to Fms. xii. In old writers í is here very rare, in modern authors more frequent; taste and the context in many instances decide. An Icelander would now say, speaking of the queen or king, 'á Englandi,' ruling over, but to live 'í Englandi,' or 'á Englandi;' the rule in the last case not being quite fixed.  2. in connection with other names of countries: á Mæri, Vörs, Ögðum, Fjölum, all districts of Norway, v. Landn.; á Mýrum (in Icel.), á Finnmörk, Landn., á Fjóni (a Danish island); but í Danmörk, Svíþjóð (á Svíþjóðu is poët., Gs. 13).  3. before Icel. farms denoting open and elevated slopes and spaces (not too high, because then 'at' must be used), such as 'staðr, völlr, ból, hjalli, bakki, heimr, eyri,' etc.; á Veggjum, Landn. 69; á Hólmlátri, id.: those ending in '-staðr,' á Geirmundarstöðum, Þórisstöðum, Jarðlangsstöðum..., Landn.: '-völlr,' á Möðruvöllum: á Fitjum (the farm) í Storð (the island), í Fenhring (the island) á Aski (the farm), Landn., Eg.: '-nes' sometimes takes á, sometimes í (in mod. usage always 'í'), á Nesi, Eb. 14, or í Krossnesi, 30; in the last case the notion of island, νῆσος, prevails: so also, 'fjörðr,' as, þeir börðust á Vigrafirði (of a fight on the ice), Landn. 101, but orusta í Hafrsfirði, 122: with '-bær,' á is used in the sense of a farm or estate, hón sa á e-m bæ mikit hús ok fagrt, Edda 22; 'í bæ' means within doors, of the buildings: with 'Bær' as pr. name Landn. uses 'í,' 71, 160, 257, 309, 332.  4. denoting on or just above; of the sun, when the time is fixed by regarding

Á. 37

the sun in connection with points in the horizon, a standing phrase in Icel.; sól á gjáhamri, when the sun is on the crag of the Rift, Grág. i. 26, cp. Glúm. 387; so, brú á á, a bridge on a river, Fms. viii. 179, Hrafn. 20; taka hús á e-m, to surprise one, to take the house over his head, Fms. i. 11.  III. á is sometimes used in old writers where we should now expect an acc., esp. in the phrase, leggja sverði (or the like) á e-m, or á e-m miðjum, to stab, Eg. 216, Gísl. 106, Band. 14; þá stakk Starkaðr sprotanum á konungi, then Starkad stabbed the king with the wand, Fas. iii. 34; bíta á kampi (vör), to bite the lips, as a token of pain or emotion, Nj. 209, 68; taka á e-u, to touch a thing, lay hold of it, v. taka; fá á e-u, id. (poët.); leggja hendr á (better at) síðum, in wrestling, Fms. x. 331; koma á úvart á e-m, to come on one unawares, ix. 407 (rare).

B. Temp. of a particular point or period of time, at, on, in:I. gener. denoting during, in the course of; á nótt, degi, nætrþeli ..., Bs. i. 139; or spec. adding a pron. or an adject., á næsta sumri, the next summer; á því ári, þingi, misseri, hausti, vári, sumri ..., during, in that year ..., Bs. i. 679, etc.; á þrem sumrum, in the course of three summers, Grág. i. 218; á þrem várum, Fms. ii. 114; á hálfs mánaðar fresti, within half a month's delay, Nj. 99; á tvítugs, sextugs ... aldri, á barns, gamals aldri, etc., at the age of ..., v. aldr: á dögum e-s, in the days of, in his reign or time, Landn. 24, Hrafn. 3, Fms. ix. 229.  II. used of a fixed recurrent period or season; á várum, sumrum, haustum, vetrum, á kveldum, every spring, summer ..., in the evenings, Eg. 711, Fms. i. 23, 25, vi. 394, Landn. 292: with the numeral adverbs, cp. Lat. ter in anno, um sinn á mánuði, ári, once a month, once a year, where the Engl. a is not the article but the preposition, Grág. i. 89.  III. of duration; á degi, during a whole day, Fms. v. 48; á sjau nóttum, Bárð. 166; á því meli, during that time, in the meantime, Grág. i. 259.  IV. connected with the seasons (á vetri, sumri, vári, hausti), 'á' denotes the next preceding season, the last winter, summer, autumn, Eb. 40, 238, Ld. 206: in such instances 'á' denotes the past, 'at' the future, 'í' the present; thus í vetri in old writers means this winter; á vetri, last winter; at vetri, next winter, Eb. 68 (in a verse), etc.

C. In various other relations, more or less metaphorically, on, upon, in, to, with, towards, against:I. denoting object, in respect of, against, almost periphrastically; dvelja á náðum e-s, under one's protection, Fms. i. 74; hafa metnað á e-u, to be proud of, to take pride in a thing, 127.  2. denoting a personal relation, in; bæta e-t á e-m, to make amends, i. e. to one personally; misgöra e-t á e-m, to inflict wrong on one; hafa elsku (hatr) á e-m, to bear love (hatred) to one, Fms. ix. 242; hefna sín á e-m, to take revenge on one's person, on anyone; rjúfa sætt á e-m, to break truce on the person of any one, to offend against his person, Nj. 103; hafa sár á sér, 101; sjá á e-m, to read on or in one's face; sér hann á hverjum manni hvárt til þín er vel eðr illa, 106; var þat brátt auðséð á hennar högum, at ..., it could soon be seen in all her doings, that ..., Ld. 22.  3. also generally to shew signs of a thing; sýna fáleika á sér, to shew marks of displeasure, Nj. 14, Fs. 14; taka vel, illa, lítt, á e-u, to take a thing well, ill, or indifferently, id.; finna á sér, to feel in oneself; fann lítt á honum, hvárt ..., it could hardly be seen in his face, whether ..., Eb. 42; líkindi eru á, it is likely, Ld. 172; göra kost á e-u, to give a choice, chance of it, 178; eiga vald á e-u, to have power over ..., Nj. 10.  II. denoting encumbrance, duty, liability; er fimtardómsmál á þeim, to be subject to ..., Nj. 231; the phrase, hafa e-t á hendi, or vera á hendi e-m, on one's hands, of work or duty to be done; eindagi á fé, term, pay day, Grág. i. 140; ómagi (skylda, afvinna) á fé, of a burden or encumbrance, D. I. and Grág. in several passages.  III. with a personal pronoun, sér, mér, honum ..., denoting personal appearance, temper, character, look, or the like; vera þungr, léttr ... á sér, to be heavy or light, either bodily or mentally; þungr á sér, corpulent, Sturl. i. 112; kátr ok léttr á sér, of a gay and light temper, Fms. x. 152; þat bragð hafði hann á sér, he looked as if, ... the expression of his face was as though ..., Ld., cp. the mod. phrase, hafa á sér svip, bragð, æði, sið, of one's manner or personal appearance, to bear oneself as, or the like; skjótr (seinn) á fæti, speedy (slow) of foot, Nj. 258.  IV. as a periphrasis of the possessive pronoun connected with the limbs or parts of the body. In common Icel. such phrases as my hands, eyes, head ... are hardly ever used, but höfuð, eyru, hár, nef, munnr, hendr, faetr ... á mér; so 'í' is used of the internal parts, e. g. hjarta, bein ... í mér; the eyes are regarded as inside the body, augun í honum: also without the possessive pronoun, or as a periphrasis for a genitive, brjóstið á e-m, one's breast, Nj. 95, Edda 15; súrnar í augum, it smarts in my eyes, my eyes smart, Nj. 202; kviðinn á sér, its belly, 655 xxx. 5, Fms. vi. 350; hendr á henni, her hands, Gísl. (in a verse); í vörunum á honum, on his lips, Band. 14; ristin á honum, his step, Fms. viii. 141; harðr í tungu, sharp of tongue, Hallfred (Fs. 114); kalt (heitt) á fingrum, höndum, fótum ..., cold (warm) in the fingers, hands, feet ..., i. e. with cold fingers, etc.; cp. also the phrase, verða vísa (orð) á munni, of extemporising verses or speeches, freq. in the Sagas; fastr á fótum, fast by the leg, of a bondsman, Nj. 27: of the whole body, díla fundu þeir á honum, 209. The pers. pron. is used only in solemn style (poetry, hymns, the Bible), and perhaps only when influenced by foreign languages, e. g. mitt hjarta hví svo hryggist þú, as a translation of 'warumb betrübst du dich mein Herz?' the famous hymn by Hans Sachs; instead of the popular hjartað í mér, Sl. 43, 44: hjartað mitt is only used as a term of endearment, as by a husband to his wife, parents to their child, or the like, in a metaphorical sense; the heart proper is 'í mér,' not 'mitt.'  2. of other things, and as a periphrasis of a genitive, of a part belonging to the whole, e. g. dyrr á husi = húsdyrr, at the house-doors; turn á kirkju = kirkju turn; stafn, skutr, segl, árar ... á skipi, the stem, stern, sail ... of a ship, Fms. ix. 135; blöð á lauk, á tré ..., leaves of a leek, of a tree ..., Fas. i. 469; egg á sverði = sverðs egg; stafr á bók; kjölr á bók, and in endless other instances.  V. denoting instrumentality, by, on, or a-, by means of; afla fjár á hólmgöngum, to make money a-duelling, by means of duels, Eg. 498; á verkum sínum, to subsist on one's own work, Njarð. 366: as a law term, sekjast á e-ju, to be convicted upon ..., Grág. i. 123; sekst maðr þar á sínu eigini (a man is guilty in re sua), ef hann tekr af þeim manni er heimild (possessio) hefir til, ii. 191; falla á verkum sínum, to be killed flagranti delicto, v. above; fella e-n á bragði, by a sleight in wrestling; komast undan á flótta, to escape by flight, Eg. 11; á hlaupi, by one's feet, by speed, Hkr. ii. 168; lifa á e-u, to feed on; bergja á e-u, to taste of a thing; svala sér á e-u, to quench the thirst on.VI. with subst. numerals; á þriðja tigi manna, up to thirty, i. e. from about twenty to thirty, Ld. 194; á öðru hundraði skipa, from one to two hundred sail strong, Fms. x. 126; á níunda tigi, between eighty and ninety years of age, Eg. 764, v. above: used as prep., á hendi, on one's hand, i. e. bound to do it, v. hönd.  VII. in more or less adverbial phrases it may often be translated in Engl. by a participle and a- prefixed; á lopti, aloft; á floti, afloat; á lífi, alive; á verðgangi, a-begging; á brautu, away; á baki, a-back, behind, past; á milli, a-tween; á laun, alone, secretly; á launungu, id.; á móti, against; á enda, at an end, gone; á huldu, hidden; fara á hæli, to go a-heel, i. e. backwards, Fms. vii. 70;—but in many cases these phrases are transl. by the Engl. partic. with a, which is then perh. a mere prefix, not a prep., á flugi, a-flying in the air, Nj. 79; vera á gangi, a-going; á ferli, to be about; á leiki, a-playing, Fms. i. 78; á sundi, a-swimming, ii. 27; á verði, a-watching, x. 201; á hrakningi, a-wandering; á reiki, a-wavering; á skjálfi, a-shivering; á-hleri, a-listening; á tali, a-talking, Ísl. ii. 200; á hlaupi, a-running, Hkr. ii. 268; á verki, a-working; á veiðum, a-hunting; á fiski, a-fishing; á beit, grazing: and as a law term it even means in flagranti, N. G. L. i. 348.  VIII. used absolutely without a case in reference to the air or the weather, where 'á' is almost redundant; þoka var á mikil, a thick fog came on, Nj. 267; niðamyrkr var á, pitch darkness came on, Eg. 210; allhvast á norðan, a very strong breeze from the north, Fms. ix. 20; þá var á norðrænt, a north wind came on, 42, Ld. 56; hvaðan sem á er, from whatever point the wind is; var á hríð veðrs, a snow storm came on, Nj. 282; görði á regn, rain came on, Fms. vi. 394, xi. 35, Ld. 156.

WITH ACC.

A. Loc.I. denoting simple direction towards, esp. connected with verbs of motion, going, or the like; hann gékk á bergsnös, Eg. 389; á hamar, Fas. ii. 517.  2. in phrases denoting direction; liggja á útborða, lying on the outside of the ship, Eg. 354; á annat borð skipinu, Fms. vii. 260; á bæði borð, on both sides of the ship, Nj. 124, Ld. 56; á tvær hliðar, on both sides, Fms. v. 73. Ísl. ii. 159; á hlið, sidewards; út á hlið, Nj. 262, Edda 44; á aðra hönd henni, Nj. 50, Ld. 46; höggva á tvær hendr, to hew or strike right and left, Ísl. ii. 368, Fas. i. 384, Fms. viii. 363, x. 383.  3. upp á, upon; hann tók augu Þjaza ok kastaði upp á himin, Edda 47: with verbs denoting to look, see, horfa, sjá, líta, etc.; hann rak skygnur á land, he cast glances towards the land, Ld. 154.  II. denoting direction with or without the idea of arriving:  1. with verbs denoting to aim at; of a blow or thrust, stefna á fótinn, Nj. 84; spjótið stefnir á hann miðjan, 205: of the wind, gékk veðrit á vestr, the wind veered to west, Fms. ix. 28; sigla á haf, to stand out to sea, Hkr. i. 146, Fms. i. 39: with 'út' added, Eg. 390, Fms. x. 349.  2. conveying the notion of arriving, or the intervening space being traversed; spjótið kom á miðjan skjöldinn, Eg. 379, Nj. 96, 97; langt upp á land, far up inland, Hkr. i. 146: to reach, taka ofan á belti, of the long locks of a woman, to reach down to the belt, Nj. 2; ofan á bringu, 48; á þa ofan, 91.  III. without reference to the space traversed, connected with verbs denoting to go, turn, come, ride, sail, throw, or the like, motion of every kind; hann kastar honum á völlinn, he flings him down, Nj. 91; hlaupa á skip sitt, to leap on board his ship, 43; á hest, to mount quickly, Edda 75; á lend hestinum, Nj. 91; hann gengr á sáðland sitt, he walks on to his fields, 82: on, upon, komast á fætr, to get upon one's legs, 92; ganga á land, to go a-shore, Fms. i. 40; ganga á þing, vii. 242, Grág. (often); á skóg, á merkr ok skóga, into a wood, Fb. i. 134, 257, Fms. xi. 118, Eg. 577, Nj. 130; fara á Finnmörk, to go travelling in Finmark, Fms. i. 8; koma, fara á bæ, to arrive at the farm-house; koma á veginn, Eg. 578; stíga á bát, skip, to go on board, 158; hann gékk upp á borg, he went up to the burg (castle), 717; en er þeir komu á loptriðið, 236;

38 Á.

hrinda skipum á vatn, to float the ships down into the water, Fms. i. 58; reka austr á haf, to drift eastwards on the sea, x. 145; ríða ofan á, to ride down or over, Nj. 82.  IV. in some cases the acc. is used where the dat. would be used, esp. with verbs denoting to see or hear, in such phrases as, þeir sá boða mikinn inn á fjörðinn, they saw great breakers away up in the bight of the firth, the acc. being due perhaps to a motion or direction of the eye or ear towards the object, Nj. 124; sá þeir fólkit á land, they saw the people in the direction of land, Fas. ii. 517: in phrases denoting to be placed, to sit, to be seated, the seat or bench is freq. in the acc. where the dat. would now be used; konungr var þar á land upp, the king was then up the country, the spectator or narrator is conceived as looking from the shore or sea-side, Nj. 46; sitja á miðjan bekk, to be seated on the middle bench, 50; skyldi konungs sæti vera á þann bekk ... annat öndvegi var á hinn úæðra pall; hann setti konungs hásæti á miðjan þverpall, Fms. vi. 439, 440, cp. Fagrsk. l. c., Sturl. iii. 182; eru víða fjallbygðir upp á mörkina, in the mark or forest, Eg. 58; var þar mörk mikil á land upp, 229; mannsafnaðr er á land upp (viewed from the sea), Ld. 76; stóll var settr á mótið, Fas. i. 58; beiða fars á skip, to beg a passage, Grág. i. 90.  V. denoting parts of the body; bíta e-n á barka, to bite one in the throat, Ísl. ii. 447; skera á háls, to cut the throat of any one, Nj. 156; brjóta e-n á háls, to break any one's neck; brjóta e-n á bak, to break any one's back, Fms. vii. 119; kalinn á kné, frozen to the knees with cold, Hm. 3.  VI. denoting round; láta reipi á háls hesti, round his horse's neck, 623. 33; leggja söðul á hest, Nj. 83; and ellipt., leggja á, to saddle; breiða feld á hofuð sér, to wrap a cloak over his head, 164; reyta á sik mosa, to gather moss to cover oneself with, 267; spenna hring á hönd, á fingr, Eg. 300.  VII. denoting a burden; stela mat á tvá hesta, hey á fimtán hesta, i. e. a two, a fifteen horse load, Nj. 74: metaph., kjósa feigð á menn, to choose death upon them, i. e. doom them to death, Edda 22.

B. Temp.I. of a period of time, at, to; á morgun, to-morrow (í morgun now means the past morning, the morning of to-day), Ísl. ii. 333.  II. if connected with the word day, 'á' is now used before a fixed or marked day, a day of the week, a feast day, or the like; á Laugardag, á Sunnudag ..., on Saturday, Sunday, the Old Engl. a-Sunday, a-Monday, etc.; á Jóladaginn, Páskadaginn, on Yule and Easter-day; but in old writers more often used ellipt. Sunnudaginn, Jóladaginn ..., by dropping the prep. 'á,' Fms. viii. 397, Grág. i. 18.  III. connected with 'dagr' with the definite article suffixed, 'á' denotes a fixed, recurring period or season, in; á daginn, during the day-time, every day in turn, Grett. 91 A.  IV. connected with 'evening, morning, the seasons,' with the article; á kveldit, every evening, Ld. 14; á sumarit, every summer, Vd. 128, where the new Ed. Fs. 51 reads sumrum; á haust, every autumn, Eg. 741 (perh. a misprint instead of á haustin or á haustum); á vetrinn, in the winter time, 710; á várit, every spring, Gþl. 347; the sing., however, is very rare in such cases, the old as well as mod. usage prefers the plur.; á nætrnar, by night, Nj. 210; á várin, Eg. 710; á sumrin, haustin, á morgnana, in the morning (á morgin, sing., means to-morrow); á kveldin, in the evening, only 'dagr' is used in sing., v. above (á daginn, not á dagana); but elliptically and by dropping the article, Icelanders say, kveld og morgna, nótt og dag, vetr sumar vor og haust, in the same sense as those above mentioned.  V. denoting duration, the article is dropped in the negative phrase, aldri á sinn dag, never during one's life; aldri á mína daga, never in my life, Bjarn. 8, where a possess. pron. is put between noun and prep., but this phrase is very rare. Such phrases as, á þann dag, that day, and á þenna dag, Stj. 12, 655 xxx. 2. 20, are unclassical.  VI. á dag without article can only be used in a distributive sense, e. g. tvisvar á dag, twice a-day; this use is at present freq. in Icel., yet instances from old writers are not on record.  VII. denoting a movement onward in time, such as, liðið á nótt, dag, kveld, morgun, sumar, vetr, vár, haust (or nóttina, daginn ...), jól, páska, föstu, or the like, far on in the night, day ..., Edda 33; er á leið vetrinn, when the winter was well on, as the winter wore on, Nj. 126; cp. áliðinn: also in the phrase, hniginn á inn efra aldr, well stricken in years, Ld. 68.

C. Metaph. and in various relations:  I. somewhat metaphorically, denoting an act only (not the place); fara á fund, á vit e-s, to call for one, Eg. 140; koma á ræðu við e-n, to come to a parley with, to speak, 173; ganga á tal, Nj. 103; skora á hólm, to challenge to a duel on an island; koma á grið, to enter into a service, to be domiciled, Grág. i. 151; fara á veiðar, to go a-hunting, Fms. i. 8.  β. generally denoting on, upon, in, to; bjóða vöxtu á féit, to offer interest on the money, Grág. i. 198; ganga á berhögg, to come to blows, v. berhögg; fá á e-n, to make an impression upon one, Nj. 79; ganga á vápn e-s, to throw oneself on an enemy's weapon, meet him face to face, Rd. 310; ganga á lagið, to press on up the spear-shaft after it has passed through one so as to get near one's foe, i. e. to avail oneself of the last chance; bera fé á e-n, to bribe, Nj. 62; bera öl á e-n, to make drunk, Fas. i. 13; snúinn á e-t, inclined to, Fms. x. 142; sammælast á e-t, to agree upon, Nj. 86; sættast, verða sáttr á e-t, in the same sense, to come to an agreement, settlement, or atonement, 78, Edda 15, Eb. 288, Ld. 50, Fms. i. 279; ganga á mála, to serve for pay as a soldier, Nj. 121; ganga á vald e-s, to put oneself in his power, 267; ganga á sætt, to break an agreement; vega á veittar trygðir, to break truce, Grág. ii. 169.  II. denoting in regard to, in respect to:1. of colour, complexion, the hue of the hair, or the like; hvítr, jarpr, dökkr ... á hár, having white, brown, or dark ... hair, Ísl. ii. 190, Nj. 39; svartr á brún ok brá, dark of brow and eyebrow; dökkr á hörund, id., etc.  2. denoting skill, dexterity; hagr á tré, a good carpenter; hagr á járn, málm, smíðar ..., an expert worker in iron, metals ..., Eg. 4; fimr á boga, good at the bow: also used of mastership in science or arts, meistari á hörpuslátt, a master in striking the harp, Fas. iii. 220; fræðimaðr á kvæði, knowing many poems by heart, Fms. vi. 391; fræðimaðr á landnámssögur ok forna fræði, a learned scholar in histories and antiquities (of Are Frode), Ísl. ii. 189; mikill á íþrótt, skilful in an art, Edda (pref.) 148; but dat. in the phrase, kunna (vel) á skíðum, to be a cunning skater, Fms. i. 9, vii. 120.  3. denoting dimensions; á hæð, lengd, breidd, dýpt ..., in the heighth, length, breadth, depth ..., Eg. 277; á hvern veg, on each side, Edda 41 (square miles); á annan veg, on the one side, Grág. i. 89.  β. the phrase, á sik, in regard to oneself, vel (illa) á sik kominn, of a fine (ugly) appearance, Ld. 100, Fas. iii. 74.  III. denoting instrumentality; bjargast á sínar hendr, to live on the work of one's own hands, (á sínar spýtur is a mod. phrase in the same sense); (vega) á skálir, pundara, to weigh in scales, Grág. ii. 370; at hann hefði tvá pundara, ok hefði á hinn meira keypt en á hinn minna selt, of a man using two scales, a big one for buying and a little one for selling, Sturl. i. 91; á sinn kostnað, at one's own expense; nefna e-n á nafn, by name, Grág. i. 17, etc. The Icel. also say, spinna á rokk, snældu, to spin on or with a rock or distaff; mala á kvern, to grind in a 'querne,' where Edda 73 uses dat.; esp. of musical instruments, syngja, leika á hljóðfæri, hörpu, gígju ...; in the old usage, leika hörpu ..., Stj. 458.  IV. denoting the manner or way of doing:  1. á þessa lund, in this wise, Grág. ii. 22; á marga vega, á alla, ymsa vega, in many, all, respects, Fms. i. 114; á sitt hóf, in its turn, respectively, Ld. 136, where the context shews that the expression answers to the Lat. mutatis mutandis; á Þýðersku, after German fashion, Sks. 288.  2. esp. of language; mæla, rita á e-a tungu, to speak, write in a tongue; á Írsku, in Irish, Ld. 76; Norrænu, in Norse, Eb. 330, Vm. 35; a Danska tungu, in Danish, i. e. Scandinavian, Norse, or Icelandic, Grág. i. 18; á Vára tungu, i. e. in Icelandic, 181; rita á Norræna tungu, to write in Norse, Hkr. (pref.), Bs. i. 59:—at present, dat. is sometimes used.  3. in some phrases the acc. is used instead of the dat.; hann sýndi á sik mikit gaman, Fms. x. 329; hann lét ekki á sik finna, he shewed no sign of motion, Nj. 111; skaltú önga fáleika á þik gera (Cod. Kalf.), 14.  V. used in a distributive sense; skal mörk kaupa gæzlu á kú, eðr oxa fim vetra gamlan, a mark for every cow, Grág. i. 147; alin á hvert hross, 442; á mann, per man (now freq.): cp. also á dag above, lit. B.  VI. connected with nouns,  1. prepositional; á hendr (with dat.), against; á hæla, at heel, close behind; á bak, at back, i. e. past, after; á vit (with gen.), towards.2. adverbially; á braut, away, abroad; á víxl, in turns; á mis, amiss; á víð ok dreif, a-wide and a-drift, i. e. dispersedly.3. used almost redundantly before the following prep.; á eptir, after, behind; á undan, in front of; á meðal, á milli, among; á mót, against; á við, about, alike; á frá (cp. Swed. ifrån), from (rare); á fyrir = fyrir, Haustl. 1; á hjá, beside (rare); á fram, a-head, forwards; á samt, together; ávalt = of allt, always: following a prep., upp á, upon; niðr á, down upon; ofan á, eptir á, post eventum, (temp.) á eptir is loc., id., etc.  VII. connected with many transitive verbs, answering to the Lat. ad- or in-, in composition, in many cases periphrastically for an objective case. The prep. generally follows after the verb, instead of being prefixed to it as in Lat., and answers to the Engl. on, to; heita kalla, hrópa á, to call on; heyra, hlusta, hlyða á, to hearken to, listen to; hyggja, hugsa á, to think on; minna á, to remind; sjá, líta, horfa, stara, mæna, glápa, koma auga ... á, to look on; girnast á, to wish for; trúa á, to believe on; skora á, to call on any one to come out, challenge; kæra á, to accuse; heilsa á, to greet; herja, ganga, ríða, hlaupa, ráða ... á, to fall on, attack, cp. ágangr, áreið, áhlaup; ljúga á, to tell lies of, to slander; telja á, to carp at; ausa, tala, hella, kasta, verpa ... á, to pour, throw on; ríða, bera, dreifa á, to sprinkle on; vanta, skorta á, to fall short of; ala á, to plead, beg; leggja á, to throw a spell on, lay a saddle on; hætta á, to venture on; gizka á, to guess at; kveða á, to fix on, etc.: in a reciprocal sense, haldast á, of mutual strife; sendast á, to exchange presents; skrifast á, to correspond (mod.); kallast á, to shout mutually; standast á, to coincide, so as to be just opposite one another, etc.

á, interj. denoting wonder, doubt, or the like, eh.

Á, f. [Lat. aqua; Goth. ahva; Hel. aha; A. S. eâ; O. H. G. aha, owa; cp. Germ. ach and aue; Fr. eau, eaux; Engl. Ax-, Ex-, etc., in names of places; Swed.-Dan. å; the Scandinavians absorb the hu, so that only a single vowel or diphthong remains of the whole word]:—a river. The old form in nom. dat. acc. sing. is ꜵ, v. the introduction to A, page 1,

Á—ÁFALLSDOMR. 39

Bs. i. 333 sq., where ꜵ́en, ꜵ́ (acc.), and ꜵ́na; so also Greg. 677; the old fragm. of Grág. ii. 222, 223, new Ed. In the Eb. of the Edda the old form occurs twice, viz. page 75, ꜵ́na (acc.), (but two lines below, ána), í ꜵ́nni (dat.) The old form also repeatedly occurs in the Eb. and Sb. of the Grág., e. g. ii. 266, 267: gen. sing. ár; nom. pl. ár, gen. á contracted, dat. ám, obsolete form ꜵ́m; Edda 43, Eg. 80, 99, 133, 185: proverbs, at ósi skal á stemma, answering to the Lat. principiis obsta, Edda 60; hér kemr á til sæfar, here the river runs into the sea, metaph. = this is the very end, seems to have been a favourite ending of old poems; it is recorded in the Húsdrápa and the Norðsetadrápa, v. Edda 96, Skálda 198; cp. the common saying, öll vötn renna til sævar, 'all waters run into the sea,' Rivers with glacier water are in Icel. called Hvítá, White river, or Jökulsá: Hitá, Hot river, from a hot spring, opp. to Kaldá, v. Landn.: others take a name from the fish in them, as Laxá, Lax or Salmon river (freq.); Örriða á, etc.: a tributary river is þverá, etc.: ár in the Njala often means the great rivers Ölfusá and Þjórsá in the south of Iceland. Áin helga, a river in Sweden, Hkr. ii: á is also suffixed to the names of foreign rivers, Tempsá = Thames; Dóná, Danube (Germ. Don-au), (mod.), etc. Vide Edda (Gl.) 116, 117, containing the names of over a hundred North-English and Scottish rivers.  COMPDS: ár-áll, m. the bed of a river, Hkr. iii. 117.  ár-bakki, a, m. the bank of a river, Ld. 132, Nj. 234.  ár-brot, n. inundation of a river, Bs. ii. 37; at present used of a shallow ford in a river.  ár-djúp, n. a pool in a river, Bs. i. 331.  ár-farvegr, m. a water-course, Stj. 353.  ár-fors, m. a waterfall or force, Barl. 190.  ár-gljúfr, n. a chasm of a river, Fms. viii. 51, Fær. 62.  ár-hlutr, m. one's portion of a river, as regards fishing rights, Fms. x. 489, Sturl. i. 202.  ár-megin and ár-megn, n. the main stream of a river, Stj. 251.  ár-minni, n. the mouth of a river, Fms. ix. 381.  ár-mót and á-mót, n. a 'waters-meet,' Lat. confluentia, H. E. i. 129.  ár-óss, m. the 'oyce' or mouth of a river, Eg. 99, 129, 229; whence the corrupt local name of the Danish town Aarhuus, Fms. xi. 208.  ár-reki, a, m. drift, the jetsam and flotsam (of fish, timber, etc.) in a river, Jm. 25.  ár-straumr, m. the current in a river, Fms. vii. 257, 260.  ár-strönd, f. the strand of a river, Stj. 268, 673. 53.  ár-vað, n. a ford of a river, Stj. 184.  ár-vegr = árfarvegr, Fas. i. 533.  ár-vöxtr, m. the swelling of a river, Fms. i. 286.

á-auki, a, m. increase, Bs. i. 182.  β. interest of money, K. Á. 208, N. G. L. ii. 381.

á-austr, rs, m. out-pouring, foul language, Sturl. i. 21.

á-barning, f. a thrashing, flogging, = barsmíð, Sturl. iii. 237.

á-bati, a, m. profit, gain, Fms. xi. 441 (now freq.)

á-berging, f. a tasting, Barl. 72.

á-beri, a, m. an accuser, prosecutor (bera á, accusare), Jb. 252 A; (a Norse law term.)

á-bersemi, f. a disposition to accuse, Hom. 86.

á-blásinn, part. inspired, transl. from Lat.; á. af Heilögum Anda, Fms. x. 373, Hom. 12.

á-blásning, f. a breathing upon; með eldr á., 656 C. 33, Rb. 438: gramm. aspiration, Skálda 175, 179, 180; theol. inspiration, Fms. x. 371.

á-blástr, rs, m., dat. áblæstri, a breathing upon, Fms. x. 210; theol. inspiration, iii. 164, v. 217, Eluc. 4; medic. pustula labiorum, Fél. ix. 184.

á-ból, n. a manor-house, = aðalból, B. K. 40.

á-bót, f. used only in pl. ábætr, of improvements, esp. on a farm or estate; á. jarðar, D. N., D. I. i. 199.  COMPD: ábóta-vant, n. adj. shortcoming, imperfect, Hkr. ii. 89, Sturl. i. 162.

ÁBÓTI, a, m. [Lat. abbas, from Hebr. abba], an abbot.abbati, which form is nearer to the Lat., is rare, but occurs, 655 iii, 656 A, i. 30, Hom. 237. 2. The Icel. form ábóti answers to the Engl. abbot, Fms. i. 147, Bs. i. ii. freq., Sks., etc.  COMPDS: ábóta-dómr, m. and ábóta-dæmi, n. an abbey, 655 xxxii, Bs. i. 831.  ábóta-laust, n. adj. without an abbot, vacant, Ann. 1393.  ábóta-sonr, m. son of an abbot, Bs. i. 679.  ábóta-stétt, f. and -stéttr, m. the rank, dignity of an abbot, Ann. 1325.  ábóta-stofa, u, f. the abbot's parlour, Vm.  ábóta-sæti, n. the seat of an abbot, 655 xxxii.  ábóta-vald, n. the power, dignity of an abbot, Ann. 1345.

á-breiða, u, f. a covering, counterpane, Korm. 206, Stj. 304.

á-breizl, n. a bed-covering, quilt, Str. 5, 22, Vm. 93,—in the last passage of a winding-sheet or pall; á. kápa, Vm. 67.

á-brúðigr, ábrýðas, ábrýði, jealous, jealousy, v. afbr-.

á-brystur, f. pl., v. áfr-.

á-burðr, ar, m. a charge (bera á, accusare); varði mik eigi þess áburðar, Fms. ii. 57, Rd. 236.  β. medic. salve, ointment (bera á, to smear), Bs. ii. 180.  γ. pomp or bravery in dress (berast á, to puff oneself up), in the COMPDS áburðar-klæði, n. fine clothes, showy dress, Bær. 5.  δ. a horse load:áburðar-hestr, m. a pack-horse, = klyfja hestr.  áburðar-maðr, m. a dressy, showy person, a dandy, Fms. iv. 255, Orkn. 208.  áburðar-mikill, adj. puffed up, showy, Ld. 248.  áburðar-samligr and áburðar-samr, adj. id., Sks. 452, 437.

á-búð, f. [búa á], an abode or residence on an estate or farm, tenancy; fara ... á annars manns land til ábúðar (as a tenant), Grág. ii. 253; á. jarðar (possession) heimilar tekju, Gþl. 329; en ef land spillist í á. hans, during his tenancy, K. Þ. K. 170; þá öðlast hann leigu (rent) en hinn á. (tenancy), N. G. L. i. 94: whatever refers to the right and duties of a tenant, landskyld ok alla á. jarðar, Jb. 210, 346, 167.  COMPDS: ábúðar-maðr, m. inhabitant, Stj. 368.  ábúðar-skylda, u, f. duties of a tenant, Jb. 211.

á-búnaðr, ar, m. = ábúð, N. G, L. i. 240.

á-byrgð, f. responsibility, liability, weight; leggja sína á. á, Grág. i. 208; eiga í á., to have at stake, Band. 18 new Ed., N. G. L. i. 223, Ld. 58; lands á., Grág. ii. 248; vera í á. um e-t, to answer for, Fms. xi. 82, Sks. 762: pl. ábyrgðir, pledges, Bær. 11, 686 B. 5.  COMPDS: ábyrgðar-hluti, a, m. and -hlutr, ar, m. an object, step involving risk and responsibility, Nj. 199.  ábyrgðar-lauss, adj. free from risk, Fms. x. 368; eigi með öllu á., i. e. a weighty, serious step, no trifling matter, Sturl. iii. 234.  ábyrgðar-ráð, n. a step involving risk, Nj. 164, Post. 656 B.  ábyrgðar-samligr, adj. momentous, important, Sks. 452.

á-byrgja, ð,  1. in the act. form (very rare), to answer for; á. e-m e-t, Gþl. 385; á. e-t á hendi e-m, to place a thing for security in a person's hands; hann á. þau á hendi Jóhanni postula, 655 ix. A.  2. as a dep.; ábyrgjast (very freq.), to answer for, take care of, Gþl. 190, Grág. i. 140; hverr skal sik sjálfr á., 256, ii. 119, Fms. vi. 361; á. e-t við e-u, Grág. i. 410; sá maðr ábyrgist vápn er upp festir, ii. 95; hverr ábyrgist þat (warrants) móðir, at góðráðr verði, ek mun ábyrgjast (I will warrant) at eigi mun heimskr verða, Fms. iv. 83.

á-byrgja, u, f. = ábyrgð (very rare); halda e-u ábyrgju, to be responsible for, Grág. ii. 335, 399.

á-býli, n. = ábúð, freq. at present and in several compds, as, ábýlis-jörð, a tenant farm; ábýlis-maðr, a tenant, etc.

á-bæli, n. = ábúð, H. E. i. 495.

ÁÐAN, adv. [cp. Ulf. aþn = ἐνιαυτός, Gal. iv. 10, and ataþni, id.], a little before, a little while ago, erewhile; Kolr fór frá seli á., Nj. 55; á. er vit skildum, Lv. 34; slíkt sem á. talða ek, as I said just above (of the Speaker reading the law in the lögrétta), Grág. i. 49, ii. 242; nú á., just now, 656 C. 39.

áðr, adv. [cp. Hel. adro = mane], ere, already, soon; er ek hefi a. (soon) ráðit brullaup mitt, Nj. 4; er Guð hafði á. bannat, Sks. 533; ok vóru þeir því á. (already) heim komnir, Eg. 222; at nú sé lægra í horninu en á., than before, Edda 32; litlu á., a little while ago, Fms. viii. 130; þar sem ek em á. (already) í fullri reiði Guðs, Sks. 533.  2. á. en, Lat. prius quam, ante quam:α. with subj.; á. en þeir gengi, Fms. xi. 13; á. en í biskups garð falli, N. G. L. i. 145.  β. with indic.; var eigi langt á. en bygðin tók við, Eg. 229.  γ. áðr simply = áðr en; þeir höfðu skamma hríð setið, á. þar kom Gunnhildr, they had sat a short while ere G. came thither, Nj. 6; en á. hann reið heiman, 52; en þat var svipstund ein á. (till) stofan brann, Eg. 240; en áðr hann lét setja söguna saman, Sturl. iii. 306.

á-dreif, n. a splashing, the spray, Sks. 147.

á-dreifing, f. a sprinkling upon, Stj. 78.

á-drykkir, m. pl. a 'sea' or wave dashing over a ship, Sks. 231.

á-drykkja, u, f. [drekka á], prop. a drinking to, pledging, esp. used in the phrase, at sitja fyrir ádrykkju e-s;—a custom of the olden time. The master of the house, for instance, chose one of his guests as his 'cup-fellow,' seated him over against himself in the hall, drank to him, and then sent the cup across the hall to him, so that they both drank of it by turns. This was deemed a mark of honour. Thus, Egill at fyrir ádrykkju Arinbjarnar, Egil sate over against Arinbjorn as his cup-mate, Eg. 253; skal hann sitja fyrir á. minni í kveld, in the pretty story of king Harold and the blind skald Stuf, Fms. vi. 391; cp. annat öndvegi var á hinn æðra pall gegnt konungi, skyldi þar sitja hinn æðsti ráðgjafi (the king's highest councillor) konungs fyrir hans á. ok þótti þat mest virðing at sitja fyrir konungs á., 439; sat Gizurr fyrir á. konungs innarr enn lendir menn, Bs. i. 19. See also the description of the banquet in Flugumýri on the 19th Oct. in the year 1253,—drukku þeir af einu silfrkeri ok mintust við jafnan um daginn þá er hvorr drakk til annars, Sturl. iii. 183.  COMPD: ádrykkju-ker, u, f. a 'loving-cup,' or 'grace-cup,' Vígl. 17.

á-eggjan, f. egging on, instigation, Hkr. i. 102, Fms. i. 139; af á. e-s, Landn. 214, Orkn. 416, Ísl. ii. 340, Fms. x. 379.  COMPD: áeggjanar-fifl, n. a fool or tool egged on by another; hafa e-n at á., Sturl. i. 81, to use one to snatch the chestnuts out of the fire; cp. the Engl. cat's-paw.

á-fall, n. 'on-fall,' esp.  1. a nautical term, of a 'sea' dashing over a ship, Bs. i. 422, Korm. 180, Nj. 267, Sks. 227, Fs. 113, 153; hence the phrase, liggja undir aföllum, of one in danger at sea.  2. a law term, the laying on of a fine or the like; á. sekðar, Grág. i. 138.  β. a condemnatory sentence in an Icel. court; ef þeir vilja á. dæma ... vér dæmum á. honum, Grág. i. 67, 71, of the formula or summing up and delivering a sentence in court.  3. metaph. and theol. = áfelii, a visitation, calamity, 623. 19, Magn. 470, H. E. i. 236.  COMPD: áfalls-dómr, m. a sentence of condemnation, doom, Clem. 50, Eluc. 39, 655 xviii. 2 Corin. xi. 29, Stj. 265 (visitation).

40 ÁFANG—A-HALD.

á-fang, n. (áfangi, m., Grág. i. 433), [fá á, to grasp], a grasping, seizing, laying hands upon, esp. of rough handling; hann hló mjök mót áfangi manna, Fms. vi. 203; varð hann fyrir miklu spotti ok áfangi, 209.  2. a law term, a mulct, fine, incurred by illegal seizure of another man's goods; ef maðr hleypr á bak hrossi manns úlofat, þat varðar sex aura á., if a man jumps on the back of another man's horse without leave, that is visited with a fine of six ounces, Grág. i. 432, Gþl. 520; hvatki skip er tekr skal sitt á. gjalda hverr ..., á. á maðr á hrossi sínu hvárt er hann ekr eðr ríðr, N. G. L. i. 45; at hann hafi riðit hrossi manns um þrjá bæi ... varðar skóggang ok áf. áfanga (where it is used masc. acc. pl.) með, Grág., vide above.

á-fangi, a betting-place, v. ái-fangi.

á-fastr, adj. made fast, fastened to, joined to; ef hapt er á. hrossi, Grág. i. 436; eldhúsit var á. útibúrinu, Nj. 75; þær (the comets) eru á. himni, Rb. 478: metaph., andligum hlutum áfastar, connected with, H. E. i. 511.

á-fátt, n. adj. defective, faulty, Nj. 49, Barl. 74: with gen., mikils er á., H. E. i. 244.

á-felli, n. a hardship, shock, calamity; þat á. (spell) hafði legit á því fólki, at hver kona fæddi dauðan frumburð sinn er hon ól, Mar. 656; afskaplig á., Stj. 90 (also of a spell); þreynging ok á., 121; með hversu miklu á. (injustice) Sigurðr konungr vildi heimta þetta mál af honum, Hkr. iii. 257; standa undir á., to be under great lordship, Fms. iv. 146, vi. 147; með miklu á. (of insanity), vii. 150; þeir vóru sex vetr í þessu á., viz. in bondage, x. 225; hvert á. jarl hafði veitt honum, what penalties the earl had laid upon him, Orkn. 284, Fms. iv. 310.  β. damnation, condemnation, = áfall; nú vil ek at þú snúir eigi svá skjótt málinu til áfellis honum, Band. 4.  COMPD: áfellis-dómr, m. condemnation, Grág. Introd. clxviii, Gþl. 174.

á-fenginn, adj. part. [fá á, to lay hold on, to intoxicate], intoxicating, used of drinks, cp. the Engl. 'stinging ale;' mjöðr, Edda 76; drykkr, Fms. viii. 447; vín, Stj. 409, Joh. 84.

á-fengr, adj. now more freq., id., Hkr. i. 244, Bárð. 174.

áf-ergja, u, f. (qs. af-ergja, af- intens. ?), eagerness, and -ligr, adj. impetuous.

á-flog, n. pl. [fljúgast a], a brawl, fighting, Fms. vi. 361.

á-flutningr, m., Vm. 157, of right of laying up fish.

á-form, n. a design, purpose, H. E. ii. 167, in a deed of the 14th century, (Lat. word.)

á-forma, að, prop. to form, mould; steina sem úðr höfðu þeir áformat, Stj. 562, 1 Kings v. 17 ('hewn stones'). In mod. usage only metaph. to design, perform, Fas. iii. 449; verðu vér at á. (design) ok ræða, Fms. vii. 89; á. um e-t, því mundi hann þetta hafa vakit, at hann mundi á. vilja um gleðina ... carry it out, vi. 342, Pass. 7. 2.

ÁFR (perh. better afr), m. [the r belongs to the root, cp. áir, f. pl.]  1. a beverage, Eg. 204, translated by Magnaeus by sorbitio avenacea, a sort of common ale brewed of oats; this explanation is confirmed by the Harbarðsljóð, verse 2, where Thor says, át ek í hvíld áðr ek heiman fór sildr ok afra (acc. pl.), saðr em ek enn þess; the single vellum MS. (Cod. Reg.) here reads hafra. In the Eg. l. c., the Cod. Wolf. reads afra, the Cod. A. M. 132 afr, acc. sing.: cp. the passage Ls. 3, where jöll seems to be the Scot. yill (v. Burns' Country Lassie), and áfo in Cod. Reg. a false spelling for áfr,—jöll ok áfr færi ek ása sonum, ok blend ek þeim svá meini mjöð: áfir, pronounced áir, now means buttermilk (used in Icel. instead of common beer): cp. also ábrystur, f. pl. curds of cow's milk in the first week after the cow has calved; the milk is cooked and eaten warm and deemed a great dainty; opt eru heitar ábrestur, Snót 299 (Ed. 1865); probably qs. áfr ystr.

á-fram, adv.  α. loc. with the face downward, forward; féll hann á., on the face, Nj. 253, Vd. 52, Grett. 99 new Ed.  β. temp. along, forward (rare); haun er nú með jarli sumarit á., he is now with the earl till late in the summer, Finnb. 274.  γ. further on; komst aldri lengra á. fyrir honum um skáldskapinn, he never got any further on with his poem, Fms. iii. 102; héldu þeir á. leiðina, they held forward on their way, Ó. T. 31. In mod. usage freq. with verbs denoting to go, move; hnlda, ganga ... áfram, to go on.

á-frá = offrá = frá, from, cp. Swed. ifrån.

á-frýja, ð, to reprove, blame; áfrý ek þó engan (better engum) yðar, Fas. i. 103.

á-frýja, u, f. reproach, scolding, Bs. i. 622.

á-fysa and áfýsi, f.  1. = aufusa, gratification, q. v.  2. in mod. usage = exhortation, and áfýsa, t, to exhort, á. e-n til e-s.

á-færa, ð, to reproach, Fms. v. 90.

á-færi, n. a law term; thus defined, af tveir menn fella einn við jörðu, þá skal aunarr þeirra bæta rétt, því at þat verðr á. at lögum, where it seems to mean unfair dealing, shame, N. G. L. i. 309.

á-ganga, u, f. task-work, forced labour, the French corvée, = atverk, q. v.; hón (the church) á tveggja manna á. á hval í Kjölsvík, Vm. 155; veita e-m á., D. N. ii. 133.

á-gangr, m. aggression, invasion; fyrir á. Skota ok Dana, Eg. 267, Fms. 1. 224, iii. 143, Eg. 337.  COMPDS: ágangs-maðr, m. an aggressive man, Lv. 79, Stj. 65.  ágangs-samr, adj. aggressive, Fs. 9, Fms. vi. 102, Sks. 208.

á-gauð, n. [geyja á], barking, metaph. foul language, Gísl. 53; cp. þá geyr hón á þá, 139.

á-gengiligr, adj. plausible; görði hann þetta á. fyrir Hæringi, Grett. 149 A, mod. aðgengiligt.

á-gengt, n. adj. trodden, beaten, of a place or path, Finnb. 336: metaph., e-m verðr á., to be trodden upon; hón byggir hér í miðri frændleifð sinni, ok verðr henni því her ekki a., Stj. 613. 2 Kings iv. 13. The mod. use of the phrase e-m verðr á. is to succeed or make progress in a thing.

á-gildi, n. value of a ewe (ær), Vm. 159, Pm. 40.

á-gildr, adj. of a ewe's value, Grág. i. 502; cp. kúgildi and kugildr.

á-girnast, d and t, dep. to lust after, in a bad sense, with an acc., Fms. i. 76, 223, Orkn. 38; with an inf., Orkn. 6 old Ed.

á-girnd, f. in old writers always for greed of power or passion generally:  α. ambition, Sks. 113 B, Fms. ix. 460; á. ok ofsi, greed and insolence, viii. 195, Stj. 143, 145, 146.  β. passion; ágirndar-logi, Rb. 424; á. blindleiki, blind passion (in love), H. E. i. 505, 655 xxx; thirst for revenge, Sks. 739.  γ. since the Reformation it has been exclusively used of avarice or greed of gain; in old writers the signification is more general; we, however, find á. fjár, Hom. 68; hann hafði dregit undir sik Finnskattinn með á., Fms. vii. 129.

á-girndligr, adj. passionate, Sks. 720 B.

á-girni, f.; used as neut., Mar. 91, O. H. L. 22:  α. = agirnd, ambition; mikit á., great ambition, O. H. L. l. c., Sks. 343.  β. cupidity; á. manna lofs, Hom. 83; á. áts ok drykkju, 53; fjár, 25, 623. 20; á. fjár ok metnadar, Edda (pref.) 144, 145.

á-gjarn, adj. ambitious; ér eruð ágjarnir heima í héraði ok ranglátir, ambitious and wrongful, Nj. 223, Orkn. 38, 66; á. ok fégjarn, ambitious and covetous, Fms. xi. 294, Hkr. ii. 146; á. til rikis, iii. 174; á. til fjár, covetous, Fms. xi. 440, Orkn. 66: dauntless, fierce, kappar ágjarnir ok óhræddir, fierce and fearless champions, Fms. x. 179; hógværir í friði sem lamb, en i úfriði á. (fierce) sem leon, viii. 253. The use since the Reformation is solely that of avaricious, greedy after money.

á-gjarnliga, adv. insolently, Sks. 450 B.

á-gjarnligr, adj. insolent; á. ran, Sks. 336, 509 B, 715.

á-góði, a, m. gain, profit, benefit, D. I. i. 476, Ísl. ii. 432 (freq.)  COMPD: ágóða-hlutr, ar, m. a profitable share, Grág. ii. 359.

á-grip, n. [grípa á, to touch], in the phrase, lítill ágripum, small of size, D. N. iv. 99.  β. at present ágrip means a compendium, abridgement, epitome.

á-gæta, tt, to laud, praise highly, Ld. 220, Fms. vi. 71.

á-gæti, n. renown, glory, excellence; göra e-t til ágætis sér, as a glory to himself, Fms. xi. 72, 109; reyna á. e-s, to put one on his trial, 142; þú hyggr at engu öðru en ákafa einum ok á., only bent upon rushing on and shewing one's prowess, 389; vegr ok á., fame and glory, Fas. i. 140, Sks. 241. In pl. glorious deeds; mikil á. vóru sögð frá Gunnari, Nj. 41: in the phrase, göra e-t at ágætum, to laud, praise highly, Fms. viii. 139, vii. 147: in the proverb, hefir hverr til síns ágætis nokkuð, every one's fame rests upon some deed of his own, no one gets his fame for naught, the context implies, and thou hast done what will make thee famous, Nj. 116.  2. in COMPDS ágætis- and ágæta- are prefixed to a great many words, esp. in mod. use, to express something capital, excellent;ágæta-skjótr, adj. very swift, Fms. vii. 169;  ágæta-vel, adv. excellently well, Nj. 218: and even to substantives, e. g. ágæta-gripr and ágætis-gripr, m. a capital thing, Fms. ix. 416, x. 254, Ld. 202;  ágæta-naut, n. a fine ox, Eb. 318;  ágætis-maðr, m. a great man, Landn. 324, Fms. vii. 102, xi. 329.

á-gætingr, m. a goodly man, O. H. L. 55 (rare).

á-gætliga, adv. capitally, Fms. i. 136, vi. 307, Boll. 346, Sks. 623.

á-gætligr, adj. excellent, goodly, Fms. ii. 300, x. 223, 231, xi. 396, Sks. 622, Hom. 132, Ver. 42.

á-gætr, adj. [v. the words above, from á- intens. and geta—gat—gátu, to get and to record; the old etymology in glossaries of the last century from the Greek ἀγαθός cannot be admitted], famous, goodly, excellent; á. maðr um allt land, Nj. 106; á. at afli, Edda 19; ágætir gimsteinar, precious stones, Fms. i. 15; á. skjöldr, Eg. 705; compar., mun hann verða ágætari (more famous) en allir þínir frændr, Fms. i. 256; superl., ágætaztr, Nj. 282, Eg. 311; ágæztr, contr., Edda 5, Íb. 14, Fms. vii. 95, Greg. 53. In the Landn. 'maðr ágætr' is freq. used in a peculiar sense, viz. a noble man, nearly synonymous to gæðingr in the Orkneys, or hersir in Norway, e. g. 143, 149, 169, 190, 198, 201, 203, 279, 281, 308, 312; hersir á., 173, etc.; cp. also Kristni S. ch. 1.

á-görð, f. gain, profit, = ávöxtr; til sölu ok á., for sale and profit, Bs. i. 426.

á-hald, n., prop. laying hand on:1. used esp. in pl. áhöld = brawl, fight, Eb. 152, Fas. i. 92; verða á. með mönnum, they came to a tussle, Sturl. iii. 262, Bs. i. 635: the phrase, hafa eingi áhöld við e-m, to have no power of resistance, to have so great odds against one that there is no chance, Eg. 261: hence comes probably the popular phrase, áhöld eru um

ÁHANKAST—ÁKVIÐR. 41

e-t, when matters are pretty nearly equal.2. sing. very rare, to keep back; veita e-m á., Niðrst. 3.  β. veita, göra á. um e-t, to claim the right of holding; hann görði á. um Halland, be claimed H., Fms. x. 70, v. l.; honum þótti leikdómrinn meira á. hafa á kirkjum en klerkdómrinn, ... had a stronger claim or title, Bs. i. 750, 696, Fms. x. 393.

á-hankast, að, dep. [hönk, a hank or coil], in the phrase, e-m á., one gets the worst of it. But it is twisted to another sense in the dream of king Harold, Fms. vi. 312. Shortly before the battle at the river Niz, the king dreamt that king Sweyn pulled the hank of rope out of his hand,—réðu svá flestir at Sveinn mundi fá þat er þeir keptust um, þá mælti Hákon jarl: vera má at svá sé, en vænna þyki mér at Sveini konungi muni áhankast, most men read it so that S. would win the prize of contest, then said earl H.: well that may be so, but it seems more likely to me that king S. will be caught.

á-heit, n. mostly or always in pl. vows to a god, saint, or the like, invocations, Hkr. i. 14, ii. 386; hón (the goddess Freyja) er nákvæmust mönnum til áheita, Edda 16, Bs. i. 134.  β. sing. in a peculiar sense; meir af nauðsyn en af áheiti, more of impulse than as a free vow, Magn. 534.

á-henda, d, to lay hands upon, seize; finna ok á., Grág. ii. 311: part. pass. áhendr, as adj. within reach; þeir vóru svá langt komnir at þeir urðu eigi áhendir, ... out of reach, Sturl. ii. 185, Eg. 160; þau urðu á., they were seized, Ld. 152.

á-heyrandi, part. within hearing, present, Grág. ii. 143, Fms. i. 248.

á-heyriliga, adv. worth hearing, Fms. i. 74.

á-heyriligr, adj. worth hearing, well sounding, Nj. 77, Fms. i. 141; á. orð, fine words, Orkn. 454.

á-heyris, adv. within hearing, Bs. i. 771.

á-heyrsi and á-heyrsla, adj. ind., verða e-s á., to get to hear, hear the rumour of, Sturl. i. 22, Orkn. 278, Fms. ii. 295.

á-hlaup, n. mostly in pl. onsets, onfalls, attacks; veita e-m á., Eg. 284; við áhlaupum (incursions) Dana, Fms. i. 28; at eigi veitti hann þau á. í bræði sinni, at geig sætti, Post. 686 B.  β. a carnal assault, Stj. 71: metaph., með svá stórum áhlaupum, so impetuously, Fms. ix. 252.  COMPD: áhlaupa-maðr, m. a hot-headed, impetuous person, Korm. 8, Þórð. 43: now used of a man that works by fits and starts, not steadily.

á-hleypinn, adj. rash, Sks. 383, 437.

á-hlýðast, dd, dep. to listen or give ear to; á. við e-t, to agree with, Fs. 141; en er þeir fundu at hann vildi eigi á. við frændr sína, when they found that he turned a deaf ear to his kinsmen, Eb. 7 new Ed., v. l., perhaps the right reading, v. öðlast.

á-hlýðinn, adj. giving a willing ear, listening readily; ekki á., obstinate, self-willed, Fms. vi. 431; á. um fjártökur, greedy of gain, vii. 209, where, however, the Morkinsk. (p. 337) reads, á. um fortölur, easy to persuade, which suits the context better; á. til grimleiks, Fms. x. 380, Thom. 28.

á-hrin, n. [hrína á, of spells], used in the COMPD áhrins-orð, n. pl., esp. of spells that come true, in the phrase, verða at áhrinsorðum, spells or prophecies that prove true, Þórð. 81, Fas. ii. 432.

á-hugi, a, m., prop. intention, mind; með þeim á. at ..., transl. of Lat. intentio, Hom. 80, 655 xxiii; ok nú segir hann öllum hver fyrirætlun hans (honum?) er í áhuga, ... what he is minded to do, Ísl. ii. 355.  β. eagerness, impulse of the mind (now freq. in that sense); ekki skortir ykkr á., Nj. 137.  γ. mind, opinion; eigi er því at leyna, hverr minn á. er um þetta, ek hygg ..., Fær. 199.  δ. care, solicitude, = áhyggja, Fms. ii. 146.  COMPDS: áhuga-fullr, adj. full of care, Fs. 98.  áhuga-lítill, adj. slow, Fms. iv. 77.  áhuga-maðr, m. an eager, aspiring man, Bs. i. 686.  áhuga-mikill, adj. eager, vigorous, Fms. Viii. 266.  áhuga-samt, n. adj. being concerned about, Bs. i. 824.  áhuga-verðr, adj. causing concern, Sturl. i. 106 (serious, momentous).

á-hyggja, u, f. care, concern, Hrafn. 12; bera á. fyrir, to be concerned about, Gþl. 44; fær þat honum mikillar á. ok reiði, concern and anger, Nj. 174, Bret. 24: pl. cares, Hákon hafði svá miklar áhyggjur um vetrinn, at hann lagðist í rekkju, Fms. i. 82.  COMPDS: áhyggju-fullr, adj. full of care, anxious, Fms. ii. 225, x. 249, Blas. 35.  áhyggju-lauss, adj. unconcerned, Rb. 312.  áhyggju-mikill, adj. anxious, Bs. i. 328, Band. 8.  áhyggju-samligr, adj. and -liga, adv. with concern, gravely, anxiously, Fms. i. 141, Sturl. ii. 78, 136.  áhyggju-samr, adj. anxious, careful, 655 xiii, 656 B. 7, Sturl. iii. 234.  áhyggju-svipr, m. a grave, anxious face, Fms. vi. 239, vii. 30.  áhyggju-yflrbragð, n. id., Fms. vi. 32.

á-hyggjast, að, á. um e-t, to be anxious about, Stj. 443, Róm. 307.

á-hætta, u, f. risk, Vd. 144 old Ed.; cp. Fs. 57; (now freq.)

á-höfn, f. the freight or loading of a ship, Fas. ii. 511: used to express a kind of tonnage; tíu skippund í lest, tólf lestir í á., 732. 16: luggage, Jb. 377, 394, 408: cp. Pál Vídal. s. v.

á-högg, f. slaughter of a ewe, Sturl. i. 69, 70 C, Ed. ærhögg.

ÁI, a, m. [cp. afi and Lat. avus], great-grandfather, answering to edda, great-grandmother (at present in Icel. langafi and langamma), Rm. 2; föður eðr afa, á. er hinn þriði, Edda 208. In Sæm. 118 ai seems to be an exclamatio dolentis, göróttr er drykkrinn, ai! unless ai be here = ái in the sense of father; cp. the reply of Sigmund, láttu grön sía, sonr. In mod. poetry áar in pl. is used in the sense of ancestors; áðr áar fæddust áa (gen. pl.) vorra, Bjarni 71, Eggert (Bb.) 1. 20.

ái-fangr, s, m.; áifangi (dat.), Grág. (Kb.) 160, and áifang (acc.), Ísl. l. c., follow the old declension (so as to distinguish the dat. and acc. sing.); áifangi, a, m., Fb. ii. 340; mod. áfangi, Grett. 29 new Ed., Fb. i. 165, [æja, to bait, and vangr, campus; as to the f, cp. Vetfangr = vetvangr, and hjörfangr = hjörvangr; Pál Vidal. derives it from fanga, to take]:—a resting-place; á áiföngum, Grág. i. 441; taka hest sinn á áiföngum, ii. 44; taka áifang (acc. sing.), Ísl. ii. 482; in the extracts from the last part of the Heiðarv. S. MS. wrongly spelt atfang (at = ái); höfðu þeir dvöl nokkura á áifanga, Fb. ii. l. c., Jb. 272. In mod. use áfangi means a day's journey, the way made between two halting places, cp. σταθμός; hence the phrase, 'í tveim, þremr ... áföngum,' to make a journey in two, three ... stages :—the COMPD áfanga-staðr, m., is used = áifangr in the old sense; but 'stadr' is redundant, as the syllable 'fangr' already denotes place.

ái-fóðr, n. fodder for baiting, provender, Jb. 430, Stj. 214. Gen. xlii. 27.

á-kafast, að, dep. to be eager, vehement; á. á e-t, Fær. 262 (cp. Fb. ii. 40), Fms. xi. 20: absol., Bret. 14, 60.

á-kafi, a, m. [ákafr], eagerness, vehemence; þá görðist svá mikill á. á, at ..., it went to such an excess, that..., Nj. 62, Fms. i. 35, xi. 389; með á. miklum, vehemently, Eg. 457; í ákafa, adverbially, eagerly, impetuously, Nj. 70, Fms. xi. 117.  2. the gen. ákafa is prefixed,  α. to a great many adjectives, in the sense of a high degree, very, e. g. á. reiðr, furious, Fms. vii. 32, x. 173; á. fjölmennr, very numerous, Ísl. ii. 171; á. fögr, beautiful (of Helena), Ver. 25.  β. to some substantives; á. Drífa, a heavy snow drift, Sturl. iii. 20; á. maðr, an eager, hot, pushing man, Eg. 3, Fms. i. 19, vii. 257, Grett. 100 A: in this case the ákafa may nearly be regarded as an indecl. adjective.

á-kafleikr, m. eagerness, vehemence, Fms. x. 324.

á-kafliga, adv. vehemently, impetuously; of motion, such as riding, sailing; fara á., to rush on, Fms. ix. 366; sem ákafligast, in great speed, at a great rate, Eg. 160, 602; also, biðja á., to pray fervently.2. very, Fær. 238, Fms. x. 308, Ld. 222.

á-kafligr, adj. hot, vehement; ú. bardagi, orosta, styrjöld, Fms. x. 308, 656 B. 10.

á-kaflyndi, n. a hot, impetuous temper, Hkr. ii. 237.

á-kaflyndr, adj. impetuous, Fms. viii. 447.

á-kafr, adj. [cp. A. S. caf, promptus, velox, and 'á-' intens., cp. af D. II.], vehement, fiery; á. bardagi, a hot fight, Fms. xi. 95: of whatever is at its highest point, þenna dag var veizlan (the banquet) allra áköfust, 331; vellan sem áköfust, Nj. 247: ardent, svá var ákaft um vináttu þeirra, at ..., 151: neut. as adv., kalla ákaft á Bárð, to pray to B. fervently, Bárð. 169; ríða sem ákafast, to ride at a furious rate, Eg. 602; búast sem á., 86; en þeir er eptir Agli vóru sóttu ákaft, ... pulled hard, 362.

á-kall, n. a calling upon, invocation; á. á nafn Guðs, 656 B. 10, Sks. 310, Bs. i. 180.  β. clamour, shouting; af orðum þeirra ok ákalli, Fms. xi. 117, Orkn. 344 old Ed., new Ed. 402 reads kall: esp. a war cry, Fms. ix. 510.  2. a claim, demand; veita á. til e-s, Eg. 470, Hkr. ii. 195, Fms. ix. 433, xi. 324, Orkn. 20 old Ed.; cp. new Ed. 54, Korm. 110.  COMPD: ákalls-lauss, adj. a law term, free from encumbrance, Vm. 11.

á-kals, n. an importunate, urgent request, Fms. ii. 268, vi. 239.

á-kast, n. a throwing upon, casting at, Sks. 410: metaph. an assault, á. djöfla, Hom. 14: plur. taunts, Sturl. i. 21.  COMPD: ákasta-samr, adj. taunting, Glúm. 364.

á-kastan, f. casting upon, Js. 42.

á-kefð, f. = ákafi; vægilega en eigi með á., Fms. vi. 29, vii. 18, x. 237, K. Á. 202, Sks. 154.  COMPD: ákefðar-orð, n. rash language. Mar.

á-kenning, f.  1. in the phrase, hafa á. e-s or af e-u, to have a smack of a thing, to savour of, Bs. i. 134.  2. a slight reprimand, (kenna á., to feel sore); göra e-m á., to administer a slight reprimand, Sturl. i. 70, Bs. i. 341, in the last passage it is used as masc.

á-keypi, n. the right of pre-emption, a law term, Fr.

ä-klaga, að, to accuse, (mod. word.)

á-klagan and áklögun, f. an accusation, charge, Bs. i. 856.

á-klæði, n. a carpet, covering, Pm. 109.

á-kneyki, n. hurt, metaph. shame, Konr. MS.

á-kúfóttr, adj. spherical, Sks. 630 B; cp. ávalr.

á-kúran, a doubtful reading, Eg. 47, v. l. for áþján, bondage: ákúrur, f. pl., means in mod. usage reprimands: in the phrase, veita e-m á., to scold, esp. of reprimands given to a youth or child.

á-kváma, mod. ákoma, u, f.  1. coming, arrival; úfriðar á., visitation of war, Stj. 561.  2. but esp. a hurt received from a blow, a wound, = áverki, Nj. 99, Fms. ii. 67, Gþl. 168: medic. of a disease of the skin, an eruption, Fél. ix. 186, esp. on the lips, v. áblástr.

á-kveða, kvað, to fix; part. ákveðinn, fixed, Orkn. 10; á. orð, marked, pointed words, Bjarn. 57, Fbr. 72, 73.

á-kveðja, kvaddi, = ákveða, Bs. i. 773; ákveddi is perhaps only a misspelling for ákvæði.

á-kviðr, m. a verdict against, perhaps to be read bera á kviðu (acc. pl.) separately, Bs. i. 439.

42 ÁKVÆÐI—ÁLIT.

á-kvæði, n.  1. an uttered opinion; mun ek nú segja yðr hvat mitt á. er, Nj. 189, Sturl. i. 65 C; Ed. atkvæði (better): a command, Stj. 312, 208; með ákvæðum, expressly, Sks. 235: cp. atkvæði.  2. in popular tales and superstition it is specially used of spells or charms: cp. Lat. fatum from/ fari; cp. also atkvæði: the mod. use prefers ákvæði in this sense, hence ákvæða-skáld, n. a spell-skald, a poet whose words have a magical power, also called kraptaskald; v. Ísl. Þjóðs. I, where many such poets are mentioned; indeed any poet of mark was believed to possess the power to spell-bind with his verses; cp. The tales about Orpheus.  COMPDS: ákvæðis-teigr, m. a piece of field to be mowed in a day, a mower's day's work (in mod. usage called dags-látta), Fms. Iii. 207.  ákvæðis-verk, n. piece-work; þat er títt á Íslandi at hafa á., þykjast þeir þá komnir til hvíldar eptir erviði sitt er verki er lokit, Fms. v. 203, Jb. 374.

á-kynnis, adv. on a visit, Sd. 158.

á-kæra, ð, to accuse, (mod. word.)

á-kæra, u, f. a charge, accusation, Bs. i. 852.  COMPDS: ákæru-lauss, adj. undisputed, Finnb. 356; blameless, Stj. 523.  ákæru-maðr, m. an accuser, Stj. 42.

á-kærsla, u, f. = ákæra, Fr.  ákserslu-lauss = ákærulauss, id.

ÁL, f., old form nom. dat. acc. sing. ꜵ́l; öl heitir drykkr, en ꜵ́l er band, Skálda (Thorodd) 163: gen. Sing. and nom. pl. álar; (the mod. form is ól, keeping the ó throughout all the cases; gen. pl. ólar):—a strap, esp. of leather; ál löng, Fms. vi. 378, Edda 29, Sks. 179: a proverb, sjaldan er bagi að bandi eðr byrdi að ól.  β. esp. the leather straps for fastening a cloak, etc. to the saddle, = slagálar, Orkn. 12, Bjarn. 68, Fbr. 57 new Ed.  γ. a bridle, rein; beislit fanst þegar ok var komit á álna, Bs. i. 314, note 2.  COMPDS: álar-endi, a, m. the end of a leather strap, Edda 29.  álar-reipi, n. a rope of leather, etc.

á-lag, n. and álaga, u, f. [ieggja á]; in some cases, esp. dat. pl., it is often difficult to decide to which of these two forms a case may belong; they are therefore best taken together. In the neut. pl. the notion of spell, in the fem. pl. that of tax, burden, hardship prevails. In sing. both of them are very much alike in sense.  I. fem. pl. a tax, burden, burdensome impost; sagði at bændr vildi eigi hafa frekari álög (álögur?) af konungi en forn lög stæði til, Fms. xi. 224; undan þessum hans álögum ... liggja undir slíkum álögum, tyranny, yoke, Bárð. ch. 2; gangit til ok hyggit at landsmenn, at ganga undir skattgjafar Ólafs konungs ok allar álögur, burdens, taxes, Fms. iv. 282, in the famous speech of Einar þveræing, (Ó. H. ch. 134; bað jarl vægja möunum um álögur, Fms. iv. 216; jarl hélt með freku öllum álögum, Orkn. 40; hvárt mun konungr sá ekki kunna hóf um álögur ok harðleiki við menn, Fms. vi. 37; þórstcinn kvað ekki um at leita, at þórðr kæmist undan neinum álögum, burdens, oppressive conditions, Bjarn. 72.  2. a law term, an additional fine; með álögum ok leigum, duties and rents, Grág. i. 260; binda álogum, to charge, 384; hálfa fimtu mörk álaga, a fine of three marks, 391.  3. metaph. in plur. and in the phrase, í álögum, in straits, at a pinch, if needful, Vm. 18; vitr maðr ok ágætr í öllum álögum, a wise and good man in all difficulties, Fs. 120.  4. a metric. term, addition, supplement; þat er annat leyfi háttanna at hafa í dróttkvæðum hætti eitt orð eða tvau með álögum, cp. álagsháttr below, Edda 124.  5. theol. a visitation, scourge, Stj. 106, 647. 2 Kings xxi. 13 (answering to plummet in the Engl. transl.); sing. in both instances.  II. neut. pl. álög, spells, imprecations. In the fairy tales of Icel. 'vera í álögum' is a standing phrase for being spell-bound, esp. for being transformed into the shape of animals, or even of lifeless objects; leggja a., to bind by spells, cp. Ísl. Þjóðs. by Jón Árnason; var því líkast sem í fornum sögum er sagt, þá er konunga börn urðu fyrir stjúpmæðra álögum (v. l. sköpum), Fms. viii. 18 (Fb. ii. 539): hóri lýstr til hans með úlfs hanzka ok segir at hann skyldi verða at einuni híðbirni, ok aldri skáltn or þessuni álögum fara, Fas. (Völs. S.) i. 50, 404: sing. (very rare), þat er álag mitt, at þat skip skal aldri heilt af hafi koma er hér liggr út, Landn. 250. At present always in pl., cp. forlög, örlög, ólög.  COMPDS: álags-bætr, f. pl. a kind of line, N. G. L. i. 311.  álags-háttr, m. a kind of metre, the first syllabic of the following line completing the sentence, e. g. ískalda skar ek öldu | eik; Edda (Ht.) 129.  álögu-laust, n. adj. free from imposts.

álar-, ála-, v. sub voce áll and ál.

á-lasa, að, to blame, with dat. of the person.

á-lasan and álösun, f., and álas, n. a reprimand, rebuke, Vígl. 25.

ál-belti, n. a leathern belt, Stj. 606.

ál-borinn, adj. Part. [álbera], measured with a thong or cord, of a field, N. G. L. i. 43. In Icel. called vaðbera and vaðborinn.

ál-burðr, m. mensuration with a line, N. G. L. i. 43, = vaðburðr.

á-leiðis, adv. on the right path, opp. to afleiðis; (leið) snúa e-m á., metaph., 655 xiii. B; snú þeim á. er þú hefir áðr vilta, id.  β. forwards, onwards; fóru á. til skipa, Fms. 1. 136; snúa ferð á., to go on (now, halda áfram), Korm. 232, K. Þ, K. 94 B: metaph., koma e-u á., to bring a thing about, Hkr. i. 169, iii. 104; koma e-u til á., id., Fas. i. 45 (corrupt reading); snúa e-u á., to improve, Bs. i. 488; víkja á. með e-m, to side with, Sturl. Iii. 91.

á-leikni, f. a pertness, Grett. 139 (Ed.)

á-leikr, m. [leika á], a trick, Grett. 139 C.

á-leiksi, adj. ind. who had got the worst of the game, Bret.

á-leitaðr, part. assailed, Stj. 255.

á-leiting, f. = áleitni, Fr.

á-leitinn, adj. pettish, Fms. ii. 120, Orkn. 308.

á-leitligr, adj. reprehensible, Greg. 26.

á-leitni, f. a pettish disposition, Fms. vii. 165, Sturl. ii. 228, Fs. 8; eigi fyrir á. sakar heldr góðvilja, Al. 129, 153; spott þórðar ok á., invectives, Bjarn. 3, Joh. 623. 19.

á-lengdar, adv. along; engum friði heit ek þér á., Fms. iii. 156; eigi vildi hann vist hans þar á., he should not be staying along there, i. e. there, Grett. 129 A, Sturl. iii. 42.  β. now used loc. far off, aloof, Lat. procul.

á-lengr, adv. [cp. Engl. along], continuously; þessi illvirki skyldi eigi á. úhefnd vera, Bs. i. 533; á. er, as soon as; a. er goðar koma í setr sínar, þá ..., Grág. i. 8; á. er hann er sextan vetra, 197: ú. svá sem þeir eru búnir, in turn as soon as they are ready, 6l.

ália, v. hálfa, region.

álfkona, u, f. a female elf, Fas. i. 32, Bær. 2, Art. 146.

álf-kunnigr, adj. akin to the elves, Fm. 13.

ÁLFR, s, m. [A. S. ælf, munt-ælfen, sæ-ælfen, wudu-ælfen, etc.; Engl. elf, elves, in Shakespeare ouphes are 'fairies;' Germ. alb and elfen, Erl- in Erlkönig (Göthe) is, according to Grimm, a corrupt form from the Danish Ellekonge qs. Elver-konge]; in the west of Icel. also pronounced álbr:  I. mythically, an elf, fairy; the Edda distinguishes between Ljósálfar, the elves of light, and Dökkálfar, of darkness (the last not elsewhere mentioned either in mod. fairy tales or in old writers), 12; the Elves and Ases are fellow gods, and form a favourite alliteration in the old mythical poems, e. g. Vsp. 53, Hm. 144, 161, Gm. 4, Ls. 2, 13, Þkv. 7, Skm. 7, 17, Sdm. 18. In the Alvismál Elves and Dwarfs are clearly distinguished as different. The abode of the elves in the Edda is Álfheimar, fairy land, and their king the god Frey (the god of light), Edda 12; see the poem Gm. 12, Álfheim Frey gáfu í árdaga tívar at tannfé. In the fairy tales the Elves haunt the hills, hence their name Huldufólk, hidden people: respecting their origin, life, and customs, v. Ísl. Þjóðs. i. I sqq. In old writers the Elves are rarely mentioned; but that the same tales were told as at present is clear;—Hallr mælti, hvi brosir þú nú? þórhallr svarar, af því brosir ek, at margr hóll opnast ok hvert kvikindi býr sinn bagga bæði smá ok stór, ok gera fardaga (a foreboding of the introduction of Christianity), Fms. ii. 197, cp. landvættir; álfamenn, elves, Bs. i. 417, Fas. i. 313, 96; hóll einn er hér skamt í brott er álfar búa í, Km. 216: álfrek, in the phrase, ganga álfreka, cacare, means dirt, excrements, driving the elves away through contamination, Eb. 12, cp. Landn. 97, Fms. iv. 308, Bárð. ch. 4: álfröðull, elfin beam or light, a poët. name of the sun; álfavakir, elf-holes, the small rotten holes in the ice in spring-time in which the elves go a fishing; the white stripes in the sea in calm weather are the wakes of elfin fishing boats, etc.: medic. álfabruni is an eruption in the face, Fél. ix. 186: Ivar Aasen mentions 'alvgust, alveblaastr, alveld,' the breath, fire of elves (cp. St. Vitus' dance or St. Anthony's fire); 'alvskot,' a sort of cancer in the bone:—græti álfa, elfin tears, Hðm. I, is dubious; it may mean some flower with dew-drops glittering in the morning sun, vide s. v. glýstamr (glee-steaming). Jamieson speaks of an elf's cup, but elf tears are not noticed elsewhere; cp. Edda 39. In Sweden, where the worship of Frey prevailed, sacrifices, álfa-blót, were made to the elves, stóð húsfreyja í dyrum ok bað hann (the guest) eigi þar innkoma, segir at þau ætti álfa blót, Hkr. ii. 124 (referring to the year 1018), cp. Korm. ch. 22.  2. metaph., as the elves had the power to bewitch men, a silly, vacant person is in Icel. called álfr; hence álfalegr, silly álfaskapr and álfaháttr, silly behaviour.II. in historical sense, the Norse district situated between the two great rivers Raumelfr and Gautelfr (Alhis Raumarum, et Gotharum) was in the mythical times called Álfheimar, and its inhabitants Álfar, Fas. i. 413, 384, 387, Fb. i. 23, vide also P. A. Munch, Beskrivelse over Norge, p. 7. For the compds v. above.

álfrek, n., álfröðull, m., v. above.

á-liðinn, adj. Part. far-spent, of time; dagr, Grett. 99 A; sumar, Orkn. 448, Ld. 14.

á-lit, n. [líta á], prop. a view:I. aspect, appearance, esp that of a person's face, gait, etc.; vænn at áliti, fair, gentle of aspect, Nj. 30; fagr álitum, Edda 5, Eluc. 35, Bær. 7: of other animate or inanimate objects, dökkr álits, black of aspect, Fms. vi. 229; eigi réttr álits, crooked, not straight (of a broken leg), Bs. i. 743; smíði fagrt áliti, Hom. 128: the whole form, shape, hvert á. sem hann hefði, Fms. xi. 433; hann hafði ymsa manna á. eða kykvenda, Post. 656 C. 26.  II. of a mind, a view, thought, consideration, reflection; með áliti ráðsmanna, Fms. Vii. 139; með skjótu áliti, at a glance, Sks. 3: esp. in pl., þú ferr með góðum vilja en eigi með nógum álitum, inconsiderately, Lv. 38; meir með ákefð en álitum, Stj. 454. Hom. 24; gjöra e-t at álitum, to take a matter into (favourable) consideration, Nj. 3, Lv. 16.  2. in mod. use, opinion; does not occur in old writers (H. E. i. 244 it means authority), where there is always some additional notion of reflection, consideration.

ÁLITALEYSI—ÁNAUÐ. 43

Compds such as almennings-álit, n., public opinion, are of mod. date.  β. it is now also used in the sense of reputation; vera í miklu (litlu) áliti.  COMPDS: álita-leysi, n. absence of reflection, Fas. Iii. 91.  álita-lítill, adj. inconsiderate, Fas. ii. 388.  álita-mál, n. pl., gjöra e-t at álitamálum = göra at álitum, v. above, Lv. 16.

á-litliga, adv. civilly (but not heartily); tók hann þeim á., he received them pretty well, Fms. x. 132; for allt á. með þeim en eigi sem þá er blíðast var, ix. 454, Bjarn. 8.  2. in the present usage, considerably, to a high amount, etc.

á-litligr, adj., Lat. consideratus, Hom. 28.  2. considerable, respectable, (mod.)

á-litning, f. = álit, Thom. 259.

á-líkr, adj. like, resembling, Sks. 164: á-líka, adv. alike, nearly as.

á-ljótr, m. [ljótr, deformis], gen. s and ar, dat. áljóti; a law term, a serious bodily injury that leaves marks, wilfully inflicted; only once, Grág. ii. 146, used of a libellous speech; áljótsráð is the intention to inflict áljót, and is distinguished from fjörráð (against one's life), sárráð, and drepráð, Grág. ii. 127, 117, 146; áljótr eðr bani, i. 497; áljótsráð, as well as fjörráð, if carried out in action, was liable to the greater out-lawry (ii. 127), but áljótr, in speech, only to the lesser, and this too even if the charge proved to be true; ef maðr bregðr manni brigslum, ok mælir áljót, þótt hann segi satt, ok varðar fjörbaugsgarð, ii. 146; an intended áljótsráð, if not carried into effect, was also only liable to the lesser out-lawry, 127: every one was to be brought to trial for the actual, not the intended injury; as, vice versa, a man was tried for murder, if the wound proved mortal (ben), though he only intended to inflict a blow (drep) or wound (sár), 117; cp. also i. 493.  COMPDS: áljóts-eyrir, s, m. a fine for á., N. G. L. i. 171 (for cutting one's nose off).  áljóts-ráð, n. pl., Grág., v. above.

ÁLKA, u, f. an auk, alca L., Edda (Gl.): álku-ungi, a, m. a young auk, Fs. 147: metaph. a long neck, in the phrase, teygja álkuna (cant).

ÁLL, m.  I. an eel, Lat. anguilla, Km. 236, Edda (Gl.), 655 xxx. 2, Stj. 69.  II. a deep narrow channel in sea or river; eru nú þeir einir alar til lands er ek get vaðit, Fms. iii. 60; þeir lögðu út á álinn (in a harbour) ok lágu þar um strengi, Sturl. i. 224; djúpir eru Islands alar, of the channel of the Atlantic between Norway and Iceland, a proverb touching the giantess who tried to wade from Norway to Iceland, Ísl. Þjóðs.  III. in names of horses, or adjectives denoting the colour of a horse, 'ál' means a coloured stripe along the back, e. g. in mó-ál-óttr, brown striped, bleik-ál-óttr, yellow striped; Kingála and Bleikálingr are names of horses, referring to their colour.  IV. a sort of seed, Edda (Gl.); cp. Ivar Aasen, aal, a sprout, and aala, aal-renne, to sprout, of potatoes.  COMPDS: ála-fiski, f. fishing for eels, D. N.  ála-garðr, m. an eel-pond, stew for eels, D. N.  ála-veiðr, f. eel fishing, Gþl. 421.  ála-virki, n. a pond for eel fishing, Gþl. 421.

álma, u, f., gener. a prong, fluke of an anchor, or the like, as cognom., Fms. v. 63:—properly perh. a branch of an elm.

álm-bogi, a, m. a sort of bow, cross-bow, Lex. Poët.

ÁLMR, m. [Lat. ulmus; Engl. elm; Germ. ulme], an elm, Edda (Gl.), Karl. 310: metaph. a bow, Lex. Poët.

álm-sveigr, m. an elm-twig, Fas. i. 271.

álm-tré, n. an elm-tree, Karl. 166.

álm-viðr, m. id.

álpast qs. aplast, dep. to totter, v. apli.

ÁLPT, more correctly álft, f. the common í eel. word for swan, Lat. cygnus; svan is only poët.; all local names in which the swan appears, even those of the end of the 9th century, use 'álpt,' not 'svan,' Álpta-fjörðr, -nes, -mýri, v. the local index to the Landn.; Svanshóll comes from a proper name Svan. Probably akin to Lat. albus; the t is fem. Inflexion; the p, instead of f, a mere change of letter; cp. the proverb, þegar hrafninn verðr hvítr en álptin svört, of things that never will happen: pl. álptir, but sometimes, esp. in Norse, elptr or elftr; the change of the original a (alft) into á (álft) is of early date, Grág. ii. 338, 346, Eg. 132, Landn. 57; in all these passages pl. álptir; but elptr, Jb. 217, 309. Respecting the mythical origin of the swan, v. Edda 12; they are the sacred birds at the well of Urda.  COMPDS: álptar-hamr, m. the skin of a swan, Fas. ii. 373.  álptar-líki, n. the shape of a swan, Fas. ii. 375, etc.

álpt-veiðr, f. catching wild swans, Landn. 270, Vm. 69; álptveiðar skip, 68.

ál-reip, n. a strap of leather, Dipl. v. 18; vide ál.

á-lútr, adj. louting forwards, stooping, Thom. 201.

á-lygi, n. slander, Glúm. 340, Fær. 203.

á-lykkja, u, f. the loop (lykkja) in the letter a, Skálda 171.

á-lykt, f. issue, decision, Gþl. 23.  COMPDS: ályktar-dómr, m. a final doom or judgment, Sks. 668.  ályktar-orð, n. the last word, a peroration. Eg. 356, Hkr. ii. 215, Fms. vii. 116.  ályktar-vitni, n. a conclusive testimony, defined in Gþl. 476.

á-lykta, að, to conclude, (mod. word.)

á-lyktan, f. conclusion, final decision, Sturl. iii, 179.

á-lægja, adj. ind. at heat, of a mare, Grág. i. 427.

ÁMA, u, f. (and ámu-sótt, f.) erysipelas, Sturl. ii. 116; in common talk corrupted into heimakona or heimakoma.  2. poët. a giantess, Edda (Gl.); hence the play of words in the saying, gengin er gygr or fæti en harðsperra aptr komin, gone is the giantess (erysipelas), but a worse (sceloturbe) has come after.3. a tub, awme, Germ. ahm.4. in Norse mod. dialects the larva is called aama (v. Ivar Aasen); and ámu-maðkr, spelt ánu-maðkr, a kind of maggot, lumbricus terrestris, is probably rightly referred to this. Fél. ix. states that it has this name from its being used to cure erysipelas.

á-málga, að, to beg or claim gently, Gþl. 370.

ám-átligr, adj. loathsome, piteous, Fms. v. 165, of piteously crying; Fas. ii. 149, of an ogress; Finnb. 218, Bær. 7.

ám-áttigr, adj. [cp. old Germ. amahtig = infirmus], contr. ámátkir, ámáttkar, etc., used in poetry as an epithet of witches and giants, prob. in the same sense as ámátligr, Vsp. 8, Hkv. Hjör. 17. Egilsson translates by praepotens, which seems scarcely right.

á-minna, t, to admonish.

á-minning, f. warning, admonition, reproof; áðr menn urðu til á. við hann um þetta mál, ... reminded him, called it into his recollection, Fms. xi. 286, Sks. 335; fjandans á., instigation, Fms. viii. 54; heilsusamligar á., vi. 281; Guðs á., Ver. 6, Stj. 116; var þó mörg á. (many foreboding symptoms) áðr þessa lund for ...; góðrar áminningar, beatae memoriae (rare), H. E. i. 514.  COMPDS: áminningar-maðr, m. monitor, Fms. v. 125.  áminningar-orð, n. warnings, Fms. vi. 44.  áminningar-vísa, u, f. a song commemorating deeds of prowess, etc., Hkr. ii. 345.

ÁMR, adj. occurs twice or thrice in poetry (by Arnór and in a verse in Bs. i. 411), seems to mean black or loathsome; í úmu blóði and ám hræ, loathsome blood and carcases of the slain, Orkn. 70, Fms. vi. 55; akin with ámátligr. Egilsson omits the word. Metaph. of a giant, the loathsome, Edda (Gl.)

á-munr, adj. [á- intens. and munr, mens], eager, only in poetry; á. augu, piercing, greedy eyes, Vkv. 16; and á. e-m, eager for revenge, in a bad sense, Hkv. 2. 9.  COMPD: ámuns-aurar, m. pl. additional payment [munr, difference] D. N. (Fr.)

á-mæla, t, to blame; á. e-m fyrir e-t, Eg. 164, Nj. 14, Hkr. ii. 285, Orkn. 430: part. ámælandi, as subst., a reprover, Post. 645. 61.

á-mæli, n. blame, reproof, Nj. 33, 183, Ísl. ii. 338, Fs. 40, El. 22.  COMPDS: ámælis-laust, n. adj. blameless, Ölk. 37, Ísl. ii. 54.  ámælis-orð, n. reproof. Valla L. 218.  ámælis-samt, n. adj. shameful, Sturl. ii. 131, Hrafn. 11.  ámælis-skor, f. [cp. the Engl. score], a dub. word attached to an account of numbers in Edda 108; átta bera á., a short (not full) score (?).  ámælis-verðr, adj. blamable, Glúm. 369, Fms. ii. 182.

ÁN, prep. [Goth. inuh; Hel. and O. H. G. ano; Germ. ohne; Gr. ἄνευ], without: the oldest form in MSS. is ón, Eluc. 25, Greg. Dial, (freq.), 655 xxvii. 2, Fms. xi. in, 153; aon, Hom. 19 sqq.; the common form is án; with gen. dat. and acc.; at present only with gen.  I. with gen., þess máttu Gautar illa án vera, Hkr. ii. 70. Ó. H. 49 has 'þat;' án manna valda, Fms. iii. 98; á. allra afarkosta, x. 7; mættim vér vel þess án vera, Ísl. ii. 339; in the proverb, án er ills gengis nema heiman hafi, Gísl. 63, but án er illt gengi (acc.), 149, Nj. 27, Ísl. ii. 142, l. c..; án allra klæða, Al. 171; án allrar vægðar, Sks. 229; ón lasta synda, Eluc. 25.  II. with dat., esp. in translations or eccles. Writings, perh. in imitation of the Lat., and now quite out of use; esp. In the phrase, án e-s ráði, without (against) one's will, Nj. 38, Bjarn. 71, Korm. 142, Fms. xi. 153, 111; ón góðum verkum, Greg. 13; án úfláti, incessantly, Bs. i. 97; ón dómi, Eluc. 39; sannr ok on gildingi, 655 xxvii. 2.  III. with acc., esp. freq. in the Grág., án er illt gengi, v. above; þá skal hann án vera liðit, Grág. i. 276; án ráð lögráðanda, 334; hann mun þik ekki þykjast mega án vera, Fms. vii. 26; án allan verma, Sks. 210; án alla flærð, 522 B; ón líkamligan breyskleik, ok on dóm, Eluc. 38; án leyfi, without leave, Fms. vii. 141.  IV. ellipt. without case, or adverbially, hvatki es betra es at hafa en ón at vera (to be without), 677. 8; þau er mönnum þykir betr at hafa en án at vera, Gþl. 379; eiga vilja heldr en ón vera þat hit mjallhvíta man, Alvm. 7: acc. with inf., án við löst at lifa, sine culpâ vivere, Hm. 68; used substantively, in the proverb, alls áni (omnium expers) verðr sá er einskis biðr, Sl. 38: Egilsson also, on Hdl. 23, suggests a form án, n.; but the passage (the poem is only left in the Fb.) is no doubt a corrupt one. Probably 'ani ómi' is a corruption from Arngrími (arngmi, the lower part of the g being blotted out: Arngrími | óru bornir | (öflgir ?) synir | ok Eyfuru, or the like).

ÁN and Ön, a mythical king of Sweden, hence ána-sótt, f. painless sickness from age, decrepid old age; þat er síðan kölluð á. ef maðr deyr verklauss af elli, Hkr. i. 35: the word is mentioned in Fél. ix. s. v., but it only occurs l. c. as an ἅπ. λεγ. and seems even there to be a paraphrase of the wording in the poem, knátti endr | at Uppsölum | ánasótt | Ön of standa, Ýt. 13; even in the time of Snorri the word was prob. not in use in Icel.  2. the hero of the Án's Saga, a romance of the 14th or 15th century, Fas. ii. 323-362; hence áni, a, m., means a fool, lubber. ánalegr, adj. clownish; and ánaskapr, m. clownishness, etc.

á-nauð, f. bondage, oppression; á. ok þrælkun, Fms. x. 224, v. 75: in pl. ánauðir, imposts, x. 399, 416, 129 (grievances), Sks. 6l (where sing.)

44 ÁNAUÐAROK—ÁRNA.

COMPDS: ánauðar-ok, n. yoke of oppression, Stj. 168.  ánauðar-vist, f. a life of oppression, bondage, 655 viii. 4.

á-nauðga, að, to oppress, Js. 13, Gþl. 44.

á-nauðigr, adj. oppressed, enslaved, Hkr. i. 40, Grág. ii. 292, N. G. L. i. 341, Sks. 463.

á-nefna, d, to appoint, name, Jb. 161 B, Fms. i. 199, ix. 330.

á-netjast, að, dep. to be entangled in a net; metaph., á. e-u, Bs. i. 141.

á-neyða, dd, to force, subject, Sks. 621 B.

á-ning, f. [æja, ái-], resting, baiting, Grág. ii. 233.

án-ótt, n. adj. a pun (v. Án 2), a lot of Ans, Fas. ii. 431.

á-nyt, f. ewe's milk, = ærnyt, Landn. 197.

á-nýja, ð or að, to renew, Sturl. iii. 39.

á-nægja, u, f. pleasure, satisfaction, formed as the Germ. vergnügen; mod. word, not occurring in old writers.

á-nægja, ð, impers., prop. to be enough, and so to content, satisfy; eptir því sem oss ánægir, Dipl. v. 9: part. ánægðr is now in Icel. used as an adj. pleased, content.

ÁR, n. [Goth. jêr; A. S. gear; Engl. year; Germ. jabr; the Scandin. idioms all drop the j, as in ungr, young; cp. also the Gr. ὥρα; Lat. hora; Ulf. renders not only ἔτος but also sometimes καιρός and χρόνος by jêr].  I. a year, = Lat. annus, divided into twelve lunar months, each of 30 days, with four intercalary days, thus making 364 days; as the year was reckoned about the middle of the 10th century (the original calculation probably only reckoned 360 days, and made up the difference by irregular intercalary months). About the year 960 Thorstein Surt introduced the sumarauki (intercalary week), to be inserted every seventh year, thus bringing the year up to 365 days. After the introduction of Christianity (A. D. 1000) the sumarauki was made to harmonize with the Julian calendar; but from A. D. 1700 with the Gregorian calendar; v. the words sumarauki, hlaupár, mánuðr, vika, etc., Íb. ch. 4, Rb. 6, Fms. i. 67; telja árum, to count the time by years, Vsp. 6; í ári, used adverb., at present, as yet, Ó. H. 41, 42 (in a verse).  II. = Lat. annona, plenty, abundance, fruitfulness; the phrase, friðr ok ár, Fms. vii. 174, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 8-12; ár ok fésæla, Hkr. l. c.; þá var ár um öll lönd, id.; létu hlaða skip mörg af korni ok annarri gæzku, ok flytja svá ár í Danmörku, Fms. xi. 8, Sks. 323, Fas. i. 526, Hom. 68; gott ár, Eg. 39; blota til árs, Fms. i. 34.  III. the name of the Rune (a), Skálda 176; in the A. S. and Goth. Runes the j has the name jêr, gêr, according to the Germ. and Engl. pronunciation of this word; vide p. 2, col. 1.  COMPDS: ára-tal, n. and ára-tala, u, f. number of years; fimtugr at áratali, Stj. 110, Rb. 484, Mar. 656 A. i. 29; hann (Ari Frodi) hafði áratal fyrst til þess er Kristni kom á Ísland, en síðan allt til sinna daga, Hkr. (pref.), seems to mean that Ari in respect of chronology divided his Íslendingabók into two periods, that before and that after the introduction of Christianity; Stj. 112 (periode).  árs-bót, f. = árbót, Bs. i. 343, q. v.

ÁR, adv.  I. Lat. olim [Ulf. air = παλαί; Engl. yore], used nearly as a substantive followed by a gen., but only in poetry; in the phrase, ár var alda, in times of yore, in principio, Vsp. 3, Hkv. 2. 1: also, ár var þaz (= þat es), the beginning of some of the mythical and heroical poems, Skv. 3. i, Gkv. 1. 1; cp. árdagar.  II. Lat. mane [A. S. ær; O. H. G. êr; cp. Gr. ἠρι, Engl. early, Icel. árla], rare, (the prolonged form árla is freq.); it, however, still exists in the Icel. common phrase, með morgunsárinu (spelt and proncd. in a single word), primo diluculo; elsewhere poët. or in laws, ár of morgin, early of a morning, Hðm. verse 1, Grág. ii. 280; rísa ár, to rise early, Hm. 58, 59; ár né um nætr, Hkv. 2. 34, etc.; í ár, adverb. = early, Ísl. ii. (Hænsa Þór. S.) 161; snemma í ár, Ld. 46, MS., where the Ed. um morgininn í ár, Fas. i. 503: it also sometimes means for ever, svá at ár Hýmir ekki mælti, for an age he did not utter a word, remained silent as if stupefied, Hým. 25, Lex. Poët.; ara þúfu á skaltu ár sitja, Skm. 27; cp. the mod. phrase, ár ok síð og allan tíð, early and late and always. In compds = Lat. matutinus.

ÁR, f. [A. S. ár; Engl. oar; Swed. åre], an oar, old form of nom., dat., acc. sing. ꜵ́r; dat. ꜵ́ru or áru, Eb. 60 new Ed., but commonly ár; pl. árar, Eg. 221, 360, Fms. viii. 189, 417: metaph. in the phrases, koma eigi ár sinni fyrir borð, to be under restraint, esp. in a bad sense, of one who cannot run as fast as he likes, Eb. 170; vera á árum e-s = undir ára burði e-s, v. below; draga árar um e-t, to contend about a thing, the metaphor taken from a rowing match, Fær. 159; taka djúpt í árinni, to dip too deep, overdo a thing.COMPDS: ára-burðr, m. the movement of the oars, in the phrase, vera undir áraburði e-s, to be in one's boat, i. e. under one's protection, esp. as regards alimentation or support, Hrafn. 30; ráðast undir áraburð e-s, to become one's client, Ld. 140.  ára-gangr, m. splashing of oars, Fas. ii. 114.  ára-lag (árar-), n. the time of rowing, e. g. seint, fljótt á., a slow, quick, stroke; kunna á., to be able to handle an oar, Þórð. (Ed. 1860), ch. 4.  árar-hlumr, m. the handle of an oar, Glúm. 395, Sturl. iii. 68.  árar-hlutr, m. a piece of an oar, Glúm. l. c.  árar-stubbi, a, m. the stump of an oar, Ísl. ii. 83.  árar-tog, n. a stroke with the oar.árar-tré, n. the wood for making oars, Pm. 138.

ár-, v. the compds of á, a river.

ár-angr, rs, m. [ár = annona], gener. a year, season, = árferð; also the produce of the earth brought forth in a year (season), which is at present in the east of Icel. called ársali, v. árferð; skapaðist árangrinn eptir spásögu Jóseps, 655 vii. 4; ok at liðnum þeim vetrum tók á. at spillast, Gþl. 77; mun batna á. sem várar, Þorf. Karl. (A. A.) 111: the mod. use is only metaph., effect, result; so e. g. arangrs-laust, n. adj. without effect, to no effect.

á-rás, f. assault, attack, Fms. i. 63, ix. 372.

ár-borinn, v. arfborinn: Egilsson renders ἠριγένεια by árborin (in his transl. of the Odyssey).

ár-bót, f. improvement of the season (ár = annona), Fms. i. 74, Bs. i. 137, Hkr. ii. 103: fem., surname, Landn.

ár-búinn, part. ready early, Sks. 221 B.

ár-býll, adj. dwelling in abundance, plentiful, Fms. v. 314.

ár-dagar, m. pl. [A. S. geardagas], í árdaga, in days of yore, Ls. 25 (poët.)

ár-degis, adv. early in the day, Eg. 2, Grág. i. 143.

á-reið, f. a charge of cavalry, Hkr. iii. 162, Fms. vii. 56: an invasion of horsemen, x. 413: at present a law term, a visitation or inspection by sworn franklins as umpires, esp. in matters about boundaries.

á-reitingr, m. [reita, Germ. reizen], inducement, Finnb. 310.

á-reitinn, adj. grasping after, Ld. 318, v. l.: now in Icel. pettish; and áreitni, f. pettishness.

á-renniligr, adj., in the phrase, eigi á., hard or unpleasant to face.

á-reyðr, f. [á acc. of ær, and reyðr], salmo laevis femina, Fél. i. 13, Landn. 313.

árétti, n. [and árétta, tt], a thin wedge used to prevent a nail from getting loose, cp. Ivar Aasen.

ár-ferð, f., mod. árferði, n. season, annona, Fms. i. 51, 86, ix. 51; árferð mun af taka um alla Danmörk, i. e. there will be famine, xi. 7; góð á., Stj. 420; engi á., Grett. 137 A.

ár-fljótr, adj. 'oar-fleet,' of a rowing vessel, Fms. vii. 382, Hkr. iii. 94.

ár-gali, a, m. 'the early crying,' i. e. perh. chanticleer, used in the proverb eldist árgalinn nú, of king Harold, Fms. vi. 251.

ár-galli, a, m. failure of crop, Sks. 321, 323.  árgalla-lauss, adj. free from such failure, fertile, Sks. 322.

ár-gangr, m. a year's course, season, Fms. xi. 441, Thom. 85; margan tíma í þessum á., 655 xxxii: in mod. usage, a year's volume, of a periodical.

ár-gjarn, adj. eager for a good harvest (poët.), Ýt. 5.

ár-goð, m. god of plenty, the god Frey, Edda 55.

ár-gæzka, u, f. a good season, Thom. 83.

ár-hjálmr, m. an helmet of brass, A. S. âr = eir, Hkm. 3.

á-riða, u, f. a smearing, rubbing, [ríða á], medic., Bs. i. 611.

árla, adv. [qs. árliga], early, Lat. mane, Fms. iii. 217, v. 285, Stj. 208, Hom. 86:: with gen., árla dags, Fms. x. 218, Pass. 15. 17.  β. in times of yore, Sks. 498, 518.

ár-langt, n. adj. and ár-lengis, adv. during the whole year, D. N.

ár-liga, adv.  I. [ár, annus], yearly, Fms. ii. 454, x. 183, Vm. 12.  II. = árla, early, Hkv. 1. 16.  2. [ár, annona], in the phrase, fá árliga verðar, to take a hearty meal, Hm. 32; cp. Sighvat, Ó. H. 216, where it seems to mean briskly.

ár-ligr, adj.  1. annual, Thom. 24.  2. in the phrase, árligum hrósar þú verðinum, thou hast enjoyed a hearty meal, Hbl. 33; the word is now used in the sense of well fed, well looking.

ár-maðr, m. [árr, nuntius, or ár, annona], a steward, esp. of royal estates in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, also of the earls' estates in the Orkneys. As Icel. had neither earls nor kings, it is very rare, perhaps an ἅπ. λεγ. in Landn. 124 (of the stewards of Geirmund heljarskinn). In Norway the ármenn of the king were often persons of low birth, and looked upon with hatred and disrespect by the free noblemen of the country, cp. e. g. Ó. H. 113, 120 (synonymous with konungs þræll), Eb. ch. 2; the ármenn were a sort of royal policemen and tax gatherers, Fms. xi. 261, Orkn. 444, Eg. 79, 466, Gþl. 12 (where it is different from sýslumaðr); erkibiskups á., N. G. L. i. 175.  COMPD: ármanns-réttr, m. the right of an á., i. e. the fine to be paid for molesting an ármaðr, N. G. L. i. 70.

ár-mánaðr, m. a year-month, i. e. a month, Stj. 320.

ár-menning, f. [ármaðr], stewardship, the office or the province, Orkn. 444, Fms. iv. 268; sýslur ok á., Hkr. i. 303.

ár-morgin, adv. [A. S. ærmorgen], early to-morrow, Am. 85.

árna, að,  I. [A. S. yrnan, pret. arn, proficisci; cp. Icel. árr, evrendi, etc.], as a neut. verb, only in poetry and very rare, to go forward; úrgar brautir á. þú aptr héðan, Fsm. 2, Gg. 7, Fms. iv. 282, vi. 259; hvern þann er hingað árnar, whoever comes here, Sighvat, Ó. H. 82.  II. [A. S. earnian, to earn; Germ. erndten], act. verb with acc. and gen.:  1. with acc. to earn, get, Lat. impetrare; hvat þú árnaðir í Jötunheima, Skm. 40; hon ... spurði, hvat hann árnar, ... what he had gained, how he had sped (of a wooer), Lv. 33; á. vel, to make a good bargain, Fms. vi. 345: reflex., þykir vel árnast hafa, they had made a good bargain, Bret. 40.  2. with gen. of the thing, to intercede for, pray; á. e-m góðs, to pray for good to one, bless him; á. e-m íls, to curse one, Fas. iii. 439; lífs, to intercede for one's life, Magn. 532;

ÁRNAÐR—ÁSMOÐR. 45

griða, id., Sturl. ii. 224; var þat flestra manna tillaga, at á. Gizuri kvánfangsins, ... to favour him, to give him the bride, Fms. iv. 33; á. e-s við Goð, to intercede for one with God (of Christ and the saints), Bs. i. 352. ii. 32.

árnaðr, m., theol. intercession, Th. 7.  COMPDS: árnaðar-maðr, m. an intercessor, esp. of Christ and the saints, Magn. 504.  árnaðar-orð, n. intercession, K. Þ. K. 76, Grág. ii. 166, Bs. i. 181.

árnan and -un, f. intercession, = árnaðr, Fms. vi. 352, Bs. i. 180, Fbr. 126, 655 xii, Ver. 22, 625. 81.

árnandi, part. an intercessor, Fms. x. 318, Hom. 149.

ár-næmi, n. a Norse law term, perh. qs. örnæmi [nema], indemnity; á. um skuldafar, N. G. L. i. 177, cp. 182.

árofi (arovi), a, m. a Norse law term; of doubtful origin, perh. akin to oróf and öræfi, an aged witness, a freeborn man, born and bred in the district, who must have been at least twenty years of age at the death of his father. He was produced as a witness (as an old document in modern times) in lawsuits about local questions as to possession of landed property, (cp. in mod. Icel. usage the witness of 'gamlir menn'); thus defined,—þá skal hann fram fara óðalsvitni sín, arova þrjá, þá er tvítugir vóru þá er faðir þeirra varð dauðr, N. G. L. i. 87, (ok óðalbornir í því fylki, add. Gþl. 298); skal hann setja þar dóm sinn ok kveðja hann jarðar jafnt sem hinn þar væri, ok leiða (produce) arova sína þar ok öll vitni, sem hinn þar væri, N. G. L. i. 94.

ÁRR, m. [Ulf. airus; Hel. eru; A. S. ar; cp. Icel. eyrindi, A. S. ærend, Engl. errand], a messenger; old gen. árar (as ásar from áss); dat. æri (Fms. xi. 144); acc. pl. áru, Hkv. 1. 21, Og. 25, Greg. 35, later ára; nom. pl. ærir, Pd. 35 (12th century), later árar, v. Lex. Poët.: very rare and obsolete in prose, except in a bad sense, but freq. in old poetry: also used in the sense of a servant, Lat. minister, famulus; konungs árr, Guðs árr, Lex. Poët.; Ásu úrr, Ýt. 25.  2. theol., in pl.:  α. the angels; Guð görir anda áru sína, Greg. 35; engla sveitir, þat eru ærir ok höfuð-ærir, id.  β. evil spirits; now almost exclusively used in this sense; fjandinn ok hans árar, Fms. vii. 37; satan með sínum árum, ii. 137; cp. djöfli, viti, ár (dat.) og álf, öldin trúði sú, Snót 140.  γ. used of the number eleven, ærir eru ellefu, Edda 108.

árr, adj., Lat. matutinus; at arum degi, Hom. 121. Cp. ár (adv.) II.

ár-risull, adj. one who rises early, Fms. vi. 241.

ár-salr and ársali, a, m. [a foreign word, introduced from Britain], precious hangings of a bed, Eb. 262, Edda 18 (ársali); ársal allan, Gkv. 2. 26; allan ársala, Js. 78; an obsolete word.  II. in the east of Icel. ársali [ár, annona, and selja] means annual produce, the stores or crop of a year.

ár-samr, adj. fertile, Ver. 17.

ár-sáinn, part. early sewed, Hm. 87.

ár-sima, n. metal wire, Eg. (in a verse). Cp. A. S. âr.

ár-skyld, f. yearly rent, D. N. iii. 195 (Fr.)

ár-sæli (and ársæld), f. a blessing on the year, plenty; svá var mikil á. Hálfdanar, so great was the plenty during his reign, Fagrsk. 2.

ár-sæll, adj. happy or blest in the year, fortunate as to season, an epithet of a king; good or bad seasons were put on the king's account, cp. Fms. i. 51, xi. 294; góðr höfðíngi ok á., i. 198; á. ok vinsæll, Fagrsk. 2, Bret. 100; allra konunga ársælstr, Fms. x. 175.

ár-tal, n. tale or reckoning by years, Vþm. 23, 25.

ár-tali, a, m. the year-teller, i. e. the moon (poët.), the heathen year being lunar, Alvm. 15.

ár-tekja, u, f. yearly rent, D. N. iv. 231 (Fr.)

ár-tíð, n. the anniversary of a man's death, Bs. i. 139, Fms. v. 121, ix. 534, Bret. 70, Blas. 51.  COMPDS: ártíðar-dagr, m. id., Vm. 116.  ártíðar-hald, n. an anniversary mass, B. K. 8, 25.  ártíðar-skrá, f. an obituary, Vm. 4, Ám. 45; some of the Icel. obituaries are published in H. E. at the end of the 1st vol. and in Langeb. Scriptt. Rer. Dan.

ár-vakr, adj. (and árvekni, f. mod.), early awake, early rising, Lv. 43, Sks. 19: the name of one of the horses of the Sun, Edda, Gm. 37.

ár-vænligr, adj. promising a good season, Sks. 335.

ár-vænn, adj. id., Fms. i. 92, ii. 76.

á-ræða, dd, to dare, have the courage to do, to attack, cp. ráða á., Sturl. iii. 256.

á-ræði, n. courage, daring, pluck, Eg. i, Korm. 242, Al. 9, Nj. 258, Ísl. ii. 325: attack, veita e-m á., to attack, Hom. 113.  COMPDS: áræðis-fullr, adj. daring, Fas. i. 119.  áræðis-lítill, adj. of small courage, Hkr. ii. 79.  áræðis-maðr, m. a bold man, Grett. 141 A, Fbr. 149.  áræðis-mikill, adj. daring, Sturl. iii. 21, Rd. 285.  áræðis-raun, f. proof of courage, pluck, Fms. vi. 166.  áræðis-snarr, adj. of great courage, Al. 9.

á-ræðiligr, adj. and -liga, adv. [ráða, to guess], likely, probable, Glúm. 385, Gísl. 60, Clem. 28.  β. daring, dangerous, Fas. iii. 165.  γ. ekki áræðiligt = ekki árenniligt, not easy to face, Fms. viii. 64.

á-ræðinn, adj. daring, Sks. 299.

ása, að, a mod. sea term, to move the yard of a sail.

á-saka, að, to accuse, censure; with acc., Fms. ii. 174, Bs. i. 786, Stj. 129, H. E. i. 500.

á-sakan and ásökun, f. a charge, censure, Fms. ii. 225, H. E. i. 404.  COMPDS: ásakanar-efni, n. a matter for censure, Th. 77.  ásakanar-orð, n. a word of reprimand, Stj. 500.

á-sakari, a, m. an accuser, Th. 76.

á-samt, adv. along with:1. loc., in the phrase, vera á., to be together (now saman), esp. of married people, Sturl. 199, Fms. i. 198, cp. Skm. 7.  β. koma á., to agree, (in mod. usage, koma vel, illa, saman, to be on good, bad terms); þat kom lítt á., they disagreed, Fms. iv. 369; þau kómu vel á., they lived happily together, of married people, Nj. 25, (in mod. usage, þeim kom vel saman); kómu allar ræður á. með þeim, Eg. 750; svá sem þeim kemr á. (impers.), as is agreed on by them, Jb. 116.

á-sannast, dep. to prove true, (mod. word.)

á-sauðr, ar, m. a ewe, Dipl. v. 10, Hrafn. 6, 8, Vm. 9.

á-sáld, n. a sprinkling, metaph. of a snow storm, Sturl. iii. 20.

á-sáttr, adj. part. agreed upon, Edda 10, Grág. i. 1.

ás-brú, f. the bridge of the Ases, the rainbow, Edda.

ás-drengr, m. a pillar (drengr, a short pillar), N. G. L. ii. 283.

ás-endi, a, m. theend of a beam, Ld. 280.

á-seta, u, f. a sitting upon, settlement, esp. = ábúð, tenure of a farm, Bs. i. 730.  ásetu-garðr, m. (Icel. ábýlisjörð), a tenant's farm, D. N. iv. 581 (Fr.)

á-setning, f. a putting on, laying on; á. stolunnar, the investment of..., Fms. iii. 168: in mod. usage, masc. ásetningr, purpose, design; and also ásetja, tt, to design.

ás-garðr, m. the residence of the gods (Ases), Edda; also the name of a farm in the west of Icel.: the mod. Norse 'aasgaardsreid' is a corruption from the Swed. åska, thunder.

ás-grindr, f. pl. the rails surrounding the ásgarðr, Edda 46.

á-sigling, f. a sailing upon, Gþl. 518, N. G. L. i. 65, ii. 283.

á-sjá (old form ásjó, Niðrst. 5, Hom. 35), f., gen. ásjá, the mod. gen. úsjár seems only to occur in late or even paper MSS.  I. a looking after, help, protection; ætla til ásjá, to hope for it, Lv. 75, Ld. 42, Fms. i. 289; biðja e-n ásjá, to ask one for help, protection, Nj. 26 (Ed. ásjár prob. wrongly); sækja e-n til ásjá, to seek one's help, Bs. i. 82 (ásjár the paper MSS.)  β. superintendence, inspection; með spekiráðum ok á., Fms. x. 178; með á. Magnúss konungs, Js. 23, Hom. 35.  II. one's look, appearance, shape, Fms. i. 97; í manns ásjó, in the shape of man, Niðrst. 5 (= ásýnd).  COMPD: ásjá-mál, n. pl. a matter worthy of consideration, Ísl. ii. 159, Band. 15.

á-sjáligr, adj. handsome, pretty, Ísl. ii. 208, Art. 98.

á-sjón, f. superintendence, inspection, Js. 46; gen. ásjónar, used as adv. = eye's view (= sjónhending), in a straight direction, Vm. 135.

á-sjóna (ásjána older form, Ld. 122, Niðrst. 6), u, f. one's look, aspect, countenance; líkami Njáls ok á., Nj. 208; kvenna vænst bæði at ásjánu (appearance) ok vitsmunum, Ld. 122; greppligr í á., ugly looking, Fms. i. 155; yfirbragð ok á., 216, Greg. 45.  β. form, shape; í þraels ásjánu (in form like a slave) festr á kross, Niðrst. 6; andi Drottins í dúfu á., in form like a dove, 686 B. 13; engill í eldligri á., Hom. 81, Eluc. 17.  γ. = Lat. persona; eigi skaltú líta á. í dómi, Hom. 19 (non accipies personam in judicio).

á-skelling, f. [skella á, to chide], chiding, Niðrst. 6.

á-skilnaðr, m. [skilja á, to disagree], discord, Fas. iii. 335, B. K. 121, Stj. 13, 8.  β. separation [skilja, to part], Stj. 130.

á-skoran, f. (áskora, u, f., Fagrsk. 171, bad reading?), an earnest request, challenge, Nj. 258, Fs. 22, Boll. 342.

á-skot (áskaut, Sks. 416; áskeyti, Thom. 83), n. a shot at, only used in pl.; at menn fái eigi mein af áskotum þeirra, by their heavy fire (of arrows), Fms. viii. 201; sva mikil á., at menn megi eigi í vígskörðum vera, so hard shooting that..., Sks. l. c.

ás-kunnigr, adj. akin to the gods, Fm. 13.

á-skurðr, ar, m. carving, in wood or stone, Bs. i. 680.  β. carving of meat, (mod.)

á-skynja, adj. ind., in the phrase, verða e-s á., used in old writers in the sense to learn, of arts or knowledge, á. íþrótta, Fær. 46, Fms. ii. 270, Sks. 25, 53, 573; with dat., Fb. i. 462: now only used of news, to bear, be aware; not of learning, sensû proprio.

á-skynjandi, part. id., Barl. 24.

ás-lákr, m., poët. a cock, Edda (Gl.): a pr. name, Fms., Landn.

á-sláttr, m. an attack; á. djöfuls, Hom. 68; mod. a feeler, a vague proposition.

ás-liðar, m. pl. [liði, a champion], the champion of the Ases, Skm. 34.

ás-megin (ásmegn, Edda 15, 29), n. gener. the divine strength of the Ases, but esp. used of Thor in the phrases, at færast í á., vaxa á., neyta á., when he displayed his strength as a god by grasping the hammer Mjölnir, by putting on the gloves, or the girdle (megingjarðar, q. v.), Edda 15, 60, 61, Hým. 31.

ás-megir, m. pl. = ásliðar, Vtkv. 7.

ás-móðr, m. the divine strength of Thor, shewn in his wrath by thunder and lightning; því næst sá hann eldingar ok þrumur stórar; sá hann þá Þór í ásmóði, Edda 58; the proper name Þormóðr is equivalent to ásmóðr, cp. Landn. 307 (the verse).

46 ÁSOKN—ÁSYNIS.

á-sókn, f. an impetuous unreasonable desire after a thing, (common word.)

á-spyrna, u, f. a pressing against with the feet, Grett. (in a verse).

ás-ríki, n. the power of the Ases, Kristni S. Bs. 10.

ÁSS, m. [Ulf. ans = δοκός; cp. Lat. asser, a pole], gen. áss, dat. ási, later ás, pl. ásar, acc. ása:  1. a pole, a main rafter, yard;α. of a house; selit var gört um einn as, ok stóðu út af ásendarnir, Ld. 280; Nj. 115, 202; drengja við ása langa (acc. pl.), Fms. vii. 54, Sks. 425, Pm. 11, Dipl. iii. 8, Hom. 95; sofa undir sótkum ási, Hkr. i. 43; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 5. ch. 36, Fs. 62: in buildings áss gener. means the main beam, running along the house, opp. to bitar, þvertré, a cross-beam, v. mæniráss, brúnáss, etc.: the beams of a bridge, Fms. ix. 512; in a ship, beitiáss, a yard of a sail: also simply called áss, Ýt. 23, Fs. 113; vindáss, a windlass (i. e. windle-ass, winding-pole).  2. metaph. a rocky ridge, Lat. jugum, Eg. 576, Fms. viii. 176. Ás and Ásar are freq. local names in Iceland and Norway.  COMPD: áss-stubbi, a, m. the stump of a beam, Sd. 125.

ÁSS, m. [that the word existed in Goth. may be inferred from the words of Jornandes—Gothi proceres suos quasi qui fortunâ vincebant non pares homines sed semideos, id est Anses, vocavere. The word appears in the Engl. names Osborn, Oswald, etc. In old German pr. names with n, e. g. Ansgâr, A. S. Oscar: Grimm suggests a kinship between áss, pole, and áss, deus; but this is uncertain. In Icel. at least no such notion exists, and the inflexions of the two words differ. The old gen. asar is always used in the poems of the 10th century, Korm. 22 (in a verse), etc.; dat. æsi, in the oath of Glum (388), later ás; nom. pl. æsir; acc. pl. ásu (in old poetry), æsi (in prose). The old declension is analogous to árr; perhaps the Goth. form was sounded ansus; it certainly was sounded different from ans, δοκός]:—the Ases, gods, either the old heathen gods in general, or esp. the older branch, opp. to the new one, the dî ascripti, the Vanir, q. v., Edda 13 sqq.  β. the sing. is used particularly of the different gods, e. g. of Odin; ölverk Ásar, the brewing of the As (viz. Odin), i. e. poetry, Korm. 208 (in a verse); of Loki, Bragi, etc.; but κατ' ἐξοχήν it is used of Thor, e. g. in the heathen oaths, segi ek þat Æsi (where it does not mean Odin), Glúm. 388; Freyr ok Njörðr ok hinn almátki Áss, Landn. (Hb.) 258: in Swed. åska means lightning, thunder, qs. ás-ekja, the driving of the As, viz. Thor: áss as a prefix to pr. names also seems to refer to Thor, not Odin, e. g. Ásbjörn = Þorbjörn, Ásmóðr = Þormóðr (Landri. 307 in a verse). In Scandinavian pr. names áss before the liquid r assumes a t, and becomes ást (Ástríðr, not Ásríðr; Ástráðr = Ásráðr); and sometimes even before an l, Ástlákr—Áslákr, Fb. i. 190; Ástleifr—Ásleifr, Fms. xi. (Knytl. S.)  COMPDS: ása-gisling, f. hostage of the Ases, Edda 15.  ása-heiti, n. a name of the Ases, Edda (Gl.)  Ása-Þorr, m. Thor the As 'par excellence,' Edda 14, Hbl. 52.  ása-ætt, f. the race of Ases, Edda 7.

áss, m. [a French word], the ace at dice, in the game kvátra, q. v., Sturl. ii. 95, Orkn. 200: mod. also the ace in cards.

ÁST, f., old form ꜵ́st, [Ulf. ansts = χάρις; A. S. est or æst; O. H. G. anst; old Fr. enst; cp. unna (ann), to love]:—love, affection; mikla ást hefir þú sýnt við mik, Eg. 603; fella ást til e-s, to feel love to, Sturl. i. 194, Fms. x. 420; líkamleg ást, 656 A. ii. 15, Ver. 47: with the article, ástin, or ástin mín, my dear, darling, pet, love, a term of endearment used by husband to wife or parents to child; her er nú ástin mín, Sighvatr bóndi, Sturl. ii. 78.  β. in pl. love between man and woman, the affection between man and wife; vel er um ástir okkar, sagði hón, Nj. 26; takast þar ástir miklar, Ld. 94 (of a newly-wedded pair), 298: love of a woman, þá mælti Frigg, ok spurði hverr sá væri með Ásum er eignast vildi ástir hennar ok hylli, Edda 37: metaph. the white spots on the nails are called ástir, since one will have as many lovers as there are spots, Ísl. Þjóðs., Fél. ix; vide elska, which is a more common word.  COMPDS: ásta-fundr, m. = ástarfundr, Lex. Poët.  ásta-lauss, adj. loveless, Helr. 5.  ástar-andi, a, m. spirit of love, H. E. i. 470.  ástar-angr, m. grief from love, Str. 55.  ástar-atlot, n. pl. = ástarhót.  ástar-augu, n. pl. loving eyes, v. auga; renna, lita ástaraugum til e-s, to look with loving eyes, Fms. xi. 227, Ísl. ii. 199.  ástar-ákefð, f. passion, Str.  ástar-band, n. band of love, 656 C. 37.  ástar-brími, a, m. fervent love, Flov. 36.  ástar-bruni, a, m. ardent love, Stj.  ástar-eldr, m. fire of love, Bs. i. 763, Greg. 19.  ástar-fundr, m. affectionate meeting, Fms. xi. 310.  ástar-gyðja, u, f. the goddess of love (Venus), Edda (pref.) 149, Al. 6.  ástar-harmr, m. grief from love, Stj. 4.  ástar-hirting, f. chastisement of love, 671 C.  ástar-hiti, a, m. passion, Greg. 19.  ástar-hót, n. pl. the shewing kindness and love, Pass. 12. 23 (sing.)  ástar-hugi, a, and -hugr, ar, m. love, affection, Bs. i. 446, Fms. i. 34, Stj. 126.  ástar-hygli, f. [hugall], devotion, Bs. i. 48.  ástar-ilmr, m. sweetness of love, Str.  ástar-kveðja, u, f. hearty greeting, Sturl. ii. 185.  ástar-kveikja, u, f. a kindler of love, Al. 57.  ástar-logi, a, m. flame of love, Hom. 67.  ástar-mark, n. token of love, Greg. 46.  ástar-orð, n. pl. words of love; mæla ástar orðum til e-s, to speak in words breathing love, 655 xxxi.  ástar-pallr, m. step of love, 656 A. i. 10.  ástar-reiði, f. anger from love, Sks. 672.  ástar-samband, n. band of love, Stj.  ástar-sigr, m. victory of love, Str.  ástar-sætleikr, m. sweetness of love, Hom. 13.  ástar-várkunn, f. compassion, sympathy, Greg. 72.  ástar-vekka, u, f. the dew of love (poët.), Hom. 68.  ástar-verk, n. charity, Sks. 672, Magn. 468.  ástar-vél, f. Ars Amatoria, of Ovid so called, Str. 6.  ástar-vili, ja, m. desire, passion, Str. 27.  ástar-vængr, m. wing of love, Hom. 48.  ástar-þjónusta, u, f. service of love, Hom. 2, Fms. ii. 42.  ástar-þokki, a, m. affection for, inclination, of a loving pair, Fms. ii. 99, Fær. 63.  ástar-æði, n. fury of love, Bær. 7.

á-staða, u, f. [standa á], an insisting upon, Ann. 1392, Thom. 37.

á-stand, n. state, (mod. word.)

ást-blindr, adj. blind from love, Lex. Poët.

ást-bundinn, part. in bonds of love, Str. 36, 55.

á-stemma (ꜵ́stemma), u, f. damming a river, D. I. i. 280.

ást-fólginn, part. beloved, dear to one's heart, warmly beloved; á. e-m, Fms. vi. 45, xi. 3.

ást-fóstr, rs, m. love to a foster-child, (also used metaph.) in phrases such as, leggja á. við e-n, to foster with love, as a pet child, Fms. iii. 90; fæða e-n ástfóstri, to breed one up with fatherly care, x. 218.

ást-gjöf, f., theol. grace, gift; á. Heilags Anda, Skálda 210, Skv. i. 7, Andr. 63; in pl., Magn. 514.

ást-goði, a, m. a darling, good genius; hann þótti öllum mönnum á., he (viz. bishop Paul) was endeared to all hearts, Bs. i. 137: the old Ed. reads ástgóði, endearment, which seems less correct, v. goði: goði in the sense of good genius is still in use in the ditty to the Icel. game 'goða-tafl' (heima ræð eg goða minn).

ást-hollr, adj. affectionate, Sks. 687 B.

ást-hugaðr, adj. part. dearly loving, Njarð. 380.

á-stig, n. a treading upon, Sks. 400, 540: a step, 629.

ást-igr, adj., contr. forms ástgir, ástgar, etc., dear, lovely, Vsp. 17.

ást-kynni, n. a hearty welcome, Am. 14.

ást-kærr, adj. dearly beloved.

ást-lauss, adj. loveless, heartless, = ástalauss, Hom. 43.

ást-leysi, n. want of love, unkindness, Hrafn. 5.

ást-menn, m. pl. dearly beloved friends, Sturl. 1. 183, Hkr. iii. 250, Stj. 237, Blas. 44.

ást-meer, f. a darling girl, sweetheart, Flov. 28.

ást-ráð, n. kind (wise) advice, Fms. ii. 12 (ironically), Skálda 164, Hom. 108, Hým. 30.

á-stríða, u, f. passion, (mod. word.)

ást-ríki, n. paternal love; in the phrase, ekki hafði hann á. mikit af föður sínum, i. e. he was no pet child, Fms. iii. 205, Ld. 132; á. Drottins, 655 v. 2.

ást-ríkr, adj. full of love; á. Faðir, of God, Mar. 3, 24.

ást-samliga, adv. (and -ligr, adj.), affectionately, Hkr. iii. 250, Fms. ix. 434, Fas. i. 91, 655 xxvii. 25, Sks. 12, Sturl. i. 183, Hom. i, Stj.

ást-samr, adj. id., Hom. 58, Sks. 12.

ást-semð, f. love, affection, Hkr. iii. 261, Fms. x. 409: ástsemðar-ráð, n. = ástráð, Sks. 16, Anecd. 30: ástsemðar-verk, n. a work of love, Sks. 673: ástsemðar-vinátta, u, f. loving friendship, Sks. 741.

ást-snauðr, adj. without love, Lex. Poët.

ást-sæld, f. the being loved by all, popularity, Íb. 16.

ást-sæll, adj. beloved by all, popular, Íb. 16, Fms. xi. 317.

á-stunda, að, to study, take pains with, H. E. i. 504, 514.

á-stundan, f. pains, care, devotion, Fms. i. 219; hafa á. (inclination) til Guðs, Bær. 12; til illra hluta, Stj. 55, Sks. 349, 655 xxxii, Thom. 335.

ást-úð, f. [properly ásthúð, Clem. 40, contr. from ást-hugð, from hugr or hygð, cp. ölúð, þverúð, harðuð, kind, stubborn, hard disposition; v. A. S. hydig], love, affection, Rb. 390.  COMPDS: ástúðar-frændsemi, f. affectionate kinship, Sturl. ii. 81.  ástúðar-vinr, m. a dear friend, Fms. vi. 198, v. l. aldavinr, a dear old friend.

ást-úðigr, adj. loving, Eg. 702, Fms. i. 55: as neut., ástúðigt er með e-m, they are on friendly terms, Ld. 236.

ást-úðligr, adj. lovely, Fms. vi. 19, Bs. i. 74, Sturl. i. 2: as neut., á. er með e-m, to be on terms of love, Lax. 162.

ást-vina, u, f. a dear (female) friend, Thom. 14.

ást-vinátta, u, f. intimate friendship, Eg. 728.

ást-vinr, ar, m. a dear friend; Þórólfr gekk til fréttar við Þór ástvin sinn, Eb. 8, Fms. i. 58, Thom. 10.

ást-þokki, a, m. = ástarþokki, Fms. vi. 341.

á-stæði, n. [standa á], no doubt a bad reading, Eg. 304: cp. ástæða, u, f. (a mod. word), argument, reason.

Ás-ynja, u, f. a goddess, the fem, of Áss; Æsir ok Ásynjur, Vtkv. i, Edda 21.

á-sýn, f. countenance, presence; kasta e-m burt frá sinni á., Stj. 651: appearance, shape, Hom. 155; dat. pl. used as adv., hversu var hann ásýnum, how did he look? Hom. 91; ágætr at ætt ok á., fair of race and noble, Hkr. i. 214: gen. sing. used as adv., minna ásýnar, apparently less, Grág. ii. 29.  2. metaph. a view, opinion; með rangri á., Sks. 344.

á-sýna, ð, to shew, Fms. v. 345.

á-sýnd, f. = ásýn, and dat. pl. and gen. sing. used in the same way, v. above, Fms. i. 101, v. 345, x. 228, Fs. 4, Ld. 82: metaph. the face, of the earth, Stj. 29, 276.

á-sýnis, adv. apparently, Sturl. i. 1, Fms. x. 284.

ÁSYNT—ÁVERK. 47

á-sýnt, n. adj. [sjá á], to be seen, visible; ef eigi verðr á., if no marks (of the blow) can be seen, Grág. ii. 15; þat er á., evident, Sks. 185.

á-sækni, n. (ásækinn, adj. vexatious), vexation, Finnb. 240.

á-sælast, d, dep. (ásælni, f.), á. e-n, to covet another man.

á-sætni, f. [sitja], tarrying long, Ísl. ii. 440 (of a tiresome guest).

ÁT, n. [éta, át, edere, A. S. ǽt], the act of eating, in the phrase, at öldri ok at áti, inter bibendum et edendum, Grág. ii. 170, N. G. L. i. 29; át ok drykkja, Fas. ii. 552, Orkn. 200; át ok atvinna, Stj. 143: of beasts, kýr hafnaði átinu, the cow (being sick) would not eat, Bs. i. 194.

áta, u, f.  1. food to eat, but only of beasts, a prey, carcase; húð ok áta, of a slaughtered beast, N. G. L. i. 246; svá er þar ekki þrot ærinnar átu (for seals), Sks. 176; þar stóð úlfr í átu, Jd. 31.  2. eating; góðr átu, 'good eating,' Sks. 136, 137.  3. medic. a cancer, and átu-mein, n. id., Fél. ix. 190; the old word is eta, q. v.  COMPD: átu-þýfi, n. a law term, eatable things stolen, Grág. ii. 192.

á-tak, n. (átaka, u, f., Hom. 17), [taka á], touching: gen. átaks, soft, hard, etc. to the feeling; svá á. sem skinn, Flov. 31, Magn. 522: medic. touching, v. læknishendr, Stj. 248: pl. grips, átök ok sviptingar, in wrestling, Fas. iii. 503, Fms. xi. 442.

á-tala, u, f. [telja á, incusare,] a rebuke, reprimand, N. G. L. i. 309; esp. in pl., Fms. v. 103, ix. 384, Hkr. ii. 6, Fær. 218: átölu-laust, n. adj. undisputed, Jb. 251.

átan, n. [cp. úátan], an eatable, N. G. L. i. 19.

á-tekja, u, f. (átekt, f., Fbr. 151, Thom. 273), prop. touching; in pl. metaph. disposition for or against a thing, liking or disliking, Bjarn. 54 (cp. taka vel, illa á e-u).

á-tekning, f. touching, Stj. 35.

át-frekr, adj. greedy, voracious, Hkv. 2. 41.

át-girni, f. greediness of food, Hom. 72, and átgjarn, adj. greedy.

átján, older form áttján, as shewn by assonances such as, áttján Haraldr sáttir, Fms. vi. 159, in a verse of the middle of the 11th century [Swed. adertan; Dan. atten; Engl. eighteen; Germ. achtzehn]:—eighteen, Edda 108, Hkr. ii. 289, N. G. L. i. 114.

átjándi, older form áttjándi, eighteenth, Hom. 164, N. G. L. i. 348.

átján-sessa, u, f. [cp. tvítug-, þrítugsessa], a ship having eighteen rowing benches, Fms. ix. 257, xi. 56.

á-troð, n. (átroði, a, m., Hom. 95), a treading upon, Magn. 468: metaph. intrusion, Hom. 95.

á-trúnaðr, ar, m. [trúa á], belief, creed, religion; forn á., the old (heathen) faith, Nj. 156, Fms. v. 69, K. Á. 62, Joh. 623. 18, Eb. 12: átrúnaðar-maðr, m. a believer, [trúmaðr], Andr. 66.

ÁTT, f. a family, race, v. ætt and compds.

ÁTT and ætt, f., pl. áttir and ættir [Germ. acht = Lat. ager, praedium, a rare and obsolete word in Germ.], plaga caeli, quarter; just as quarter refers to the number four, so átt seems to refer to eight: átt properly means that part of the horizon which subtends an arc traversed by the sun in the course of three hours; thus defined,—meðan sól veltist um átta ættir, Sks. 54; ok þat eru þá þrjár stundir dags er sól veltist um eina sett, id.; the names of the eight áttir are, útnorðr á., north-west; norðr á., north; landnorðr á., north-east; austr a., east; landsuðr á., south-east; suðr á., south; útsuðr á., south-west; vestr á., west; four of which (the compounds) are subdivisions; átt is therefore freq. used of the four only, Loki görði þar hús ok fjórar dyrr, at hann mátti sjá ór húsinu í allar áttir, ... to all (i. e. four) sides, Edda 39: or it is used generally, from all sides, þá drífr snær ór öllum áttum, Edda 40; drífa þeir til ór öllum áttum (= hvaðanæva), Hkr. i. 33; norðrætt, Edda 4, 23; hence a mod. verb átta, að; á. sik, to find the true quarter, to set oneself right, cp. Fr. s'orienter.COMPDS: átta-skipan, f. a division of the átt, Sks. 37.  átta-skipti, n. id.átta-viltr, adj. bewildered.

ÁTTA, card, number [Sansk. ashtan; Goth. ahtau; Gr. ὀκτώ; Lat. octo; A. S. eahta; Germ. acht], eight, Landn. 73, Edda 108.

áttandi and áttundi, old form átti, ord. number eighth, Lat. octavus; við (hinn) átta mann, Landn. 304; hálfr átti tögr, Clem. 47; átti dagr Jóla, Fms. iii. 137, Rb. 8, K. Á. 152, 218. The form áttandi occurs early, esp. in Norse writers, N. G. L. i. 10, 348, 350, Sks. 692 B: in Icel. writers with changed vowel áttundi, which is now the current form, Mar. 656 A. i, Hkr. ii. 286, where the old vellum MS. Ó. H. 173 has átta.

áttar- (the compd form of ætt, a family), v. ætt.

átta-tigir (mod. áttatíu as an indecl. single word), eighty, Landn. 123, Edda 108; vide tigr.

átta-tugasti, the eightieth, Sturl. ii. 156 C, = áttugandi, q. v.

átt-bogi and ættbogi, a, m. lineage, Landn. 357, Eluc. 26, Stj. 425, Fms. i. 287, Post. 686 B. 14.

átt-feðmingr, m. measuring eight fathoms, Vm. 80, Am. 60.

átt-hagi, a, m. one's native place, home, country, where one is bred and born; í átthaga sinum, Ld. 40, Fs. 61: freq. in pl.

átt-hyrndr, adj. octagonal, Alg. 368.

átt-jörð and ættjörð, f.—átthagi, Ísl. ii. 186, A. A. 252: in mod. usage = Lat. patria, and always in the form ætt-.

átt-konr, m., poët. kindred, Ýt. 21.

átt-leggr and ættleggr, m. lineage, Stj. 44.

átt-lera, adj. degenerate, v. ættlera.

átt-mælt, n. adj. name of a metre, a verse containing eight lines, each being a separate sentence, Edda (Ht.) 125.

átt-niðr, m. kindred, Hým. 9.

átt-runnr, m., poët. kindred, Hým. 20.

átt-ræðr, adj. [for the numbers twenty to seventy the Icel. say tvítugr, ... sjautugr; but for eighty to one hundred and twenty, áttræðr, níræðr, tíræðr, tólfræðr].  1. temp, numbering eighty years of age, (hálf-áttræðr, that of seventy-six to eighty): á. karl, an octogenarian, Ld. 150. Eighty years of age is the terminus ultimus in the eyes of the law; an octogenarian is no lawful witness; he cannot dispose of land or priesthood (goðorð) without the consent of his heir; if he marries without the consent of his lawful heir, children begotten of that marriage are not to inherit his property, etc.; ef maðr kvángast er á. er eðr ellri, etc., Grág. i. 178; á. maðr né ellri skal hvárki selja land né gorðorð undan erfingja sinum, nema hann megi eigi eiga fyrir skuld, 224; ef maðr nefnir vátta ... mann tólf vetra gamlan eðr ellra ... áttröðan eðr yngra, ii. 20.  2. loc. measuring eighty fathoms (ells ...) in height, breadth, depth ...: also of a ship with eighty oars [cp. Germ. ruder], Eg. 599, Vm. 108; vide áttærr.

átt-stafr, m., poët. kindred, Hkv. 1. 54.

áttugandi = áttatugasti, Stj. (MS. 227), col. 510.

áttungr, m.  I. [átta], the eighth part of a whole, either as to measure or number; cp. fjórðungr, þriðjungr, etc., Rb. 488; á. manna, N. G. L. i. 5: as a Norse law term, a division of the country with regard to the levy in ships, Gþl. 91, N. G. L. i. 135.  II. [átt or ætt, familia], poét. kindred, kinsman; Freys á., the poem Hlt., Edda 13, Ýt. 13, 14, Al. 98 (esp. in pl.), v. Lex. Poët.: áttungs-kirkja, u, f. a church belonging to an áttungr (in Norway), N. G. L. i. 8.

átt-vísi and ættvísi, f. genealogical knowledge or science, Skálda 161, 169, Bárð. 164, Bs. i. 91, Fms. vii. 102; the áttvísi formed a part of the old education, and is the groundwork of the old Icel. historiography, esp. of the Landnarna.

átt-æringr, m. an eight-oared boat (now proncd. áttahringr), Vm. 109.

átt-ærr, adj. [ár, remus], having eight oars, Eg. 142, 600 A.

át-vagl, m. a glutton, Germ. freszbauch.

á-valr, adj. round, sloping, semi-rotundus; cp. sívalr, rotundus [from völr or from oval (?)]; it seems not to occur in old writers.

áv-alt and ávallt, adv. always, Lat. semper, originally of-allt (from allr)= in all; but as early as the 12th century it was sounded as ofvalt or ávalt, which may be seen from this word being used in alliteration to v in poems of that time, þars á valt er vísir bjó, Kt. 16; vestu á valt at trausti, Harmsól verse 59; styrktu of valt til verka, Leiðarv. 34 (the MS. reads ávalt): even Hallgrim in the 17th century says, víst á valt þeim vana halt | vinna, lesa ok iðja. In MSS. it is not unfreq. spelt ofvalt, as a single word, e. g. Bs. i. 150-200; yet in very early times the word seems to have assumed the present form ávalt, proncd. á-valt, as if from á and valr: ofalt, of allt, Orkn. 90, Fms. v. 205, Fbr. 77, 87, Fær. 22: of valt, Eluc. 3, Bs. i. 349, Fms. v. 160: ávalt or ávallt, freq. in the old miracle book,—Bs. i-335, 343, 344, 345, 351, Hom. MS. Holm. p. 3, Hoin. (MS. 619), 129, Grág. (Kb.) 116, Landn. 86, Fms. xi. 112, etc. etc.,—through all the Sagas and down to the present day: cp. the mod. alltaf (per metath.), adv. always.

á-vani, a, m. habits, (mod. word.)

á-vant, n. adj. in the phrase, e-s er á., wanted, needed, missed, Ld. 26, Hkr. ii. 34, Korm. 92.

á-varðr, adj. [from á- intens. and verja, part. variðr, contr. varðr, protectus], an interesting old word; with dat., a. e-m, protected by one, but only used of a man in relation to the gods, in the phrase, goðum ávarðr, a client or darling of the gods, used as early as by Egil, Ad. 20, and also three or four times in prose; at hann mundi Frey (dat.) svá a. fyrir blótin, at hann mundi eigi vilja at freri á milli þeirra, Gísl. 32; skilja þeir at þeir ern mjök ávarðir goðunum, Róm. 292; so also of God, ef hann væri svá á. Guði, sem hann ætlaði, Bs. i. 464.

á-varp, n. (cp. verpa tölu á, to count):  1. a computation, calculation, in round numbers; þat var á. manna, at fyrir Norðnesi mundi eigi færa falla en þrjú hundruð manna, Fms. viii. 143, x. 64, 139; kallaðr ekki vænn maðr at ávarpi flestra manna, in the suggestion, account of most people, Bs. i. 72.  2. in mod. usage, an address, accosting, Lat. allocutio; and ávarpa, að, to address, Lat. alloqui; cp. the old phrase, verpa orði á e-n, alloqui.

á-vaxta, að, to make to wax greater, make productive: of money, a. fé, to put out to interest, Nj. III: pass. -ask, to increase, Fms. i. 137, Stj. 12.

á-vaxtan, f. a making productive, Stj. 212.

ávaxt-lauss, adj. unproductive, barren, Al. 50.

á-vaxtsamligr, adj. (and -liga, adv.), productive, Hom. 10.

ávaxt-samr, adj. , productive, Stj. 77, 94: metaph., H. E. i. 513.

á-ván, f. (now ávæningr, m.), a faint expectation or hint; segja e-m á. e-s, to give some hint about it, Grág. ii. 244.

á-veiðr, f. river fishery, D. I. i. 280.

á-verk, n.  I. as a law term, a blow (drep); thus defined,—þat er drep annat er á. heitir ef maðr lýstr mann svá at blátt eðr rautt verðr eptir, eðr þrútnar hörund eðr stökkr undan hold, eðr hrýtr ór munni eðr ór nösum eðr undan nöglum, Grág. ii. 15; the lesser sort of drep (blow),

48 AVERKI—B.

14; but in general use áverk includes every bodily lesion, a collective expression for wounds and blows (sár and drep); lýsa sꜵr eðr drep ok kveða á hver á. eru, i. 35; bauð húskarlinn honum í móti öxi ok á., Bs. i. 341, vide áverki below.  II. in pl. work in a household; göra brúar ok vinna þau á., Grág. ii. 277: of unlawful work, e. g. cutting trees in another man's forest; verðr hann þá útlagr þrem mörkum ok sex aura á., ef hann veit eigi, at þeir eigu báðir, 292.

á-verki, a, m.  I. a law term, lesion in general, produced by a weapon or any deadly instrument, more general than the neut.; lýsi ek mér á hönd allan þann áverka; ... sár, ef at sárum görist; víg, ef at vígi görist, Grág. ii. 32, Nj. 86, Fær. 223, Sturl. i. 148.  II. (Norse) the plant of a household, produce of a farm; landskyld heimilar lóð (Lat. fundus) ok allan áverka þann er í kaup þeirra kom, ... as agreed upon between landlord and tenant, Gþl. 329; skipta görðum eptir jarðarhöfn (Lat. fundus) ok öllum áverka (including buildings, fences, crop, etc.), 380; skal hann löggarð göra ... ok vinna þann áverka á landi hins þar er hvárki sé akr né eng, 277.  β. unlawful; útlegð ok sex aura áverki, Grág. ii. 296; hvervetna þar sem maðr hittir á. í mörk sinni, þá skal hann burt taka at ósekju, Gþl. 363.  COMPDS: áverka-bót, f. compensation for an averki (II. β.), Gþl. 363.  áverka-drep, n. a stroke, blow producing áverki (I.), Grág. ii. 16.  áverka-maðr, m. a perpetrator of an áverki (I.), Grág. ii. 13.  áverka-mál, n. an action concerning averki (I.), Grág. ii. 96, Nj. 100.

á-viðris, mod. áveðra (áveðrasamr, adj.), adv. on the weather side, Fms. viii. 340, 346, 378.

á-vinna, vann, to win, make profit, v. vinna á.

á-vinningr, m. profit, gain, Fms. xi. 437, Gþl. 212.

á-vinnt, n. adj. a naval term, prob. from the phrase, vinda á e-n, to turn upon one in a rowing race, or of giving way in a sea-fight; ef Orminum skal því lengra fram leggja sem hann er lengri en önnur skip, þá mun á. um söxin, ... then they in the bow will have a hard pull, will be hard put to it, Fms. ii. 308, Thom. 17, 58; þá görðist þeim á. er næstir lágu, their ranks begun to give way, Sturl. iii. 66 (of a sea-fight); ætla ek þat mund er ek renn frá Haraldi unga, at yðr afburðarmönnum mun á. þykkja eptir at standa, Orkn. 474.

á-virðing, f. blame, fault.

á-vist, f. abode, = ábúð, Bs. i. 725.

á-vita, adj. ind. in the phrase, verða e-s á., to become aware of, learn, Andr. 623. 80, Fms. x. 171; á. mannvits eðr íþrótta, Sks. 26.

á-vitull, m. a law term, the indicia of a thing; skuli þeir rannsaka allt; ok svá göra þeir, ok finna þar öngan ávitöl (acc.), Fær. 186; grunar hann nú, at kerling muni hafa fengit nokkurn (MS. wrongly nokkura, acc. fem.) ávital, hverr maðr hann er, Thom. 158.

á-víga, adj. ind. in the phrase, verða á., of a chief on whose side most people are killed in a battle, in respect to the pairing off of the slain in the lawsuit that followed; þat vóru lög þá, þar at (in the case that) menn féllu jafnmargir, at þat skyldi kalla jamvegit (they should be paired off, no compensation, or 'wergeld,' should be paid, and no suit begun), þótt manna munr þætti vera; en þeir er á. urðu skyldi kjósa mann til eptir hvern mæli skyldi, Glúm. 383; vide Sir Edm. Head, p. 93.

á-vísa, að, to point at, indicate, Lex. Poët.

á-vísan, f. an intimation, indication, Stj. 78 (of instinct), Fas. iii. 541; epitaphium þat er á., 732. 15.

á-vít, [víti], n. pl., ávítan, f., Thom. 246, Th. 19 (mod. ávítur, f. pl.), a reprimand, rebuke, castigation; ávíta, gen. pl., Fær. 23; bera ávít (acc. pl.), Sks. 541, Hkr. ii. 200, Hom. 43.  COMPDS: ávíta-laust, n. adj. blameless, Sks. 802, Hom. 160.  ávíta-samligr and ávít-samligr, adj. blamable, Sks. 577.  ávít-samr, adj. chiding, severe, zealous, Bs. i. 392, Greg. 64.

á-víta, að, to chide, rebuke; á. e-n, Fs. 58; á. e-n um e-t, Fms. x. 372, Landn. 51; á. e-t (acc. of the thing), Bs. i. 766: pass., Hom. 84.

á-væni, n. (ávæningr, m.) = áván, Gþl. 51.

á-vöxtr, ar, m., dat. ávexti, acc. pl. ávöxtu (mod. ávexti), prop. 'on-wax,' 'on-growth,' i. e. fruit, produce, growth, Stj. 35, Fms. ix. 265: metaph., á. kviðar þíns, 655 xiii.  β. metaph. interest, rent [cp. Gr. τόκος], Grág. i. 195; verja fé til ávaxtar, Fms. v. 194, 159, iii. 18: gain, Bs. i. 141.  COMPDS: ávaxtar-lauss, adj. unproductive, Grág. i. 173, Fms. x. 221.  ávaxtar-tíund, f. a Norse law term, a sort of income tax, opp. to höfuðtíund; nú er hverr maðr skyldr at göra tíund sá er fjár má afla, bæði h. (tithe on capital) ok á. (tithe on interest), N. G. L. i. 346.

á-þekkr, adj. similar, Fms. ii. 264, xi. 6, Vsp. 39.

á-þétti, n. or áþéttr, ar, m. a law term in the COMPD áþéttis-orð or áþéttar-orð, n. defamatory language, invective, liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. (Sb.) ii. 143, Valla L. 204.

á-þjá, ð, to oppress, Eg. 8, Fms. i. 21.

á-þján, f. oppression, tyranny, oppressive rule, Eg. 14, 47, Fms. v. 26: servitude, heavy-burdens (= álögur), vii. 75, x. 416 (where áþjánar, pl.), Sks. 79, v. l. (coercion).  COMPD: áþjánar-ok, n. the yoke of tyranny, Al. 7.

á-þrætni, f. mutual strife, Stj. MS. 227, col. 491.

á-þyngd, f. exaction, oppression, Js. 13.

á-þyngja, d, á. e-m, to oppress one.

á-þyngsli, n. a burden, (mod. word.)

B

B (bé) is the second letter. In the Phenician (Hebrew) alphabet the three middle mutes, b, g, d, etc., follow in unbroken order after a. In the Greek the same order is kept; in Latin, and hence in all European alphabets, a confusion arose, first, by giving to the (the old Greek gamma) the value of k (c), and thereby throwing g out of its original place: secondly, by placing e and F (identical in form with ϝ, the old Greek digamma) immediately after the d; thus, instead of the old Greek (and Hebrew) a, b, g, d, e, f, we got a, b, c, d, e, f, g, etc. In the old Slavonian alphabet v (vidil) was inserted between the b and g (Grimm Introd. to lit. B). In the old Runic alphabet the order became still more disjointed; the common rude Scandinavian Runes have no special g or d, and their b is put between t and l, nearly at the end of the alphabet (... t, b, l, m, y). In all the others b kept its place at the head of the consonants, immediately after a, which stands first in almost all alphabets.

A. Among the vowels a begins more words than any other vowel: it contains the three great prepositions, af, at, and á, which, with their compounds, along with those of al- and all-, make up more than half the extent of the letter; it abounds in compound words, but is comparatively poor in primitive root words. Again, b is in extent only surpassed by the consonants h and s; in regard to the number of root words it is equal to them all, if not the foremost. It is scanty in compounds, has no prepositions, but contains the roots of several large families of words, as, for instance, the three great verbs, bera, bregða, and búa; besides many of secondary extent, as binda, bíða, biðja, etc.; and a great number of nouns. The extent of b is greatly reduced by the fact, that the Scandinavian idioms have no prefix be-, which in the German swells the vocabulary by thousands (in Grimm it takes up about 300 pages); the modern Swedes and Danes have during the last few centuries introduced a great many of these from modern German; the Icel. have up to the present time kept their tongue pure from this innovation, except in two or three words, such as betala or bítala (to pay), befala or bífala (to commend), behalda or bíhalda (to keep), which may, since the Reformation, be found in theol. writers; the absence of the prefix be- is indeed one of the chief characteristics of the Icel. as opposed to the German; the English, influenced by the northern idiom, has to a great extent cut off this be-, which abounds in A. S. (v. Bosworth, A. S. Dictionary, where about 600 such words are recorded); even in the Ormulum only about thirty such words are found; in South-English they are more frequent, but are gradually disappearing. Again, b represents p in Scandinavian roots; for probably all words and syllables beginning with p are of foreign extraction; and the same is probably the case in German and English, and all the branches of the Teutonic (vide Grimm D. G. iii. 414); whereas, in Greek and Latin, p is the chief letter, containing about a seventh of the vocabulary, while b contains from one seventieth to one ninetieth only. It might even be suggested that the words beginning with b in Greek and Latin are (as those with p in the Teutonic) either aliens, onomatopoëtics, provincialisms, or even cant words.

B. Pronunciation.—The b is in Icel. sounded exactly as in English:  I. as initial it is an agreeable sound in all the branches of the Teutonic, especially in the combinations br and bl, as in 'bread, brother, bride, bloom, blithe, blood, bless,' etc. etc. The Greek and Roman, on the other hand, disliked the initial b sound; but the difference seerns to be addressed to the eye rather than the ear, as the π in modern Greek is sounded exactly as Icel. b, whilst β is sounded as Icel. v; thus the Greek βίσων in Icel. rendered phonetically by vísundr, but ἐπίσκοπος (biskup, bishop) is in all Teutonic dialects rendered by b, not p, probably because the Greek π had exactly this sound.  II. but although agreeable as the initial to a syllable, yet as a middle or final letter b in Icel. sounds uncouth and common, and is sparingly used:  1. after a vowel, or between two vowels, b is never sounded in Icel. as in modern German geben, haben, laub, leben, leib, lieb; in all those cases the Icel. spells with an f, sounded as a v. Ulfilas frequently uses b, e. g. graban, haban, saban, ïba, gabei, etc.; yet in many cases he vacillates, e. g. giban, graban, gêban, grôbun, tvalib, but gaf and grôf, etc. So gahalaiban on the Gothic-Runic stone in Tune, but hlaifs, Ulf., Luke vi. 48. The Greek and Latin abound in the use of the b (bh) in the middle of syllables and inflexions (-bus, -bills, -bo): in Icel. only a double b may be tolerated, but only in onomatopoëtic or uncouth words, as babbi (pa of a baby), bobbi (a scrape), stubbi (Germ. stumpf), lubbi (Germ. lump), nabbi (a knob), krabbi (a crab), gabb, babbl, babbla, etc.; cp. similar words in English.  2. joined to a consonant;  α. in old Swedish b is inserted between m and r or m and l (as in mod. Greek μρ and μλ are sounded μβρ and μβλ, e. g. Swed. domber, komber, warmber, hambri, gamblar = Icel. dómr, komr (venit), varmr, hamri, gamlar: Swed. kumbl and kubl (Icel. kuml, monumentum) are used indifferently. Even in old Icel. poems we find sumbl = suml, symposium, simbli = simli, Edda i.

B—BAÐMR. 49

256 (Ed. Havn.): mp is only found in adopted words, as in kempa (cp. Germ. kampf), lampi (Lat. lampas), and is almost assimilated into pp (kappi): mb is tolerated in a few words, such as umb, lamb, dramb, dumbr, kambr, vömb, timbr, gymbr. strambr, klömbr; cp. the Engl. lamb, comb, timber, womb, where the b is not pronounced (except in the word timber); in limb, numb the b is not organic (cp. Icel. limr, numinn); it occurs also in a few diminutive pet names of children, Simbi = Sigmundr, Imba= Ingibjörg. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Germans used much to write mb or mp before d or t, as sambt or sampt (una cum), kombt or kompt (venit); but this spelling again became obsolete.  β. the modern High German spells and pronounces rb and lb, werben, korb, kalb, halb, etc., where the middle High German has rw and lw, korw, kalw; the modern Scandinavian idioms here spell and pronounce rf, lf, or rv, lv, e. g. Dan. kalv, Swed. kalf, vitulus; the Icel. spells with f, arfi, kálfr, but pronounces f like v. Yet in Icel. rb, lb are found in a few old MSS., especially the chief MS. (A. M. folio 107) of the Landnáma, and now and then in the Sturlunga and Edda: nay, even to our own time a few people from western Icel. speak so, and some authors of mark use it in their writings, such as the lexicographer Björn Halldórsson, e. g. álbr, kálbr, hálbr, sjálbr, silbr, úlbr, kólbr, orb, arbi, karbi, þörb, = álfr, etc.; only the word úlbúð, qs. úlfúð, is used all over Icel.  γ. fl and fn are in mod. Icel. usage pronounced bl and bn, skafl, tafl, nafli, = skabl, tabl, nabli; nafn, höfn, safn, nefna, = nabn, höbn, sabn, nebna; without regard whether the radical consonant be f or m, as in nafn and safn, qs. namn and samn. This pronunciation is in Icel. purely modern, no traces thereof are found in old vellum MSS.; the modern Swedes, Danes, and Norse pronounce either mn (the Swedes spell mn where Icel. use fn or bn) or vl (Dan.), ffl (Swed.)  δ. is in Icel. commonly pronounced as bð, e. g. hafði, hefð, sofðu = habði, hebð, sobðu; yet a few people in the west still preserve the old and genuine pronunciation vd (havdu, sovdu, not habðu, sobðu), even in the phrase, ef þú (si tu), proncd. ebðú. The prefixed particles of- and af- are often in common speech sounded as ob-, ab-, if prefixed to a word beginning with b or even m, l, e. g. ofboð, afburðr, afbindi, aflagi, afmán, as obboð, abbindi, Hm. 138; abbúð, Korm. 116; abburðr, Fms. x. 321; ablag, abmán: gef mér, lofa mér, proncd. gébmér or gémmér, lobmér or lommér (da mihi, permitte mihi); af mér (a me), proncd. abmér or ammér; but only in common language, and never spelt so; cp. Sunnan Póstur, A. D. 1836, p. 180, note * *.  ε. b = m in marbendill = marmennill.

C. According to Grimm's Law of Interchange ('Lautverschiebung'), if we place the mute consonants in a triangle thus:

Grimm's Law

the Scandinavian and Saxon-Teutonic form of a Greek-Latin root word is to be sought for under the next letter following the course of the sun; thus the Greek-Latin f (φ) answers to Icel. and Teutonic b; the Greek-Latin b (β), on the other hand, to Teutonic p. Few letters present so many connections, as our b (initial) does to the Greek-Latin f, either in whole families or single words; some of the instances are dubious, many clear: φάλαγξ, cp. Icel. balkr; φάρ, Lat. far, cp. barr; φαρόω, φάρος, Lat. fŏrare, cp. bora; φάρυγξ, cp. barki; φόβος. φοβέω, cp. bifa; φέρω, φορέω, Lat. fĕro, cp. bera, borinn; φόρτος, cp. byrðr; φευγω, ἔφυγον, Lat. fŭgio, cp. beygja, boginn, bugr; φηγός, Lat. fāgus, cp. bók, beyki; φλέγω, φλοξ, Lat. fulgere, fulgur, cp. blik, blika; φλέω, Lat. flāre, cp. blása, bólginn, Lat. follis, cp. belgr; φλογμός, Lat. flōs, cp. blóm; φονή, φόνος, φεν-, cp. bani, ben; φορμός, cp. barmr; φράγμα, φρασσω, cp. borg, byrgja; φράζω, φραδή, cp. birta; φρατήρ, Lat. frāter, cp. bróðir; φρέαρ, cp. brunnr; φρίσσω, cp. brattr (brant), brandr; ὄφρυς, cp. brá; φρύγανον, φρύγω, cp. brúk; φύω, Lat. fīo, fŭi, cp. búa, bjó, Engl. to be, and the particle be- (v. Grimm s. v. be- and bauen); φύλλον, Lat. fŏlium, cp. blað; φώγω, Lat. fŏcus, cp. baka: moreover the Lat. făcio, -fĭcio, cp. byggja; fastigium, cp. bust; favilla, cp. bál; fĕrio, cp. berja; fĕrox, fĕrus, cp. ber-, björn; fervere, cp. brenna; fīdus, foedus, cp. binda; findo, fīdi, cp. bíta, beit; flăgellum, cp. blaka; flectere, cp. bregða; fluctus, cp. bylgja; fŏdio, cp. bauta, Engl. to beat; fundus, cp. botn; fors, forte, cp. 'burðr' in 'at burðr;' frango, frēgi, frăgor, cp. breki, brak, brjóta; fraus (fraudis), cp. brjóta, braut; frūges, fructus, cp. björk; fulcio, cp. búlki; frĕmo, cp. brim; frenum, cp. beisl, Engl. bridle; frons (frondis), cp. brum;—even frons (frontis) might be compared to Icel. brandr and brattr, cp. such phrases as frontati lapides;fātum, fāma, cp. boð, boða, etc. The Greek φίλος, φιλεῖν might also be identical to our bl- in blíðr. The change is irregular in words such as Lat. pangere, Icel. banga; petere = biðja; parcere = bjarga; porcus = börgr; πηγή, cp. bekkr; probably owing to some link being lost.  β. in words imported either from Greek or Roman idioms the f sometimes remains unchanged; as the Byz. Greek φεγγάριον is fengari, Edda (Gl.); sometimes the common rule is reversed, and the Latin or Greek p becomes b, as episcopus = biskup; leopardus = hlébarðr, Old Engl. libbard; ampulla = bolli; cp. also Germ. platz = Icel. blettr; again, plank is in the west of Icel. sounded blanki: on the other hand, Latin words such as bracca, burgus are probably of Teutonic or Celtic origin.  γ. the old High German carried this interchange of consonants still farther; but in modern High German this interchange remains only in the series of dental mutes: in the b and g series of mutes only a few words remain, as Germ. pracht (qs. bracht), cp. Engl. bright; Germ. pfand, cp. Engl. bond; otherwise the modern Germans (High and Low) have, just as the English have, their braut, bruder, brod, and butter, not as in old times, prût, etc.

D. In the Runic inscriptions the b is either formed as B, so in the old Gothic stone in Tune, or more commonly and more rudely as in the Scandinavian monuments; both forms clearly originate from the Greek-Roman. The Runic name was in A. S. beorc, i. e. a birch, Lat. betula; 'beorc byð blêda leâs ...,' the A. S. Runic Poem. The Scandinavian name is, curiously enough—instead of björk, f. a birch, as we should expect—bjarkan, n.; the name is in the old Norse Runic Poem denoted by the phrase, bjarkan er lauf grænst lima, the b. has the greenest leaves, cp. also Skálda 177: both form and gender are strange and uncouth, and point to some foreign source; we do not know the Gothic name for it, neither is the Gothic word for the birch (betula) on record, but analogously to airþa, hairþa, Icel. jörð, hjörð, björk would in Gothic be sounded bairca, f.; the Scandinavian form of the name points evidently to the Gothic, as a corruption from that language,—a fresh evidence to the hypothesis of the late historian P. A. Munch, and in concord with the notion of Jornandes, about the abode of the Goths in Scandinavia at early times. Thorodd (Skálda 166) intended to use b as a sign for the single letter, B for a double b, and thus wrote uBi = ubbi; but this spelling was never agreed to.

babbl, n., bábilja, u, f. a babble; babbla, að, to babble.

BAÐ, n. [in Goth. probably baþ, but the word is not preserved; A. S. bäð, pl. baðo; Engl. bath; Germ. bad; cp. also Lat. balneum, qs. badneum (?); Grimm even suggests a kinship to the Gr. βάπτω]:—bath, bathing. In Icel. the word is not very freq., and sounds even now somewhat foreign; laug, lauga, q. v., being the familiar Icel. words; thus in the N. T. Titus iii. 5. is rendered by endrgetningar laug; local names referring to public bathing at hot springs always bear the name of laug, never bað, e. g. Laugar, Laugarnes, Laugardalr, Laugarvatn, etc. The time of bathing, as borne out by many passages in the Sturl. and Bs., was after supper, just before going to bed; a special room, baðstofa (bathroom), is freq. mentioned as belonging to Icel. farms of that time. Bathing in the morning seems not to have been usual; even the passages Sturl. ii. 121, 125 may refer to late hours. This custom seems peculiar and repugnant to the simple sanitary rules commonly observed by people of antiquity. It is, however, to be borne in mind that the chief substantial meal of the ancient Scandinavians was in the forenoon, dagverðr; náttverðr (supper) was light, and is rarely mentioned. Besides the word bað for the late bath in the Sturl. and Bs., baðstofa is the bathroom; síð um kveldit, í þann tíma er þeir Þórðr ok Einarr ætluðu at ganga til baðs, Sturl. iii. 42; um kveldit er hann var genginn til svefns, ok þeir til baðs er þat líkaði, ii. 117, 246, iii. 111; þat var síð um kveldit ok vóru menn mettir (after supper) en Ormr bóndi var til baðs farinn, ok var út at ganga til baðstofunnar, Bs. i. 536; eptir máltíðina (supper) um kveldit reikaði biskupinn um baðferðir (during bathing time) um gólf, ok síðan for hann í sæng sína, 849; hence the phrase, skaltú hafa mjúkt bað fyrir mjúka rekkju, a good bathing before going to bed, of one to be burnt alive, Eg. 239. In Norway bathing in the forenoon is mentioned; laugardags morguninn vildu liðsmenn ráða í bæinn, en konungr vildi enn at þeir biði þar til er flestir væri í baðstofum, Fms. viii. 176; snemma annan dag vikunnar ..., and a little below, eptir þat tóku þeir bað, vii. 34, iii. 171; þá gengr Þéttleifr til baðstofu, kembir sér ok þvær, eptir þat skœðir hanu sik, ok vápnar, Þiðr. 129, v. l.; Icel. hann kom þar fyrir dag (before daybreak), var Þórðr þá í baðstofu, Sturl. ii. 121, 125; vide Eb. 134, Stj. 272.  COMPDS: bað-ferð, f. time for bathing, Bs. i. 849.  bað-hús, n. a bathing-house, G. H. M. ii. 128 (false reading), vide Fs. 149, 183.  bað-kápa, u, f. a bathing-cloak, Sturl. ii. 117.  bað-kona, u, f. a female bathing attendant, N. G. L. iii. 15.  bað-stofa, u, f. (v. above), a bath-room, Eb. l. c., Bs. i. l. c., Þiðr. l. c., Fms. viii. l. c., Sturl. ii. 121, 167, iii. 25, 102, 176, 198.  baðstofu-gluggr, m. a window in a b., Eb. l. c., Sturl. l. c. In Icel. the bathing-room (baðstofa) used to be in the rear of the houses, cp. Sturl. ii. 198. The modern sense of baðstofa is sitting-room, probably from its being in modern dwellings placed where the old bathing-room used to be. The etymology of Jon Olafsson (Icel. Dict. MS.), baðstofa = bakstofa, is bad. In old writers baðstofa never occurs in this modern sense, but it is used so in the Dropl. Saga Major:—a closet, room, in writers of the 16th century, Bs. ii. 244, 256, 504, Safn. 77, 92, 95, 96.

baðast, að, dep. (rare), to bathe, Fms. iii. 171; in common Icel. act., baða höndum, to gesticulate, fight with the arms, as in bathing.

BAÐMR, m. [Goth. bagms; A. S. beam, cp. Engl. hornbeam; Germ. baum], a tree, only used in poetry, v. Lex. Poët., never in prose or

50 BAGALL—BALDRSBRA.

common language, and alien to all Scandin. idioms: it seems prop. to be used of the branches of a tree (in flower); hár b., the high tree, Vsp. 18; á berki skal þær rista ok á baðmi viðar, Sdm. 11 (referring to the lim-rúnar). Even used metaph. = gremium, sinus; er þá Véa ok Vilja | létztu þér Viðris kvæn | báða í baðm um tekið, when thou tookest both of them into thy arms, embraced them both, Ls. 26; vaxi þér á baðmi (bosom) barr, Hkv. Hjörv. 16. Cp. hróðrbaðmr (barmr is a bad reading), Vtkv. 8, a fatal twig.

BAGALL, m. [Lat. baculus], an episcopal staff, crozier, Fms. i. 233, iii. 168, Bs. i. 42, Vm. 68.

bagga, að, to hinder, with dat.

BAGGI, a, m. [Engl. bag, baggage; Germ. pack, gepäck], a bag, pack, bundle, Edda 29, Eg. 218, Fms. ii. 197, Fas. ii. 516.

bagi, a, m. inconvenience; baga-legr, adj. inconvenient.

baglaðr, part. [cp. bagr, begla], broken, maimed, Fas. iii. 195.

bagr, adj. [cp. bágr], awkward, clumsy, clownish, opp. to hagr, q. v., Fas. iii. 195: baga, u, f., in mod. usage means a plain common ditty; böguligr and amböguligr, adj., means awkward.

BAK, n. [A. S. bäc], Lat. tergum, back, Eg. 218, Edda 29, 30, Hkr. i. 337: in metaph. phrases, bera sök á baki, to be guilty, Gþl. 539; leggja bleyðiorð á bak e-m, to load, charge one with being a coward. Fas. ii. 530; hafa mörg ár á baki, to 'carry a weight of years' Ísl. ii. 456: of horseback, léttr á baki, Sturl. ii. 195; fara á bak, to mount; stíga af baki, to dismount, Eg. 397, Grág. ii. 95: in other relations, as adv., at hurðar-baki, behind the door; at húsa-baki, at the back of the houses; að fjalla-baki, behind the mountains; handar-bak, the back of the hand.  2. á bak or á baki used as a prep. or as an adv.; á bak (acc.) if denoting motion, á baki (dat.) if without motion:  α. loc. behind, at the back of; á baki húsunum, Háv. 49, Nj. 28; at baki þeim, at their back, Eg. 91, Nj. 261, 262, 84, Eg. 583; Hrútr kveðst þat ætla, at hans skyldi lítt á bak at leita, he should not be found in the rear, Ld. 278; berr á baki, unbacked, helpless, in the proverb, Nj. 265, Grett. 154: metaph., ganga á bak e-u, orðum, heitum ..., to elude, evade one's pledged word, Fms. ii. 209, Ísl. ii. 382; göra e-t á baki e-m, in one's absence, behind one's back, N. G. L. i. 20; á bak aptr ( = aptr á bak), backward; falla; á b. a., Eb. 240, Nj. 9, Eg. 397, Háv. 48 new Ed.; til baks, better til baka, to back, Sturl. ii. 203; brjóta á bak, prop. to break one's back, Fms. viii. 119; to break, subdue, and also to make void, annul; brjóta á bak Rómverja, to 'break the back' of the R., defeat them, 625. 65; Heiðrekr vildi öll rúð fóður síns á bak brjóta, Fas. i. 528.  β. temp. with dat. past, after; á bak Jólum, after Yule, Fms. viii. 60; á b. Jónsvöku, ix. 7: metaph., Héðinn kvaðst eigi hirða hvat er á bak kæmi, H. said he did not care for what came after, Fas. i. 402; muntú eigi vera mót Njáli, hvat sem á b. kemr, Nj. 193.

baka, að, [Gr. φώγειν, cp. also the Lat. focus; A. S. bacan; Engl. to bake; Germ. backen.]  I. prop. to bake; b. brauð, N. G. L. i. 349; b. ok sjóða, to bake and cook, Gþl. 376. In Icel. steikja is to roast; baka, to bake; but in mod. usage steikja may also be used of baking on embers, opp. to baka, baking in a pan or oven; elda ofn til brauðs ok b., Hom. 113; b. í ofni, Fas. i. 244; people say in Icel. steikja köku (on embers), but baka brauð.  2. metaph. and esp. in the reflex. bakast, to bake, i. e. to warm and rub the body and limbs, at a large open fire in the evening after day-work; v. bakeldr and bakstreldr; v. also the classical passages, Grett. ch. 16, 80, Fms. xi. 63, 64 (Jómsv. ch. 21), Orkn. ch. 34, 89, 105, Hkr. iii. 458. In Icel. the same fire was made for cooking and warming the body, Ísl. ii. 394, Eb. ch. 54, 55; hence the phrase, hvárt skal nú búa til seyðis (is a fire to be made for cooking) ... svá skal þat vera, ok skaltú eigi þurfa heitara at baka, it shall be hot enough for thee to bake, Nj. 199 (the rendering of Johnsonius is not quite exact); skaltú eigi beiðast at baka heitara en ek mun kynda, Eg. 239: used of bathing, bakaðist hann lengi í lauginni, Grett. ch. 80, MS. Cod. Upsal. This 'baking' the body in the late evening before going to bed was a great pastime for the old Scandinavians, and seems to have been used instead of bathing; yet in later times (12th and 13th centuries) in Icel. at least bathing (v. above) came into use instead of it. In the whole of Sturl. or Bs. no passage occurs analogous to Grett. l. c. or Jómsv. S.  β. bóndi bakar á báðar kinnr, blushed, Bs. ii. 42; þanneg sem til bakat er, as things stand, Orkn. 428; bakaði Helgi fótinn, H. baked the (broken) leg, Bs. i. 425; vide eldr.  γ. (mod.) to cause, inflict; b. e-m öfund, hatr, óvild (always in a bad sense): af-baka means to distort, pervert.II. to put the back to, e. g. a boat, in floating it, (mod.)

bakari, a, m. a baker, Stj. 200.  bakara-meistari, a, m. a master-baker, Stj. 201.

bak-borði, a, m. (bakborð, m., Jb. 407 A), [Dutch baakbord], the larboard side of a ship, opp. to stjórnborði, Fb. i. 22, Jb. l. c., Fms. vii. 12, Orkn. 8.

bak-brjóta, braut, to violate, transgress, B. K. 108.

bak-byrðingar, m. pl. the crew on the larboard side, opp. to stjórn-byrðingar, Fms. viii. 224.

bak-byrðr, f. a burden to carry on the back, Ísl. ii. 364.

bak-eldr and bakstreldr, m. an evening fire to bake the body and limbs at (v. baka); sitja við bakelda, Fs. 4, Orkn. 112, 74, Korm. 236, Grett. 91: metaph., bændr skulu eiga ván bakelda, they shall get it hot enough, Fms. viii. 201; göra e-m illan bakeld, 383, ix. 410.  bakelda-hrif, n. pl. rubbing the back at a b., Grett. l. c. A. As the evening bakeldar are not mentioned in the Sturl., it may be that bathing had put them out of use because of the scarcity of fuel.

bak-fall, n. falling backwards, Fas. iii. 569: esp. in pl. in the phrase, róa bakföllum, to take a long pull with the oars, i. 215: milit. attack from behind = bakslag, Fms. viii. 115, ix. 405.

bak-ferð, f. mounting on horseback, Grett. 91 A.

bak-ferla, að, [ferill], prop. to step backwards; þat (viz. the word ave) sýnir öfgað, bakferlað (read backwards) nafnit Eva, 655 xxvii. 18, to break, annul; b. ofbeldi e-s, Stj. 233; at b. þat allt er Domitianus hafði boðit, 623. 13; rjúfa ok b., to break and make void, Sturl. i. 171 C.

bak-hlutr, m. the hind part, Stj. 253, Fs. 48.

bak-hold, n. pl. the flesh on the back of cattle, Grett. 91.

bak-hverfask, ð, reflex. to turn one's back upon, abandon, Eg. 20, v. l.

bak-jarl, m., milit. a foe attacking in the rear, Sturl. iii. 66, Karl. 164.

bakki, a, m. [Engl. and Germ. bank], a bank of a river, water, chasm, etc.; árbakki, sjávarbakki, marbakki, flæðarbakki, Gísl. 54; síkisbakki, gjárbakki; út eptir áinni ef Hákon stæði á bakkanum, Fms. vi. 282, ix. 405, Nj. 158, 224: Tempsar b., banks of the Thames, Fms. v. (in a verse).  2. an eminence, ridge, bank; gengu þeir á land ok kómu undir bakka einn, Dropl. 5; hann settist undir b. í hrísrunni, Bjarn. 15; cp. skotbakki, butts on which the target is placed; setja spán í bakka, to put up a target, Fms. ii. 271.  β. heavy clouds in the horizon.  3. [= bak], the back of a knife, sword, or the like, opp. to edge; blað skilr bakka ok egg, Jónas, Grett. 110 new Ed.  COMPDS: bakka-fullr, adj. full to the bank, brim-full; bera í b. lækinn, a proverb, cp. Lat. ligna in silvam ferre, and Engl. to carry coals to Newcastle.bakka-kólfr, m., prob. a bird-bolt, thick arrow without a point, to be shot from a cross-bow, Fms. iii. 18.  bakka-stokkar, m. pl. the stocks on which a ship is built, Gþl. 80, Hkr. i. 293.

bak-klæði, n. tapestry, Hkr. iii. 437.

bak-lengja, u, f. the dark stripe along the back of cattle, Grett. 91, Eg. 149, v. l.

bak-máligr (and bakmáll), adj. backbiting, Hom. 34, 656 B. 1.

bak-mælgi, f. and bakmæli, n. backbiting, Hom. 86; liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 145.

bak-rauf, f. anus, a cognom., Fms. vii. 21.

bak-sárr, adj. a horse with a sore back, Lv. 58.

bak-sig, n., medic. exania, Fél. ix.

bak-skiki, a, m. a back flap, a cognom., Bjarn. 12.

bak-skyrta, u, f. the back flap of a skirt, Fms. vii. 21.

bak-slag, n. a back-stroke, attack in rear, Fms. viii. 399.

bak-sletta, u, f. and bakslettr, m., Al. 27, 44; acc. pl. bakslettu, 90: milit. an attack in rear, Fms. viii. 319, ix. 357: drawback, at rétta þann bakslett, Al. l. c.

bak-spyrna, d, to spurn or kick against; N. T. of 1540 (Acts ix. 5) πρὸς κέντρα λακτίζειν is rendered by b. móti broddunum.

bak-stakkr, m. the back part of a cloak. Fas. ii. 343.

bakstr, rs, m. baking, Fms. ix. 530: baked bread, pund b., B. K. 89, esp. wafer, Bs. ii. 15: a poultice, fomentation, i. 786: warming, heating, ii. 10.  COMPDS: bakstr-brauð, n. baked bread, B. K. 89.  bakstr-buðkr, m. a box in which wafers were kept, Pm. 5.  bakstr-eldr, v. bakeldr.  bakstr-hús, n. a bake-house, Fms. ix. 531.  bakstr-járn, n. an iron plate for baking sacramental wafers, Vm. 15, 37.  bakstr-kona, u, f. a female baker, N. G. L. iii. 15.  bakstr-munnlaug, f. a vessel in which wafers were kept, Dipl. iii. 4.  bakstr-sveinn, m. a baker boy, N. G. L. iii. 15.

bak-verkr, m., medic. a pain in the back, lumbago, Nj. 130, Fél. ix.

bak-verpast, ð and t, dep., b. við e-m, to turn the back to, set at defiance, Stj. 362, 431, 449, Eg. 20.

bak-þúfa, u, f. a horse block.

BAL, n. vagina, in poems of the 15th century.

bala, d and að, to drudge, live hard, (cant word.)

baldakin, and bad forms baldrsskinn (the skin of Balder!) and baldskin [from Baldak, i. e. Bagdad], a baldaquin, canopy, Bs. i. 713, 803, Sturl. iii. 306, Fms. x. 87, Dipl. v. 18, Vm. 52, 97, 117, Ám. 44, Hb. 544, 22.  COMPDS: baldrskinns-hökull, m., literally a surplice of b., Ám. 87.  baldrskinns-kápa, u, f. a cape of b., Ám. 15.

baldinn, adj. [A. S. beald], untractable, unruly, Grett. 90 A, Fms. xi. 445; cp. bellinn, ballr, ofbeldi.

BALDR, rs, m. [A. S. baldor. princeps, seems to be a different root from the Goth. balþs, A. S. bald, which answers to the Icel. ball- or bald- without, r], prop. = Lat. princeps, the best, foremost; in compds as mann-baldr, her-baldr, fólk-baldr.  β. meton. the god Balder, because of his noble disposition, Edda.  Baldrs-brá, f. Balder's eye-brow, botan. cotida foetida, Ivar Aasen ballebraa and baldurbraa, pyrethrum inodorum, Edda 15; the B. is there called the fairest and whitest of all flowers (allra grasa hvítast). Perhaps the eye-bright or euphrasy.

BALDRAST—BARÐ. 51

baldrast and ballrast, að, dep. [cp. Germ. poltern; Ivar Aasen baldra, Ihre ballra = strepere], to make a clatter; þeir sneru hestunum ok böldruðust sem þeir væri úráðnir hvárt þeir skyldi ríða, Sturl. iii. 279: adding saman, þeir böllruðust saman, Ingv. 34.

baldrekr, m. (for. word), a belt, baldrick, Lex. Poët.

BALI, a, m. a soft grassy bank, esp. if sloping down to the shore, Grett. 116 A.

BALLR, adj. [Goth. balþs, audax, may be supposed from Jornandes, ob audaciam virtutis baltha, id est audax, nomen inter suos acceperat, 109; Ulf. renders παρρησία by balþis, f., and balþjan is audere; in Icel. the (lth) becomes ll; A. S. beald, audax; Engl. bold]:—bard, stubborn: only used in poetry, and not in quite a good sense, as an epithet of a giant, Hým. 17; böll ráð, telling, fatal schemes, Hom. 27; ballir draumar, bad, deadly dreams, Vtkv. I; ballr dólgr, Haustl.; böll þrá, heavy grief, Ls. 39, etc., vide Lex. Poët. [So old German names, Bald, Leo- pold, etc.]

BALSAM, m. (now always n.), a balsam, Bs. i. 143, (for. word.)

bana, að, [bani; Gr. root (φένω], to kill, with dat., ef griðungr banar manni, Grág. ii. 122, Rb. 370, Fms. iii. 124; b. sér sjálfr, to commit suicide, Ver. 40; metaph., Hom. 17.

BAND, n. pl. bönd, [binda; Ulf. bandi, f. δεσμός; O. H. G. pfand, whence the mod. Dan. pant; N. H. G. band; Engl. band and bond; Dan. baand.]  I. prop. in sing. any kind of band; mjótt band, a thin cord, Edda 20, Grág. ii. 119.  β. a yarn of wool, v. bandvetlingar.  γ. metaph. a bond, obligation; lausn ok b. allra vandamála, Fms. v. 248, Bs. i. 689.  II. in pl. also,  1. bonds, fetters, Lat. vincula; í böndum, in vinculis, Bs. i. 190, Fms. ii. 87, 625. 95: theol., synda bönd, 656 A; líkams bönd, Blas. 40.  2. a bond, confederacy; ganga í bönd ok eið, to enter into a bond and oath, Band. 22; cp. hjónaband, marriage; handaband, a shaking of hands, etc.  3. poët. the gods, cp. hapt; of providence ruling and uniting the world, Hkm. 10; banda vé, the temples, Hkr. i. 204; at mun banda, at the will of the gods, 210; vera manu bönd í landi, the gods (i. e. lares tutelares) are present in the land, Bs. i. 10; gram reki bönd af löndum, Eg. (in a verse); blóta bönd, to worship the gods; vinr banda, the friend of the gods; bönd ollu því, the gods ruled it, Haustl.; vide Lex. Poët., all the instances being taken from heathen poems. Egilsson suggests a reference to the imprisoning of the three gods, Odin, Hænir, and Loki, mentioned Edda 72; but bönd is that which binds, not is bound; (band means vinculum not vinctus.)  4. metric. a kind of intricate intercalary burden (klofastef). This seems to be the meaning in the word Bandadrápa, where the burden consists of five intercalary lines occurring in sets of three verses | Dregr land at mun banda || Eirikr und sik geira | veðrmildr ok semr hildi || gunnblíðr ok réð síðan | jarl goðvörðu hjarli; but as this metrical term is nowhere else recorded, the name of the poem may have come from the word 'banda' (gen. pl. deorum), Hkr. i. 210 sqq.  COMPDS: banda-dagr, m. vincula Petri, the 1st of August, Fms. vi. 222.  banda-menn, m. pl. confederates, Band. 5, and many other modern compds.  banda-ríki, n. (mod.) the United States.banda-þing, n. the late German Bund, etc.

banda, að, [cp. Ulf, bandvian = σημαίνειν and bandva, vexillum; Germ. banner; is probably alien to binda], to make a sign with the hand, esp. in the phrase, b. móti, to drive back sheep or flocks, Háv. 41, Fas. ii. 124, v. l. The chief MSS., however, spell bannaði; the word is at present freq., but only in the above phrase, or gener. to remonstrate slightly against as by waving the hand; v. benda.

bandingi, ja, m. a prisoner, Stj. 200, Fms. vi. 16, 623. 25.

band-vetlingr, m. a knitted woollen glove, Fms. iii. 176; and band-vöttr, id., a horse's name, Gísl. 19.

BANG, n. hammering, Sturl. iii. 256; mod. also banga, að, [Scot. and North. E. to bang], to hammer.

bang-hagr, adj. knowing a little how to use the hammer, Sturl. ii. 195.

BANI, a, m. [Ulf. banja = πληγή; A. S. bana; Engl. bane; O. H. G. bano; v. ben below].  I. bane, death, natural or violent (properly violent); Egill tók sótt þá er hann leiddi til bana, Eg. 767; lostinn öru til bana, Fms. i. 118; kominn at bana, sinking fast, of a sick person, vii. 166.  II. a bane, and so = bana-maðr, a slayer; fjögurra manna b., Nj. 8, Grág. ii. 88, Ld. 326; pl., N. G. L. i. 163: the phrase, verða e-m at bana, to slay one, may refer to I. or II: poët. fire is called bani viðar, the bane of wood, and bani Hálfs, the bane of king Half, Ýt. 6; the winter is bani orma, the bane of worms, etc., Lex. Poët.  COMPDS: bana-blóð, n. blood shed in death, Stj. 432.  bana-dagr, m. the day of death, Fas. i. 52.  bana-drykkr, m. a baneful potion, poison, Fms. i. 18.  bana-dægr, n. =banadagr (freq.), Fas. i. 160.  bana-högg, n. a death-blow, mortal wound, Nj. 8, Eg. 193.  bana-kringla, u, f. vertebra colli, atlas (in animals).  bana-lag, n. stabbing to death, Sturl. iii. 62.  bana-maðr, m. a slayer, Fms. i. 215.  bana-orð, n. death, in the phrase, bera b. af e-m, to put one to death, slay in fight, Edda 42; betra þykir mér frændi at þiggja b. af þér en veita þér þat, Ld. 222, Bs. i. 106; kenna e-m b., to charge one with slaying one, N. G. L. i. 306.  bana-ráð, n. pl. the planning a person's death, a law term, Grág. ii. 116; eigi réð ek honum b., Nj. 21; slá banaráðum við e-n, Ld. 218.  bana-sár, n. a mortal wound, Nj. 9, Eg. 258.  bana-skot, n. a mortal shot, Jb. 324.  bana-sótt, f. death-sickness, the last sickness, Jb. 192, Ísl. ii. 38, Gullþ. 11, Bs. i. 426. bana-spjót, n. pl. in the poët. phrase, berast banaspjótum eptir, to be deadly enemies, Glúm. 354, Hkr. iii. 76.  bana-sæng, f. the death-bed.bana-sök, f. a deed worthy of death, Fms. i. 199.  bana-tilræði, n. a mortal attack, Fas. i. 406.  bana-þúfa, u, f., in the phrase, drepa fótum í banaþúfu, to stumble against a fatal mound, Anal. 179, Hdl. 28.

banlaga-ráð, n. = banaráð, Str. 14.

BANN, n. [cp. Ulf. bandva; Hel. bann, mandatum; Engl. ban; Germ. bann; A. S. geban; mid. Lat. bannum], prob. of foreign origin:  1. eccles. excommunication, interdict; minna b. (excommunicatio minor), þat sem forboð er kallat á Norrænu, K. Á. 226 (App.); meira b. (excommunicatio major), Ann. A. D. 1255; England í banni, id. A. D. 1208; Bs., H. E. several times.  2. in secular sense, prohibition of trade or intercourse; leggja b. fyrir mjöl eðr vöru, N. G. L. i. 204, 103; cp. farbann, forbidding ships to set sail.3. gener. a protest, prohibition, in phrases, boð ok b., Gþl. 76; lof né b., Eg. 349; leggja b. fyrir, to prohibit, Ísl. ii. 265.  4. = bannan, a curse, swearing. The notion of jurisdiction common in Germany (v. Grimm) is unknown in the Scandin. idioms; yet the Laufás' Edda, Ed. A. M. i. 586, v. l. 14, has bann as one of the names of the earth, cp. the O. H. G. banz, regio. The passage Gísl. 16, náttlangt né lengra banni, is an ἅπ. λεγ. and probably corrupt, = á lengr or the like; lengra banni might, however, be equivalent to lengra meli, bann here denoting spatium temporis, a while.COMPDS: banns-atkvæði, n. a sentence of excommunication, H. E. i. 465.  banns-áfell and -áfelli, n. the condemnation of excommunication, H. E. ii. 70.  banns-dómr, m. a ban-doom, sentence of excommunication, H. E. ii. 74.  banns-mál, n. a case liable to excommunication, H. E. i. 254.  banns-pína, u, f. the punishment of excommunication, H. E. i. 477.  banns-spjót, n. a spear of excommunication, H. E. ii. 77.  banns-verk, n. an act liable to excommunication, H. E. i. 390.

banna, að, [A. S. bannan = jubere; Germ. bannen; mid. Lat. bannire], to forbid, hinder, prohibit (freq.); b. e-m e-t, or with infin., Fms. i. 254, Nj. 157, Ld. 256, Orkn. 4; b. fiskiför, Grág. ii. 350, N. G. L. i. 117.  2. to curse, [Scot. ban], with dat., Stj. 37: with acc., Hom. 31, Stj. 199, Post. 656 A, ii. 12: reflex., bannast um, to swear, Sturl. ii. 126, Fms. viii. 174.  3. = banda, to stop, drive back; hann sá tröll við ána, þat b. honum, ok vildi taka hann, Fas. ii. 124.

bannan, f. swearing, Bs. ii. 134.  bannanar-orð, n. id., Stj. 153.

bann-bóla, u, f. a bull of excommunication, Anecd. 8.

bann-færa, ð, to place under ban, K. Á. 134, Sturl. ii. 3.

bann-setja, tt, id., K. Á. 64, Sturl. ii. 3, H. E. i. 471; part. pass. under ban, accursed, Fas. iii. 423, Stj. 417.

bann-setning, f. an excommunication, Sturl. ii. 3.  bannsetningar-sverð, n. the sword of excommunication, H. E.

bann-syngja, söng, to pronounce the ban of excommunication, Fms. ix. 486.

ban-orð, n. = banaorð, Fms. x. 400, Bret. 76.

ban-væni, f., medic. prognosis mortis, Fcl. ix.

ban-vænligr, adj. mortal, deadly, Bret. 56, Edda 154.

ban-vænn, adj. deadly, Eg. 34.  2. medic. deadly sick, just before death; ok er dró at því at hann (the sick) var b., when all hope of life was gone, Eg. 126, Fms. i. 86; snerist um allt sárit svá at Grettir görðist b., Grett. 153.

BARAR, mod. börur, f. pl. [A. S. bär; Hel. bara; Engl. bier and barrow; Lat. feretrum], a hand-bier; borinn í börum um fjallit, Fms. vii. 9, Bs. i. 352: sometimes to be carried on horseback (by two horses), báru þeir Guðmund í börum suðr til Hvítár, ... bararnar hrutu ofan, Bs. i. 508 (Sturl. ii. 49 C spells barir): esp. the funeral bier, hearse, to be carried on horseback, lagði þegar kistuna í bunar barar, 655 xxii, Fms. x. 149; mæddust hestarnir undir börunum, Finnb. 322, cp. líkbörur; now also liggja á nátrjám (nátré) in like sense. The sing. in D. N. i. 110. 70 is perh. a bad reading.

bar-axlaðr, adj. part. high-shouldered, with sharp prominent shoulder bones, Fms. vii. 321.

bar-átta, u, f. [North. E. barett obsolete], gener. a fight, contest:α. a row, Gþl. 176.  β. a fight, battle, Fas. i. 26.  γ. now freq., esp. = strife, contest.COMPDS: baráttu-maðr, m. a warrior, Þiðr. 67.  baráttu-samr, adj. troublesome, Barl. 137. barberr, m. (for. word), a barber, N. G. L. iii. 110. 15.

BARÐ, n. [identical in etymology but not in sense to Lat. barba, Engl. beard, Germ. bart; the Scandin. dialects all call the beard skegg; Swed. skägg; Dan. skjœg; barð in the sense of barba is quite alien from the Scandin. idioms; the passages, Edda 109 (skegg heitir barð) and höggva börðum í gras, Íd. 12, a poem of the end of the 13th century, are isolated instances: bart in Dan. is a mod. word]:—Lat. ora, margo:α. a brim of a helmet or hat (hjálmbarð, hattbarð), Fas. iii. 341.  β. the verge, edge of a hill (holtbarð, túnbarð, brekkubarð, hólbarð, etc.), freq. in local names of farms in Icel.  γ. the wing or side fin of some fishes, e. g. whales, cp. barðhvalr; of flat fishes, raja

52 BARÐA—BARNGETNAÐR.

pastinaca (skötubarð).  δ. the beak or armed prow of ships, esp. ships of war, [cp. A. S. barda, a beaked ship]; so barded, of a horse in armour; hence Barði or Járnbarði is the name of a sort of ram in olden times, e. g. the famous Járnbarði (Iron Ram) of carl Eric, described, Fms. ii. 310; cp. also Fb. i. 280: the stem, Gr. στείρη, Jb. 398; róa fyrir barð e-m, to thwart one, Gþl. 519, Eg. 386, Fms. vii. 195; skulu vér binda akkeri fyrir barð hverju skipi, xi. 66, ii. 273, Lex. Poët.  ε. several compds are used in Icel. referring to parts of the head, e. g. hökubarð, kinnbarð, kjálkabarð, ora genae, maxillae, but without any notion of 'beard,' cp. Isid. granos et cinnabar Gothorum, 19. 23; the cinnabar and the present Icel. kinnabarð seem to be etymologically identical.

barða, u, f. a kind of axe (barbata), Edda (Gl.)

bar-dagi, a, m., prop. a 'battle day,' cp. eindagi, máldagi, skildagi:  1. a law term, a beating, flogging, thrashing; ef maðr lýstr mann þrjú högg eðr þrim fleiri, þat heitir b. fullr, N. G. L. i. 73, Grág. ii. 155, Post. 656 B, Blas. 42.  2. a fight, battle (very freq.) = orrosta, Eg. 745, Nj. 45, etc.: metaph. a calamity, scourge (theol.), Sks. 112, 328, Fms. v. 214, Bs. i. 70.  COMPDS: bardaga-frest, n. delay of battle, Al. 24.  bardaga-fýst, f. eagerness to give battle, Al. 24.  bardaga-gjarn, adj. eager for battle, Stj. 230.  bardaga-guð, n. a god of battle, Mars, Al. 33.  bardaga-gyðja, u, f. a goddess of battle, Bellona, Al. 41.  bardaga-laust, n. adj. without battle, Al. 14.  bardaga-list, f. the art of war, Stj. 45, Al. 4.  bardaga-lykt, f. the close of a battle, Al. 5.  bardaga-maðr, m. a warrior, Fms. vi. 56, Stj. 456.  bardaga-stef, n. and bardaga-stefna, u, f. a term, fixed meeting for a fight, Al. 54, Fms. ix. 488.

barð-hvalr, m. a sort of whale, Sks. 124, Edda (Gl.)

barði, a, m. a ship, a sort of ram, v. above, Fms. ii. 310, Edda (Gl.)  β. a sort of fish (Germ. bartfisch), Edda (Gl.)  γ. a shield, Edda (Gl.)

barð-mikill, adj. with a great barð (δ.), epithet of a ship, Hkr. iii. 268.

bar-efli, n. a club, (common word.)

bar-eyskr, adj. from Barra, one of the Hebrides, Grett.

BARKI, a, m. [Gr. [ph/arunx], alien from the South-Teut. idioms?], the windpipe, weazand. Eg. 508, Fas. i. 131, Fms. i. 217, vii. 191, Nj. 156: metaph. the stem of a boat; cp. háls, svíri.  COMPDS: barka-kýli, n. Adam's apple, Bs. i. 382.  barka-lok, n. epiglottis.barka-op, n. glottis.

BARKI, a, m., mid. Lat. barca, a sort of small ship (for. word), Fms. vii. 82.  barka-bazi, a, m., a cognom., Sturl.

bark-lauss, adj. without bark (börkr), Lex. Poët.

BARLAK, n. (for. word), barley, Edda (Gl.); the Icel. common word is bygg, Dan. byg, Swed. bjugg.

bar-lómr, m. wailing, complaining, v. lómr.

barm-fagr, adj. with fine sides, epithet of a ship, Lex. Poët.

barmi, a, m., poët. a brother, prop. frater geminus, not qs. ἀδελφός, vide the following word, Lex. Poët.

BARMR, m. [Gr. φοππός, cp. Ulf. barms = κόλπος and στῆθος; O. H. G. param; Hel. barm; A. S. barm; all in the sense of gremium: this sense, however, is entirely unknown to old Icel. writers, who only apply the word in like sense as barð, namely, Engl. brim; Lat. ora]:—a brim:  α. the brim of a vessel (fötubarmr, pottbarmr, etc.), Bs. ii. 173; hence barma-fullr, adj. or fullr á barma, full to the brim; the rim of a bell, Pm. 106.  β. also the edge of a brook or well (lækjarbarmr, brunnbarmr): a chasm (gjárbarmr).  γ. the border of the shore; eybarmr, ora insulae, Hervar. S. (in a verse); vikrbarmr; also used in many local names of farms in Icel.  δ. the wing of anything; lyptingarbarmr, the gunwale of the stern; kastalabarmr (wing of a castle), Orkn. (in a verse); barmr hvarma, the edge of the eye-lids, Lex. Poët.  ε. the flaps of a thing; reif hann allan í sundr ok kastaði börmunum á eldinn, Fms. iv. 339 (rare if not an ἅπ. λεγ.)  ζ. the notion of gremium, bosom, only appears after the Reformation, and even then rare; cp. the bosom of a coat, e. g. geyma e-t á barmi sér; hægri, vinstri b., etc.; stinga hendinni í sinn eigin barm, Exod. iv. 6.  barma, að, b. sér, to lament, is also a mod. word, Germ. barmen qs. bearmen; vide, however, baðmr.

barm-tog, n. a rope for contracting the nets during fishing, Ivar Aasen barma, Gþl. 427.

BARN, n. pl. börn, [Ulf. barn; O. H. G. parn; A. S. bearn; Scot. and North. E. bairn; cp. bera and Lat. parĕre]:—a bairn, child, baby. This word, which in olden time was common to all the Teut. idioms, was lost in Germany as early as the 13th century (Grimm, s. v.); in the South of England it went out of use at an early time, and was replaced by 'child;' even the Ormulum uses barn only four times, else always 'child.' In North. E. bairn is still a household word, and freq. in popular Scottish writers, Burns, Walter Scott, etc. In the whole of Scandinavia it is in full and exclusive use; the Germ. 'kind' is in Icel. entirely unknown in this sense, v. the funny story Ísl. Þjóð. ii. 535; ('kind' in common Icel. means a sheep.) In Danish barn is the only word which, like the Icel., changes the radical vowel in pl. into ö (börn). Proverbs referring to barn; barnið vex en brókin ekki; þetta verðr aldri barn í brók; bráð er barnslundin (barnæskan); nema börn hvað á bæ er títt; allir hafa börnin verið; því læra börnin málið að það er fyrir þeim hatt; tvisvar verðr gamall maðrinn barn; bragð er at þá barnið finnr; snemma taka börn til meina; Guð gefr björg með barni, cp. Eggert (Bb.) 1. 14; sex börn, dætr þrjár ok þrjá sonu, Nj. 30, Ísl. ii. 198, Vsp. 36; eiga þrjá sonu barna, Fms. xi. 43; og svíkjast um að eiga börn, Eggert (Bb.) 1. 14; vera með barni, to be with child, Fms. ii. 212, i. 57, 68, Ísl. ii. 197; fara með barni, to go with child, Nj. 130; frá blautu barni, from a child, Fms. iii. 155; unni honum hvert barn, every child, i. e. every living creature, loved him, i. 17; hvert mannsbarn, every man: metaph. (rare), offspring, Niðrst. 10: barn, barnið gott, börn, barnið mitt (τέκνον, τέκνα) is with many a favourite term of endearment in talking with another, Látum líða og bíða, börn, Pál Vid. in a popular ditty: eptirlætisbarn, a pet, spoilt child; olbogabarn, a hard-treated child; óskabarn, a child of adoption; sveinbarn, a boy; meybarn, a girl; ungbarn, a baby.COMPDS: barna-börn, n. pl. grand-children, Grág. i. 185.  barna-eign, f. procreation of children, v. barneign.  barna-færi, n. the phrase, ekki b., no task for children, Þórð. 97 (1860).  barna-gaman, n. child's play, El. 1.  barna-karl, m. child's friend, nickname of an old pirate; hann var víkingr mikill, hann lét eigi henda börn á spjótsoddum sem þá var víkingum títt, því var hann b. kallaðr, he was a great pirate, but he did not spit babies as pirates then used to do, wherefore he was called b., Landn. 308; in mod. usage, one who has many children, mesti b.  barna-kensla, u, f. fathering a child upon one (kenna e-m barn), N. G. L. i. 410: mod. training children in a school.barna-leikr, m. a child's play, Grett. 107 A, vide barnleikr.  barna-messa, u, f., now barna-dagr, m. Holy Innocents' Day, Dec. 28, N. G. L. i. 377.  barna-mold, f. argilla apyra, also called Pétrs mold, argilla St. Petri, Eggert Itin. p. 125.  barna-mosi, a, m., botan. sphagnum cymbifolium, Hjalt.  barna-skap, n. in the phrase, hafa ekki b., to be no baby, Fs. 138.  barna-spil, n. a childish play, Fas. i. 88 paper MS.; spil is a Germ. for. word.  barna-vipr, n. childish trifles, gewgaws, Ld. 122.  barna-þattr, m. the section of law concerning infants, baptism, etc., in the Icel. Jus. Eccl., K. Þ. K. 8.  barns-aldr, m. childhood. Eg. 118, Fms. ii. 267.  barns-bein, n. in the phrase, frá blautu b., v. above, Al. 71.  barns-farir, f. pl. in the phrase, deyja af barnsförum, to die in childbed.barns-full, adj. pregnant, Pr. 185,—a rude phrase; Icel. now say, kálffull kýr, but not barnsfull kona.  barns-fylgja, u, f., medic. secundinae, a baby's caul, Björn.  barns-grátr, m. the cry of a baby, Fms. x. 218.  barns-hafandi, part. pregnant, Jb. 114.  barns-húfa, u, f. a baby's cap, D. N.  barns-lík, n. a baby's corpse, Hkr. iii. 184.  barns-mál, n. babble, El. 15.  barns-skírsl, f. infant baptism, N. G. L. i. 131 (Norse).  barns-sótt, f. = jóðsótt, the pains of childbirth, Bs. i. 327.  barns-útkast, n. and barns-útburðr, m. exposure of infants, N. G. L. i. 303.  barns-verk, n. child's work, Fms. ix. 35.

barna, að, to get with child, Nj. 98: metaph. in the phrase, að barna söguna, to interrupt a tale while being told.

barn-aldr, m. childhood, Hkr. ii. 35.

barn-alinn, part. native, Bs. i. 808.

barn-beri, a, m. pregnant, with child, N. G. L. i. 317.

barn-burðr, ar, m. childbearing, childbirth, Grág. i. 375.

barn-bær, f. capable of bearing children, opp. úbyrja, Grág. i. 323, Stj. 89: pregnant, Grág. i. 294.

barn-dómr, m. childhood, Stj. 195, 25, 655 xxx. 21.

barn-eign, f. getting children, Stj. 196: metaph. children, furðu illa b. gat Loki, Edda 20; vera ór b., to be past childbearing.

barn-eskja, u, f. [Goth. barniski], childhood, Hom. 122.

barn-faðir, m. a child's alleged father, H. E. 111.  barna-móðir was in popish times the name for a priest's concubine.

barn-fóstr, n. 'bairn-fostering,' a kind of adoption in olden times; at bjóða e-m b., to offer b. to another man, is a standing custom in the Sagas; men of wealth, but of low birth, in order to get security for their property, offered barnfóstr to noblemen, as in Ld. ch. 16 and ch. 28, Hænsa Þór. S. (Ísl. ii. 125), Harð. S. ch. 9 (Ísl. ii. 23); or it was done as a matter of policy, it being regarded as a homage to be the foster-father of another man's son; því at sá er mælt at sá sé útignari sem öðrum fóstrar barn, Fms. i. 16; ok er sá kallaðr æ minni maðr, er öðrum fóstrar barn, Ld. 108; thus Jon Loptsson offered b. to the young Snorri, in order to soothe the wounded pride of his father Sturla, Sturl. i. 106; Ari Frodi was fostered by Hall í Haukadal, Íb.; Njal offered to adopt as a son the young Hoskuld, in order to atone for the slaying of his father, Nj. ch. 95; cp. also the interesting story of the kings Harold and Athelstan and the young Hacon, Fms. i. l. c.: as a matter of friendship, Ld. 144, Bs. i. 73, 74, Sturl. i. 223, Ld. 25, and many other instances.  COMPD: barnfóstr-laun, n. pl. a reward, fee for b., N. G. L. i. 91.

barn-fóstra, u, f. a foster-mother of a child, Mar.; now a nurse.

barn-fóstri, a, m. a foster-father, Eg. 401, Ísl. ii. 144.

barn-fúlga, u, f. (now in Icel. meðgjöf), pay for the maintenance of a child, N. G. L. i. 30.

barn-fæddr, adj. part. native, Bs. i. 80; borinn ok b., born and bred.

barn-fæði, n. nativity; eiga b., to be a native, Fr.

barn-getnaðr, m. the procreation of children, Grág. i. 349, Greg. 29: pregnancy, Stj. 514.

BARNGOÐR—BAUGR. 53

barn-góðr, adj. fond of children.

barn-gælur, f. pl. lulling sounds, nursery rhymes, Fas. ii. 234.

barningr, m. [berja], thrashing, v. lamabarning: now, 'thrashing the water,' i. e. hard pulling against wind and tide.

barn-lauss, adj. childless. Eg. 318, Grág. i. 185, Landn. i. 304, Hkr. i. 99.

barn-leikar, m. pl. child's play; leika barnleikum, of play-fellows, Bs. i. 417, 473, Fms. vi. 403, Sturl. i. 62.

barn-leysi, n. the being childless, Stj. 428, Mar. 656.

barn-ligr, adj. childish, Sks. 153.

barn-maðr, m. the bearer of a baby to be christened; þar á at ala líkmenn ok barnmenn, Vm. 77.

barn-skikkja, u, f. a child's cloak, Sturl. iii. 278.

barn-skírn, f. the christening of infants, K. Þ. K. 14.  barnskírnar-orð, n. pl. formula in b., 655 xi.

barn-sæng, f. childbed, H. E. i. 492.

barn-teitr, adj. glad as a child, Hým. 2.

barn-ungr, adj. very young, youthful, Fms. ii. 98, Mirm. 31.

barn-úmagi, a, m. an orphan child, Grág. i. 305.

barn-úmegð, f. minority, Grág. i. 305.

barn-æði, n. childishness, Fél. 12. 56, transl. of Iliad ix. 491.

barn-æska, u, f. childhood, Eg. 116, Grág. ii. 392, Fms. i. 4, x. 273; bráð er b., the youth is impatient, a proverb, cp. Am. 75.

BARR, n. [Norse and Swed. barr means the needles of the fir or pine, opp. to 'lauf' or leaves of the ash, elm; cp. barlind, taxus baccata, and barskógr, 'needle-wood,' i. e. fir-wood, Ivar Aasen].  I. the needles or spines of a fir-tree; the word is wrongly applied by Snorri, Edda 11, who speaks of the 'barr' of an ash;—Icel. has no trees. In Hm. 50 (Norse poem?) it is correctly used of a pine, hrörnar þöll er stendr þorpi á, hlýrat henni börkr né b., Hkv. Hjörv. 16, Edda 11.  II. = barley, [Scot. and North. E. bear, A. S. bere, is four-rowed barley, a coarse kind; bigg in North. E. and Scot. is six-rowed barley, also a coarse kind: cp. 'the Bigg-market,' a street in Newcastle-upon-Tyne: barlog, sweet wort, made of barley, Ivar Aasen]; bygg heitir með mönnum, en barr með goðum, men call it 'bygg,' but gods 'bear,' which shews that barr sounded foreign, and that bygg was the common word, Alvm. 33; Edda (Gl.) 231 has b. under sáðsheiti, v. Lex. Poët. Common phrases in Icel., as bera ekki sitt barr, of one who will never again bear leaves or flourish, metaph. from a withered tree: so Persarum vigui rege beatior is rendered, lífs míns blómgaðra bar, en buðlungs Persa var, Snót 129.  barlegr, adj. vigorous, well-looking.

barr, adj. ready (paratus), Jd. 13: strong, vigorous, Lex. Poët.

barr-haddaðr, adj. barley-haired, poët. epithet of the earth, Lex. Poët.

barri, a, m. a grove, Skm. 39.

bar-skeptr, adj. high-shafted, of an axe; breiðöx b., Bs. i. 658.

bar-skógr, m. needle-wood.

bar-smíð, f. thrashing, flogging, Bs. i. 792, Grág. i. 456: pl. fight, row, Íb. 12, Grág. ii. 114.

BARÚN, m. [for. word, mid. Lat. baro; A. S. beornas], a baron; heita þeir hersar eðr lendir menn í Danskri tungu, greifar í Saxlandi, en barónar í Englandi, Edda 93, Thom., Art.; the title was introduced into Norway by king Magnus, A. D. 1277, vide Ann. s. a., Gþl. 512.  barúna-nafn, n. the title of b., Ann. l. c.

barúnia, u, f. a barony. Thom. 36.

bar-viðr, m. the wood of the fir, D. N. (Fr.) iii. 473.

bar-viðri, n. a beating storm, Sturl. iii. 127.

basinn, m. [for. word], basin xylinum, a tree, Edda (Gl.) ii. 256.

BASMIR, f. pl. an ἅπ. λεγ. in a verse in Hervar. S. (Ed. 1847), p. 56; bauð ek þér bróðir basmir óskerðar, fé ok fjöld meiðma; a dub. word, cp. Germ. besem, Engl. besom; mod. Germ. besen, North Germ. besemer, Dan. bismer (Icel. reizla), which are all connected. Ivar Aasen records a Norse word basm or basma; the Norse basm means twenty threads of the warp (basm here means loom?):—the Ed. in Fas. i. 207 gives a wrong spelling óskir tvær (qs. óskertar), and skips the word basmir.

bassi, a, m. a bear, Lex. Poët.

BAST, n.; besti (Vkv. 12) seems to be a dat. masc. from böstr; in Germ. the word is freq. used masc.; the passage l. c. is perh. to be restored thus—þeir er af létu besti (tiliae) byr sima (annulos), who did pull the rings from the cord? (cp. v. 8); [Engl., A. S., and Germ. bast]:—bast, the inner bark of the lime-tree; bast at binda, Rm. 9; bast né band, Gþl. 386, N. G. L. i. 59; sá þeir á bast bauga dregna, Vkv. 7.

basta, að, to bind into a parcel, D. N. ii. 560 (Fr.), Fms. v. 301.

bastarðr, m. bastard, appears for the first time as the cognom. of William the Conqueror. The etymon is dubious; Grimm suggests a Scandinavian origin; but this is very doubtful; the word never occurs in Scandinavian writers before the time of William, sounds very like a foreign word, is rarely used, and hardly understood by common people in Icel.; neither does it occur in A. S. nor O. H. G.; so that Adam of Bremen says, iste Willelmus quem Franci bastardum vocant; whence the word seems to come from some southern source; cp. the Játv. S. (Ed. 1852), and Fl. iii. 463 sqq.; the MS. Holm, spells bastarðr, the Fb. basthardr.  2. name of a sword, Fms. vii. 297, referring to A. D. 1163.  3. a kind of cloth, in deeds of the 14th and 15th centuries, Vm. 46, 136, D. N. ii. 165.

bastari, a, m. a bastbinder, D. N. ii. 246.

bast-bleikr, adj. pale as bast, Fms. vii. 269, v. l.

bastl, n. turmoil; bastla, að, to turmoil.

bast-lína, u, f. a cord of bast, Eg. 579.

bast-taug, f. a tie or cord of bast, Eg. 579, v. l.

bast-vesall, adj. = bastbleikr, Karl. 167.

bast-öx, f., prob. a false reading, Fas. 11. 177, v. l. bátöx.

BATI, a, m. improvement, advantage, Fs. 155, Grett. 113 A, Fas. ii. 247, Grág. (Kb.) i. 160.  bata-ván, f. hope of convalescence, recovery of health, cp. Grág. l. c.; cp. also ábati, gain.

batna, að, [v. bati; Ulf. gabatnan], to improve, get better, Nj. 52, Grág. i. 206.  2. impers. medic. term; e-m batnar, one recovers, Fms. iv. 369, v. 22; the disease is added in gen., e-m b. síns meins, sjúkleika, sóttar, Bs. i. 343, Hkr. ii. 312, Eb. 280: at present also with nom.: proverb, batnanda manni er bezt að lifa.

batnaðr, ar, m. improvement, 623. 15, Hom. 50, 134, Hkr. ii. 178: convalescence, Grág. ii. 45.

batnan, f. id., Lex. Poët.

baug-bót, f. a law term, compensation (v. baugr II.), Grág. ii. 173.

baug-bætandi, pl. -endr, part. a law term, those who have to pay the baugr (II.); opp. to baugþiggendr, the receivers, Grág. ii. 172.

baug-eiðr, m. the oath upon the sacred temple ring in heathen times; b. Óðinn hygg ek at unnit hafi, hvat skal hans trygðum trúa, Hm. 110; cp. the phrase, vinna eið at baugi, v. baugr below; the baugeiðr of heathen times answers to the Christian bókeiðr and vinna eið at bók, to swear, laying the band upon the Gospel.

baug-gildi, n. a law term, the 'weregild' to be paid to the 'agnates' of the slain; opp. to nefgildi, the same amount to be paid to the 'cognates;' defined, Grág. (Bt.) ii. 176, N. G. L. i. 186: metaph. agnatic relationship, vera ór b. eðr nefgildi, lifa í b. etc., to be an agnate or a cognate, id.  bauggildis-menn, m. pl. agnates who are bound to pay and receive the bauggildi, Grág. ii. 180.

baug-gildingr, m. = bauggildismaðr, cp. nefgildingr, Grág. ii. 178.

baug-gildr, adj. payable, fit to pay as bauggildi, N. G. L. i. 176.

BAUGR, m. [the root bjúg—baug—bog; A. S. beâg; O. H. G. pouc = armilla; lost in N. H. G. and in Engl.]  I. a ring, armlet, esp. in olden times to be worn on the wrist plain, without stones:  α. the sacred temple ring (stallahringr) on the altar in heathen temples; all oaths were to be made by laying the hand upon the temple ring; at sacrificial banquets it was to be dipped in the blood, and was to be worn by the priest at all meetings. The ring was either of gold or silver, open (mótlaus), its weight varying between two, three, and twenty ounces (the last is the reading of Eb. new Ed. p. 6, v. l., the classical passages in the Sagas are—Eb. l. c. (and cp. 44), Glúm. 388, Landn. (Hb.) 258, Þórð. S. 94 (Ed. 1860); cp. also the note at the end of the new Ed. of Eb., referring to an interesting essay of the Norse Prof. Holmboe upon the matter, Christiania, A. D. 1864.  β. baugr is at present in Icel. used of a spiral ring without a stone (e. g. a wedding ring); the third finger is called baugfingr, transl. from Lat. digitus annuli, for the wearing of wedding rings is not in use in Icel. (unless as a Dan. imitation). Icel. also say einbaugr, tvibaugr, a single or double spiral ring.II. metaph. in olden times, before minted gold or silver came into use, the metals were rolled up in spiral-formed rings, and pieces cut off and weighed were used as a medium of payment; hence, in old times, baugr simply means money, used in the poets in numberless compounds; hringum hreytti, hjó sundr baug, Rm. 35; cp. baugbroti, baugskyndir, baugskati, baughati, one who breaks, throws, hates gold, epithets of princes, etc., v. Lex. Poët. A. S. poetry abounds in epithets such as, beaggeafa, dator auri; the Heliand speaks of 'vunden gold.' In the law the payment of weregild is particularly called baugr, v. the compounds: baugatal is the Icel. section of law treating of the weregild, Grág. ii. 171-188; höfuðbaugr, lögbaugr (a legal baug, lawful payment). In the Norse law vide esp. N. G. L. i. 74 sqq., 184 sqq.  2. the painted circle on the round shield (clypeus); á fornum skjöldum var títt at skrifa rönd þá er b. var kallaðr, ok er við þann baug skildir kendir, Edda 87, Eg. 699; often embellished with scenes from the mythical age. Some poems are preserved or on record, describing such shields, two Berudrápur by Egil (bera, a shield), Haustlöng by Thjodolf, Ragnarsdrápa by Bragi Gamli (of the 9th and 10th centuries). Some of these poems were among the chief sources used by Snorri in composing the Edda. The shield is metaph. called baugr, Edda (Gl.)  3. a fish-hook; man eigi þú draga Leviathan á öngli eðr bora kiðr hans með baugi (very rare, if not an ἅπ. λεγ.), Post. 686 C. 2.  4. the phrase, eiga (kost) á baugi, to have (a single) chance left; þótti þat vera et mesta hætturáð at berjast, en sá mun á baugi, ef eigi er sæzt, there will be no other chance unless we come to terms, Sturl. iii. 244; þú munt eiga slíkan á baugi bratt, thou wilt soon have the very same chance (viz. death), the turn will come to thee, Nj. 58; nú mun ek eiga þann á baugi, at..., there will be no other chance for me, than ..., Orkn. 46; cp. einbeygðr kostr, dira necessitas, 58; kvaðst þá heldr vilja liggja hja

54 BAUGABROT—BÁSS.

henni, ef sá væri á baugi, if there were no other chance, Fas. ii. 150. The explanation of this metaphor is doubtful, cp. Vkv. verses 5 and 7 (?), or is the metaphor taken from the weregild ?  5. baugr also occurs in mod. usage in many compds, astron. and mathem., spor-baugr, the ecliptic; hádegisbaugr, a meridian.COMPDS: bauga-brot, n. pl. cut off pieces of baugr, bad money, Band. 12.  bauga-maðr, m. = bauggildismaðr, N. G. L. i. 81, 82, 186.  bauga-tal, n. the section of law about weregild, Grág. ii. 171-188:  β. fixing of the weregild, Grág. i. 158.  baugs-helgi, f. personal sacredness, (one's death to be atoned for by a weregild); þræll á b. á sér ef hann fylgir drottni sínum til þings ..., N. G. L. i. 70.

baug-reið, f. a law term, an official inspection (in Norway) to measure the breadth of the highway, defined, Gþl. 412-414.

baug-rygr, jar, f. pl. ir, a law term, an only daughter entitled to receive and pay weregild, in default of heirs male. The Norse law defines thus, ef hon er einberni, ok til arfs komin, þar til er hón sezt á brúðstól, ... up to her wedding day, N. G. L. i. 184, 92: the Icel. law does not limit the right to her marrying; sú er kona ein er bæði skal baugi bæta ok baug taka, ef hon er einberni, en sú kona heitir b., en hon er dóttir hins dauða, Grág. ii. 183.

baug-þak, n. [þekja baug], a law term, 'baug-covering,' i. e. the supplemental payment to be added in due proportion to the amount of weregild (baugr), defined, Grág. ii. 171, 172; hence 'at baugþaki' metaph. means in addition, to boot; þá kom at honum síðan at b. brotfallit, he was taken with fits of epilepsy to boot, Bs. i. 336.

baug-þiggjandi, pl. -endr, part. a receiver of weregild.

BAUKA, að, [Swed. böka], prop. to dig, to rummage; hann b. til fiskanna, viz. in order to steal them, Grett. 137; aldri skal ek í belginn bauka, says the giant in the tale, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 458.

BAULA, u, f. a cow, Bs. i. 635.  COMPDS: baulu-fall, n. the carcase of a slaughtered cow, Bs. i. 593.  baulu-fótr, m. cow's foot, cognom., Sturl. iii, 71; mod. baula, að, to low.

BAUN, f. [A. S. bean, cp. Lat. faba], a bean, Gþl. 544, Rb. 394.  bauna-lögr, m. bean-broth, Karl. 452.

bausn, f. the fore fins of a shark, Björn.

BAUTA, the remnant of an obsolete strong verb analogous to hlaupa—hljóp, [A. S. beâtan; Engl. beat; Germ. botzen, pulsare], to hunt, beat; bautu, 1st pers. pl. pres. indic., Fms. v. 83 (Ó. H. 1853 spells bavtu); svá bavtu vér björnuna, so do we beat (chase) the bears, Gs. 13: part. pass. bautinn, beaten, slain, Lex. Poët. s. v. sverðbautinn; Farbauti, beater of ships, is the name of the giant father of Loki; hylbauti, beater of the waves, a ship, Edda (Gl.); cp. Swed. bauter, strings for catching birds, Ihre.

bauta-steinn, Snorri (Hkr.) constantly uses the pl. form, but bautaðarsteinn, Fagrsk. 19, and bautarsteinn, Hm. 72; m. the stone monuments of the olden age, esp. in Sweden and Denmark; the Hávamál l. c. (sjaldan bautarsteinar standa brautu nær, nema reisi niðr at nið) tells us that these stones used to be placed along the high roads, like the sepulchral monuments of old Rome; cp. the standing phrase on the Swedish-Runic stones—her skal standa steinn 'naer brautu;' or, má eigi 'brautar-kuml' (a road monument) betra verða; the high roads of old Sweden seem to have been lined with these monumental stones; even at the present time, after the destruction of many centuries, the Swedish-Runic stones (of the 11th and 12th centuries) are counted by thousands. A great collection was made and drawings executed during the 17th century (Buræus, etc.), but only published A. D. 1750, under the name of Bautil. The etymology of this word is much contested; some render it by 'stones of the slain' (bauta, to slay), but this is contradicted by the passage in Hm. l. c. and by the inscriptions themselves. The bauta stones were simply monuments erected by the piety of kindred and friends without any respect to sex or manner of death, either in war, on sea, or through sickness; some were even erected to the memory of living persons. They were usually tombstones; but many of them are memorial stones for men that died in foreign lands, Greece, Russia, the British Islands, etc. Neither is Snorri right in saying (Hkr. pref.) that the bautasteinar belonged to the old burning age (brunaöld), and were replaced by the cairns (haugar) in the subsequent cairn age (haugaöld)—þá skyldi brenna alla dauða menn ok reisa eptir bautasteina, en síðan er Freyr hafði heygðr verit at Uppsölum þá görðu margir höfðingjar eigi síðr hauga en bautasteina. Svíar tóku lík hans ok var hann brendr við á þá er Skúta heitir, þar vóru settir bautasteinar hans, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 17—the passage in Hávamál and the monuments refute this statement. The great bulk of the Scandinavian bauta stones seem to be of the 11th and even 12th century. In Icel. no stones of that time are on record: var hann þá her heygðr skamt frá bænum, ok settir upp bautasteinar, þeir er enn standa her, Hkr. i. 269; hávir bautasteinar standa hjá haugi Egils ullserks, 153,—where Fagrsk. reads, í þau skip var lagðr í valrinn, ok orpnir þar haugar utan at; þar stendr ok bautaðarsteinn (= bautarsteinn in Hm.?) hár sem Egill féll, p. 19;—en eptir alia þá menn er nokkut mannsmót var at, skyldi reisa bautasteina, ok hélzt sa siðr lengi síðan, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 8. It is worth remarking that the Word 'bautasteinn' never occurs out of Icel. literature, and there only in the above passages, viz. once in the old Hm., once in the Fagrsk., four times in the Hkr., whence it has passed over to modern writers. The word is most probably only a corruption from brautarsteinar, lapides viae, (by dropping the r); cp. the analogous Swedish word, brautarkuml, monumentum viae, which occurs in the inscriptions themselves.

BÁÐIR, adj. pron. dual, gen. beggja, neut. bæði rarely, (Norse); báði, gen. báðra, sometimes occur in MSS. of the 14th century, but both of them are Norse forms, [Goth. bai, baioþs; A. S. ba; Engl. both; Germ. beide; cp. also Gr. ἄμφω, Lat. ambo]:—both, Nj. 82, Sturl. iii. 314, Eg. 257, Grág. i. 368, N. G. L. i. 33, Ísl. ii. 348, Fms. x. 118, etc. etc.

BÁGI, a, m. (not bagi), an adversary, Stor. 23, Lex. Poët.

bágindi, n. pl. distress, difficulties.

bágliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), adversely, Vígl. 30.

bág-lundr, adj. ill-disposed, bad-tempered, Lex. Poët.

bágr, adj. uneasy; honum verðr bag höndin, Fas. iii. 370: eiga bágt is now in Icel. to be poor, hard up: bág-staddr, adj. distressed.

bágr, m. [cp. Hel. bâgan = contendere, and Icel. bægja below], contest, strife, in such phrases as, fara í bág, to come athwart; fór í bag með þeim, they came across, Bjarn. 28; í bága (pl.), Bs. i. 622; brjóta bág við e-m, to make a struggle against, Al. 49; Páll postuli braut þar helzt bág við ávalt er öðrum þótti torveldast, Post. 656 C. 24, Fms. viii. 42; koma í bága við, to come into strife or collision with.

bág-ráðr, adj. difficult to deal with, Fms. ii. 11.

bág-rækr, adj. difficult to drive, of geese, Grett. 90.

BÁKN. n. for. word [A. S. bêcn; O. H. G. pauhan], a beacon, v. sigrbákn: bákn now means a big, monstrous thing.

bákna, að, [A. S. bêcnan], to beckon; þeir báknuðu vápnunum til þeirra Hákonar, Fms. vii. 276, xi. 366.

BÁL, n. [old Scot. bale, i. e. a beacon-fagot, Lay of Last Minstrel 3. 27 note].  I. a flame, Nj. 199, Ld. 100, Stj. 45 (freq.)  II. Lat. rogus, a pyre, funeral pile; hlaða b., rogum struere, Eb. 314, 264; Fms. v. 328, esp. for burning dead bodies; a funeral pile in the old heathendom, til brands eðr báls, an old law term, ad urnam, N. G. L. i. 50: the phrase, vega e-n á bál, or, bera á bal, to carry to the pyre, Vkv. 14, cp. Vþm. 54, Fas. i. (Hervar. S.) 487; graphical description of those funerals, vide Edda 37, 38 (Baldrsbrenna), Fas. i. (Völs. S.) 204; cp. 333, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 27; cp. also the funeral of the mythical king Sigurd Ring, recorded by Arngrim Lærde in his Supplementum ad Compendium Hist. Norv. MS. (composed A. D. 1597), probably taken from a lost leaf of Skjöldunga Saga (Sögubrot), and mentioned by Munch, Norske Folks Hist. i. 274: mod. of a foaming wind, wrath, etc.—bálviðri, n. and bálhvass, bálreiðr, adj., etc.

bál-för, f. a funeral, Edda 37.

bál-gerð, f. id., Edda (Ub.) 288 (Ed. 1852).

bálki, a, m., v. the following word.

BÁLKR, old form bꜵ́lkr, Grág., dat. bælki, N. G. L. i. 399, acc. pl. bꜵ́lku or bálku, Lex. Poët. [A. S. bälc], a balk, partition [cp. naval bulk-heads]; b. um þveran hellinn, of a cross wall, Fms. iii. 217, Fas. ii. 333, Grett. 140; sá studdi höndunum á bálkinn, of a balk of wood across the door, Orkn. 112.  β. a low wall in a stall or house, N. G. L. i. 399.  2. metaph. a law term, a section in a code of law; þjófa bálkr, Kristindóms b., etc., criminal, ecclesiastical law ..., Grág., Jb.  γ. a body, a host, in compds as frændbálkr, ættbálkr, herbálkr; sýndist honum úárenniligr b. þeirra, of a host in line of battle, Bs. i. 667; a pr. name.  COMPDS: bálkar-brot, n. the breaking a fence, crib, Gþl. 350, 391.  bálkar-lag, n. a sort of metre (from a pr. name Balkr), Edda (Ht.) 142.

BÁRA. u, f. [berja ?], a wave, billow, v. alda; as a rule bára denotes the smaller waves caused by the wind (on the surface of larger billows), alda the rollers or swell, Bs. ii. 82, Fas. i. 186, Fms. x. 324 (of a breaker = boði), Gkv. 1. 7: the proverb, sigla milli skers ok báru, cp. inter Scyllam et Charybdin, Fms. ii. 268, Fb. iii. 402; sjaldan er ein báran stök, there is seldom a single billow: of misfortune, cp. Aesch. Prom. 1015 κακῶν τρικυμία, cp. also Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 660.  β. metaph. of undulations or rough stripes on the surface of a thing, e. g. the crust of a cheese, Fs. 146; a scull, cp. Eg. 769: báruskel, f. cardia testa cordata pectinata, a shell, Eggert Itin. p. 1010.  COMPDS: báru-fall; n. a swell at sea, Al. 50.  báru-skel, f., v. above.  báru-skot, n. waves from a fresh breeze, wrinkling the surface of the sea, Hkr. i. 59.  báru-stormr, m. an unruly sea, Stj. 89.  báru-stórr, adj. the waves running high, Bs. ii. 82, Fas. i. 72; vide mót-bára, objection.

bár-óttr, adj. waved, of a skull, Eg. 769.

bása, að, = bæsa, to drive cattle into a stall, Gísl. 104.

bás-hella, u, f. a stone wall between two stalls in a cowhouse, Grett. 112.

BÁSS, m. [Ulf. bansts = ἀποθήκη); A. S. bós; Engl. provincial boose; Germ. banse], a boose or stall in a cowhouse; kýr á bási, binda kú á bás, etc., Bjarn. 32, Bs. 5. 171; a cow and a bás go together, e. g. in the nursery rhyme lulling children to sleep; sofi, sofi ... selr í sjá ... kyr á

BÁSUNA—BEINI. 55

bási, köttr í búri..., cp. the Engl. in the cow's boose, Bosworth s. v.; bás, bás is an interj. exclam. for driving cows into stall: also used in Icel. of basins formed in rocks, e. g. at the foot of a waterfall; in local names, Básar, Básendar, etc.: the phrase, hafa sér markaðan bás, to have one's course of life marked out, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 538; einginn veit sér ætlaðan bás í örlaganna solli, no one knows what boose is kept for him in the turmoil of the fates, Grönd. 194; vide bjarnbáss.

BÁSUNA, u, f. (for. word), bassoon, Fas. ii. 511.

bát-festr, f. a rope by which a boat is made fast, Jb. 398, 655 xvii.

bát-lauss, adj. and bátleysi, n. being without a boat, Eb. 142, Jb. 399.

bát-maðr, m. a boatman, Hkr. iii. 128, Fms. vi. 320.

BÁTR, m. [a Scandin. and Low Germ. word used in A. S., Engl., Dutch, but alien to O. H. G. and middle H. G.; even Luther (v. Grimm s. v.) never uses the word; it was later introduced into mod. High Germ., but has a foreign sound there, (Engl. t answers to High Germ. z); the word is in Germ. borrowed from Dutch or English]:—a boat, either a small open fishing vessel or a ship-boat. In Icel. only small boats are called so, those of two or four oars; an eight-oared boat is a 'ship,' Eg. 121, 373, Eb. 142, Nj. 122, Jb. 398, Bs. 1. 422, 423: in phrases, ausa bát sinn, Fms. vii. 331; sjá fyrir báti sínum, to go one's own course, to mind one's own business, Sturl. iii. 247: alliteration, eiga bygð í báti, metaph., Bs. i. 422.  COMPDS: báts-borð, n. the side of a boat, Sturl. i. 119.  báts-farmr, m. a boat's freight, Ann. 1342.

bát-stafn, m. a boat's prow, Fms. viii. 223.

beð n. a bed in a garden, (mod. and rare, cp. reitr.)

beð-dúkr, m. a bed-covering, Dipl. iii. 4.

beðja, u, f., poët. a wife, bed-fellow, Lex. Poët.

beð-mál, n. pl. a curtain lecture, Hm. 85.

BEÐR, jar, m. pl. ir, [Ulf. badi; Hel. bed; A. S. bedd; Engl. bed; Germ. bett], a bed; in Icel. sæng is the common word, beðr poët. and rare; in the N. T. κράββατον is always rendered by sæng (tak sæng þína og gakk, Mark ii. 9); beðr is used in alliterative phrases, e. g. beðr eðr blæja, Jb. 28; í beðjum eðr bólstrum, N. G. L. i. 351; deila beð ok blíðu, φιλότητι καὶ ἐυνῇ Od. v. 126; and mostly in the sense of bolster; saxit nam í beðinum staðar, Ld. 140, Gísl. 114: the sea-shore is poët. called sævar-beðir (sofa ek né mátta'k sævarbeðjum á, Edda 16 (in a verse); hvíl-beðr, a resting bed, Akv. 30; rísa upp við beð, to lift the body against the pillow, Bkv. 2. 23: the conjugal bed, bjóða á beð, Ls. 52; sitja á beð, Gh. 19; ganga á beð e-m, to marry, 14: pl., sofa á beðjum, Hm. 96, 100: metaph. a swelling sea, lauðr var lagt í beði (acc. pl.), Fms. vi. 180 (in a verse); cp. skýbólstrar, 'bolster-clouds,' heavy piles of cloud.COMPDS: beðjar-dýna, u, f. a feather-bed, Vm. 177.  beðjar-ver, n. a bolster case, Dipl. 4.

beð-vina, u, f. = beðja, Lex. Poët.

begla, u, f. [bagr], a bungle; sem b. hjá fögru smíði, hence the name Rímbegla, Rb. (pref.)

BEIÐA, dd, [cp. A. S. beade; Old Engl. bead-roll, bidding-prayer, bedes-man; biðja, bað, beðið, Lat. orare, and bíða, beið, beðit, Lat. expectare.]  I. to ask, beg, with the notion of right; almost as a law term, to request [but biðja, orare]; b. e-n e-s, or b. e-m (for one) e-s; beiða griða Baldri, Edda 36, Gs. verse 2; beiða sér bjargkviðar búa sína fimm, Grág. i. 113, 275; b. sonar bóta, Nj. 21; b. e-s af e-m, Fms. i. 47: with acc., in the law term, b. lögbeiðing, to make a lawful request, Grág. (freq.); ef hann vill eigi eið vinna þá er hann er beiddr (requested) þá verðr hann sekr um þat tólf mörkum, þá er hann beiddr (requested) er hann er beðinn (asked), K. Þ. K. 146: adding út, b. e-s út, to request the payment of a right, etc., Gþl. 375; b. til e-s, to request, 656 B.  β. reflex., beiðast, to request on one's own behalf; b. laga, Ld. 76; fars, Grág. i. 90; griða, Fms. viii. 423, x. 172, Nj. 10, 76, Eg. 239, Fms. i. 11: in active sense, Land. 293; beiðast út réttar sins, to claim as one's right, Gþl. 187: with infin., Grág. i. 489: with 'at' and a subj., Fms. i. 12, Grág. i. 7.  II. [Dan. bede], as a hunting term, to hunt, chase; b. björnu, to hunt beara: part. beiddr and beiðr, hunted about, Gísl. 112; hann kvað sveininn hafa verið illa beiddan, Fs. 69, Mirm. 39: the phrase by Kormak, sá er bindr beiðan (i. e. beiddan) hún, seems to mean one who pinions the young hunted bear, viz. as if it were sheep or cattle, Edda 96 (in a verse), symbolical of the earl Sigurd, a mighty Nimrod, who surpassed the wild deer in strength and swiftness; beiðr (= beiddr) fór ek heiman at biðja þín Guðrún, Am. 90, seems to mean hunted by love, amore captus: the verse of Kormak,—bands man ek beiða rindi, fascinating, charming woman (?), by whom the poet is made prisoner in love; cp. the poët. compds beiði-hlökk, beiði-sif, beiði-rindr, all epithets of women, Lex. Poët., v. beita.

beiðing and beiðning (Mar. Fr.), f. request, demand, El. 11: waiting, Fms. viii. 151 (dub. reading).

beiðni, f. a request, demand, Fms. i. 208; pl., 655 iii. 4; holds b., carnal lust, Hom. 17, 25 (Lat. petulantia).

beiðsla, u, f. a request, demand, Sturl. iii. 231, Sks. 772.  beiðslu-maðr, m. a person asking, Sks. 776, Anecd. 88.

BEIGR or beygr, m. fear; hafa b. af e-m (freq.):—beiguðr, m. an athlete, one who inspires fear (?), Edda.

BEIMAR, m. pl. [etym. uncertain], poët. men, heroes, the followers of king Beimi, according to Edda 109; it is more likely that it is a relation to Engl. beam, beaming, and means illustrious, Lex. Poët.

BEIN, n. a word common to the Teut. idioms and peculiar to them; [the Goth. word is not on record, as Luke xxiv. 39 and John xix. 36 are lost in Ulf.; A. S. bân; Engl. bone; Germ. bein; Swed.-Dan. ben (been). Sansk., Gr., Lat., and the Slav, languages agree in a totally different root; Sansk. asthi; Gr. ὀστέον; Lat. os; the Slav. branch all with an initial c, cp. the Lat. costa. Vide Grimm (s. v.), who suggests a relation to Gr. βαίνω; but the native Icel. words beinn, rectus, and beina, promovere, are more likely roots; the original sense might thus be crus, Gr. σκέλος, but Lat. os the secondary one]:—a bone.  I. spec. the leg from the knee to the foot; freq. in Swed. and Dan., but very rare and nearly obsolete in Icel., where leggr is the common word; hosa strengd at beini, Eg. 602, Fms. x. 331; kálfar á beinum fram, N. G. L. i. 339.  II. gener. = Lat. os, a bone, but originally the bones with marrow (Germ. knochen), as may be inferred from the passages, þá er mergund ef b. er í sundr til mergjar, þat er mergr er í, Grág. ii. 11, i. 442, Fms. vii. 118, Vápn. 21, Fas. i. 66, Vígl. 20; stór bein í andliti, with a strongly-marked, high-boned face, Band. 7, whence stórbeinóttr, q. v.; viðbeina, a collar-bone; höfuðbein, pl. head-bones, the scull around the temples and the forehead; er gamlir grisir skyldu halda mér at höfuðbeinum, Grett. (in a verse); strjúka höfuðbeinin; málbein, os loquendi, a small bone in the head; hence the phrase, láta málbeinið ganga, of one talking incessantly and foolishly: metaph. in phrases, láta ganga með beini, to deal blows to the very marrow, deal severely, Ld. 230; hafa bein í hendi (the Danes say, have been i næsen), to have a boned hand, i. e. strength and power, Hrafn. 10, Al. 29.  2. pl. relics, remains (ashes); the phrase, bera bein, to repose, rest, be buried; far þú út til Íslands, þar mun þér auðit verða beinin at bera, Grett. 148, Nj. 201; ok iðrast nú að aptr hvarf að bera b. blá við hrjóstr, Bjarni, 57:—of the relics of saints, Bs. 468, 469; hence beina-færsla, u, f. removal of bones (translatio); in the Catholic age, when churches were removed, the churchyard was dug up and the bones removed also, vide Eb. (in fine), Bjarn. 19, K. Þ. K. 40, Eg. (in fine).  COMPDS: beina-vatn, n. water in which relics have been washed, Bs. ii. 173. Fél. ix. records many medic. terms; beina-grind, f. a skeleton; bein-áta, u, f. necrosis, caries ossium; bein-brot, fractura ossium, Lv. 68, Grág. ii. 17; bein-kröm, f. rachitis: bein-kveisa, u, f. osteocopus; bein-sullr, m. sarcostosis; bein-verkir, m. pl. lassitudo febrilis dolorosa universalis, Gísl. 48, cp. Fél. ix. As a poët. circumlocution, the stone is foldar bein, bone of the earth; sævarbein, bone of the sea, Hit., Edda (Ht.) 19, 23; cp. the Gr. myth of Deucalion.

beina, d.  I. to stretch out, to put into motion; b. flug, of birds, to stretch the wings for flight, Edda 13, Orkn. 28; b. skrið, of a serpent, Stj. 98; b. raust, to lift up the voice, speak loud, Gísl. 57.  II. metaph. to promote, forward; b. för (ferð) e-s, to help one forwards, Fms. vi. 63, Grág. i. 343, Bret. 38; b. til með e-m, to lend one help; ek vil b. til með þér bænum mínum, I will assist thee in my prayers, Bs. i. 472; b. e-u til e-s, to contribute to a thing; þessu vii ek b. til brennu þinnar, Fb. i. 355; b. at með e-m, to help, assist one; hlauptú hér út, ok mun ek b. at með þér, Nj. 201; b. at e-u, to lend a hand to, Bjarn. 64; b. fyrir e-m, to entertain, of alms or hospitable treatment (whence beini); b. fyrir fátækum, Post. 656 B.

bein-brjóta, braut, to break one's bones, Bárð. 167.

bein-brot, n. the fracture of bone, v. above.

bein-fastr, adj., b. sár, a wound to the bone, Sturl. ii. 222, 655 xi.

bein-fiskr, m., v. beitfiskr.

bein-gjald, n. a law term, compensation for a lesion of bone, N. G. L. i. 172.

bein-gróinn, part. healed (of a bone fracture), Fas. ii. 295.

bein-hákall, m. squalus maximus.

bein-hinna, u, f. periosteum.

bein-högg, n. a blow injuring the bone, opp. to svöðu sár, Sturl. i. 13.

beini, m. help, but exclusively used of hospitable entertainment, kind treatment, hospitality; vinna, veita, e-m beina, Eb. 268; þykir yðr eigi sá b. beztr, at yðr sé borð sett ok gefinn náttverðr ok síðan fari þér at sofa, Eg. 548; ofgörr er beininn, too much trouble taken, too much attendance, Lv. 38 (Ed. badly 'beinan'); höfðu þar blíðan beina, Fms. ii. 248, iv. 336; mikit er nú um beina þinn, what hospitable treatment! Ísl. ii. 155, Bjarn. 53-55, Fas. i. 79: ganga um beina, to wait upon the guests, in old times (as at present in Icel.) an honourable task; in great banquets the lady or daughter of the house, assisted by servants, did this office; Þórhildr (the daughter) gékk um beina, ok báru þær Bergþóra (the mother) mat á borð, Nj. 50, cp. Lv. l. c., Fms. xi. 52; Hít (the hospitable giantess) gékk um b., Bárð. 174; Þiðrandi (the son of the house) gékk um beina, Fms. ii. 194;—but it is added, 'because he was humble and meek,' for it was not regarded as fit work for a man; cp. þá er konur gengu um b. um dagverð, Sturl. i. 132.  COMPDS: beina-bót,

56 BEINAMAÐR—BEKKR.

f. accommodation, comfort for guests; þar var mörgu við slegit til b., 625. 96; sagði at honum þætti þat mest b. at eldr væri kveyktr fyrir honum, Fas. i. 230; þar var jafnan nýtt mjöl haft til beinabótar, Sturl. i. 23.  beina-maðr, m. a promoter, H. E. ii. 93.  beina-spell, n. spoiling of the comfort of the guests, Bs. i. 313, Sturl. i. 22.  beina-þurfi, adj. ind. in need of hospitable treatment, Fas. iii. 373.

bein-knúta, u, f. a joint bone, Bs. ii. 82.

bein-kross, n. a cross of bone, Magn. 512.

bein-lauss, adj. without bone, Fas. i. 251.

bein-leiðis, adv. directly, Fas. iii. 444.

bein-leiki, a, m. hospitable treatment, Lv. 5, Eg. 577, Fas. i. 77.

BEINN, adj., compar. beinni, superl. beinstr or beinastr.  I. Gr. ὄρθος, Lat. rectus, opp. to wry or curved, in a straight line; b. rás, a straight course, Sks. 217; beinstr vegr, the straightest, shortest way, Fms. ix. 361, Bs. ii. 132 (very freq.): neut. beint, beinast, used as adv. straight; sem beinst á þá, Eg. 386; svá beint, straight on, 742: just, þat kom mér beint (just) í hug, Fms. vi. 213, 369, 371; b. sextigi skipa, precisely sixty ships, xi. 114; nú beint, just now, iv. 327; var hann þá beint í andláti, just breathed his last, vi. 230.  2. metaph. hospitable; Dagstyggr tók við honum forkunnar vel, ok var við hana hinn beinasti, Sturl. ii. 125; varla náðu þeir at stíga af baki, svá var bóndi beinn við þá, Ísl. ii. 155; Björn var allbeinn við hann um kveldit, Fms. ii. 84; var kerling hin beinasta í öllu, Fas. iii. 394: also as epithet of the inn or house, þar er svá beint (such hospitality), at varla þykkja þeir hafa komit í beinna stað, ... in a more hospitable house, i. 77; sváfu af þá nótt, ok vóru þeir í allbeinum stað, Eb. 268.  II. [bein, crus], in compds, berbeinn, bare-legged, Hbl. 6: as a cognom. of king Magnus from the dress of the Highlanders assumed by him, Fms. vii; harðbeinn, hard-legged, cognom., Ld.; mjóbeinn, tape-legged, a nickname, Landn.; Kolbeinn, pr. name, black-legged; hvítbeinn, white-legged, pr. name, Landn., etc. etc.

BEINN, m. ebony, Edda (Gl.), v. basinn.

bein-serkr, m., medic. 'bone-jack,' an abnormal growth, by which the under part of the thorax (the lower ribs) is attached to the spine; as a cognom., Fas. iii. 326; cp. Björn s. v.

bein-skeyti, n. a straight-shooting, good shot, Fms. vii. 120, v. 337, viii. 140, v. l.

bein-skeyttr, adj. straight-shooting, a good shot, Fms. ii. 320.

bein-stórr, adj. big-boned, Sturl. i. 8.

bein-stökkull, m. a sprinkle (stökkull) of bone, Am. 105.

bein-vaxinn, part. straight-grown, tall and slim.

bein-veggr, m. a wedge of bone, A. A. 270.

bein-verkr, v. bein.

bein-viði, n. and beinviðr, m. ebony, Sks. 90, Bær. 16; Lat. ilex.

bein-víðir, m. salix arbuscula, Hjalt.

bein-vöxtr, m. bone-growth, bonyness; lítill (mikill) beinvöxtum, of small (big) frame, Bs. i. 328.

beiska and beiskja, u, f. bitterness, harshness, sourness, Sks. 532 B.

beiskaldi, a, m., Lat. acerbus, a nickname, Sturl.

beiskleiki, a, and beiskleikr, s, m. bitterness, harshness, sourness; Marat, þat er b., Stj. 290, Rb. 336 of sulphur: metaph. acrimony, b. í brjósti, Post. 656 C; hjartans b.; bitr b., Stj. 51, 421, Sks. 730 B, Magn. 502, Bs. i. 743.

beiskliga, adv., esp. in the phrase, gráta b., to weep bitterly, Fms. x. 367, Th. 6, the Icel. transl. of Luke xxii. 62; grenja (to howl) b., Fms. x. 256: bitterly, grimly, bera sik b. hér í móti, Stj. 143.

beiskligr, adj. bitter.

BEISKR, adj. [Dan. beedsk; Swed. besk; it is always spelt with s (not z) in the MSS., and cannot therefore well be traced to bíta, qs. beitskr]:—bitter, sour, acrid; salt vatn ok b., Stj. 93; beiskar súrur, bitter herbs, 279. Exod. xii. 8; b. drykkr; amara, þat er b. at vóru máli, 421, 625. 70, Sks. 539: metaph. bitter, Th. 6: exasperated, grim, angry, smalamaðr sagði Hallgerði vígit; hon varð beisk við, Nj. 60, Al. 122.

BEISL, n. a bridle, freq. in old vellum MSS. spelt beils, Fs. 128, 62, Fms. x. 86, xi. 256 C; with z, beizl or mod. beizli, Sks. 84, 87 new Ed., N. G. L. ii. 115, Grett. 122, Fms. viii. 52, v. l., Fas. ii. 508; beisl (with s), Karl. 4, Grág. i. 439 (Eb. and Sb.), Stj. 206, Nj. 33, Fms. x. 86, Flov. 26, etc. The word is not to be derived from bíta; this may with certainty be inferred from comparison with the other Teut. idioms, and even in the Roman tongues we find r after the first letter: A. S. bridle and bridels; O. H. G. brittill; Dutch bridel; Engl. bridle; these forms seem to point to the Lat. frenum; the Scandin. idioms seem to have elided the r; Swed. betsel; Dan. bidsel; Icel. beils and beisl or beizl; many words referring to horse taming and racing are not genuine Scandinavian, but of foreign extraction; so is söðull, saddle, derived from A. S. saðol, Lat. sedile.COMPDS: beisl-al, f. bridle-rein, Flov.  beisl-hringr, m. bridle-ring, Fs. 62.  beisl-tamr, adj. used to the bridle, Grág. i. 439.  beisl-taumar, m. pl. bridle-reins, Fms. xi. 256, Sturl. iii. 314; cp. bitull.

beisla, að, to bridle, Stj. 206.

BEIT, n.  I. pasturage, Grág. ii. 224, 263, 286; á beit, grazing: [in England the rector of a parish is said to have 'the bite' of the churchyard.]  COMPDS: beitar-land, n. a pasture land.beitar-maðr, m. owner of a pasture, Grág. ii. 286, Jb. 245.  beitar-tollr, m. a toll or fee for pasturage.II. poët. a ship, Lex. Poët.

BEIT, f. a plate of metal mounted on the brim, e. g. of a drinking horn, the carved metal plate on an old-fashioned saddle, Fms. iii. 190; skálir með gyltum beitum, B. K. 84, Bs. ii. 244; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 6. 28 (Germani urorum cornua) a labris argento circumcludunt.

beita, u, f. bait, Bs. ii. 179, Hým. 17, Edda 38; now esp. for fish, and used in many compds, e. g. beitu-fjara, u, f. the shore where shell-fish for bait are gathered; beitu-lauss, adj.; beitu-leysi, n., etc.

BEITA, tt, [v. bíta, beit, mordere], prop. mordere facere.I. to graze, feed sheep and cattle; the animals in dat., b. svínum, Grág. ii. 231; nautum, Eg. 721: the pasture in acc., b. haga, Grág. ii. 224, 225; engi, 228; afrétt, 302, 329; land, 329, Eg. 721: absol., Grág. ii. 249: with 'í' and dat., b. í skógi, 299: 'í' with acc., b. svínum í land annars manns, 231: b. upp land (acc.), to spoil the pasture by grazing, lay it bare; beittust þá upp allar engjar, Eg. 712: with dat., b. upp (to consume) engjum ok heyjum, Fms. vi. 104.  II. to handle, manage a (cutting) instrument; with dat., b. skutli, a harpoon, Fbr. 144; sverði, a sword, Fms. viii. 96, xi. 270; vápnum, 289.  III. a nautical term, to cruise, prop. to let the ship 'bite' the wind; undu þeir segl sin ok beittu út at Njörvasundum allfagran byr, Orkn. 356; beita þeir í brott frá landinu, Ld. 76; fengu þeir beitt fyrir Skotland, they sailed round, weathered S., Eg. 405; beittu þá sem þverast austr fyrir landit, 161; b. undir veðrit, to tack, Fb. i. 511; b. í haf út, Orkn. 402: metaph., varð jafnan þeirra hlutr betri, er til hans hnigu, en hinna, er frá beittu, who steered away from him, Fms. viii. 47.  IV. a hunting term, to hunt (cp. beiða), the deer in acc., the dogs or hawks in dat.; b. e-n hundum, to set hounds on him; konungr sagði at hann skyldi afklæða, ok b. hundum til bana, Fms. ii. 173, x. 326; beita haukum, to chase with hawks, Fas. i. 175: to chase, svá beitum vér björnuna, Hkr. ii. 369 MS. B, vide bauta; hann ... hafði beitt fimm trönur, be had caught five cranes, Fagrsk. 77, where Hkr. l. c. has 'veitt;' svá beitu vér bjarnuna á mörkinni norðr, sagði hann, O. H. L. 70, cp. above; verðr Salomon konungr varr at dýr hans eru beitt, Þiðr. 231; þeir beita bar mart dýr, hjörtu ok björnu ok hindr, 232: metaph. and reflex., b. e-m, sögðu þeir mundu eigi þeim birni beitast, at deila um mál hans við ofreflismenn slíka, they said they would not hunt that bear, Ölk. 34: metaph., b. e-n brögðum, vélum, vélræðum..., to hunt one down with tricks or schemes; þykist þér nú allmjök hafa komizt fyrir mik í viti, ok beittan brögðum í þessu, Ísl. ii. 164; vélum, 623; úlögum, Sks. 22; illú, Fas. i. 208: recipr., við höfum opt brögðum beizt, ... schemed against each other, Fms. xi. 263; stundum beittust þau velræðum, i. 57.  β. to bait; the bait in dat., the angle in acc.  V. to yoke to, of horse or cattle for a vehicle, the cattle almost always in acc.; þá vóru yxn fyrir sleða beittir, Eb. 172; bjó sér vagn ok beitti hest, Fms. x. 373, Gkv. 2. 18; ok beittu fyrir tvá sterka yxn, Eb. 176, Grett. 112, Stj. 206: with dat., b. hestum, vagni, to drive; but acc., beittu, Sigurðr, hinn blakka mar, S. saddle thy black steed, Ghv. 18: metaph., b. e-n fyrir e-t, to put one at the head of it, Sks. 710: reflex., beitast fyrir e-t, to lead a cause, to manage it, Ld. 196, Fms. viii. 22, Hkr. ii. 168.  VI. to hammer iron or metal into plates, v. beit, f.

beit-fiskr, m. fish to be caught with bait, in the phrase, bíta mætti b. ef at borði væri dreginn, Fbr. 180, Gísl. 135 reads beinfiskr, no doubt wrongly: the proverb denotes a fine game, one played with slight trouble.

beiti, n. pasturage, Fbr. 65 (1852).

beiti, n., botan. erica vulgaris, heather, ling, commonly beiti-lyng, Hm. 140.

beiti-áss, m., naut. term, a sail-yard, Fms. ii. 230, iii. 26, Hkr. i. 59.

beitill, m. (v. góibeitill), botan. equisetum arvense, mare's tail, Hjalt.

beiting, f. grazing, Grág. ii. 224, Gullþ. 19, Landn. 289, Ld. 148.  beitinga-mál, n. a lawsuit about right of grazing or pasturage, Landn. 287, (Ed. betting, badly.)

beiti-teigr, m. a tract of pasturage, Grág. ii. 227, 246.

beit-lostinn, part. mounted with a metal rim, B. K. 84, D. N. i. 537 (of a book).

beit-stokkr, m., cognom., Fms. viii, 327.

beittr, adj. sharp, cutting (= bitr), of cutting instruments, Eg. 746 (freq.)

bekkjast, ð and t, dep. to envy one, in the phrase, b. til við e-n, to seek a quarrel with, Grett. 127; the metaphor from guests (beggars) elbowing one another off the benches, cp. Hm. 31.

bekkju-nautr, m. a bench-fellow, Fms. ii. 48.

bekk-klæði, n. the covering of a bench, Fms. vii. 307, Js. 78.

BEKKR, jar, m. pl. ir, gen. pl. ja, dat. jum, [A. S. benc; Engl. bench, bank; Germ. bank; Dan. bænk; Icel. per assimil. kk; the Span. banco is of Teut. origin]:—a bench, esp. of the long benches in an old hall used instead of chairs; the north side of a hall (that looking towards the sun) was called æðri bekkr, the upper bench (Gl. 337, Ld. 294); the southern side úæðri bekkr, the lower (inferior) bench, Nj. 32, Eg. 547, Fms. iv. 439, xi. 70, Glúm. 336, Ld. l. c.; thus sitja á enn

BEKKJARBÓT—BERJAMOR. 57

æðra or úæðra bekk is a standing phrase: the placing of the benches differed in Icel. and Norway, and in each country at various times; as regards the Icel. custom vide Nj. ch. 34, Sturl. i. 20, 21, the banquet at Reykhólar, A. D. 1120, ii. 182, the nuptials at Flugumýri, Lv. ch. 13, Ld. ch. 68, Gunnl. S. ch. 11, Ísl. ii. 250, cp. Nj. 220: á báða bekki, on both sides of the ball, Ísl. ii. 348, cp. Gísl. 41 (in a verse), etc.: as to foreign (Norse) customs, vide esp. Fagrsk. ch. 216, cp. Fms. vi. 390, xi. (Jómsv. S.) 70, Glúm. ch. 6, Orkn. ch. 70, Sturl. ii. 126; see more minutely under the words skáli, öndvegi, pallr, etc.; breiða, strá bekki, is to strew or cover the benches in preparing for a feast or wedding; bekki breiði (imper. pl., MS. breiða), dress the benches! Alvm. 1; bekki at strá, Em. verse 1; standit upp jötnar ok stráit bekki, Þkv. 22; brynjum um bekki stráð, the benches (wainscots?) covered with coats of mail, Gm. 44: in these phrases bekkir seems to be a collective name for the hall, the walls of which were covered with tapestry, the floor with straw, as in the Old Engl. halls. The passage Vtkv. 10—hveim eru bekkir baugum sánir—is dubious (stráðir?); búa bekki, to dress the benches; er Baldrs feðr bekki búna veit ek at sumblum, Km. 25; breitt var á bekki, brúðr sat á stól, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 466; vide brúðarbekkr.  COMPDS: bekkjar-bót, f. the pride of a bench, a bride, cognom., Landn.  bekkjar-gjöf, f. 'bench-gift,' an old custom to offer a gift to the bride whilst she sate on the bride's bench at the wedding festival, Ld. 188, cp. Fms. ii. 133, and in many passages in Fritzner from D. N. it seems to be synonymous with línfé (lín, a veil), as the bride's face on the wedding day was veiled; ganga und líni is a poët. phrase used of the bride on the bridal bench, yet Fms. x. 313, línfé eða b.  2. as a law term, cp. Engl. bench; the benches in the lögrétta in Icel. were, however, usually called pallr, v. the Grág.  3. the coloured stripes in a piece of stuff.

BEKKR, s, and jar, m. [North. E. beck; Germ. bach; Dan. bæk; Swed. bäck], a rivulet, brook. In Icel. the word is only poët. and very rare; the common word even in local names of the 10th century is lækr (Lækjar-bugr, -óss, etc.); Sökkva-bekkr, Edda, is a mythical and pre-Icel. name; in prose bekkr may occur as a Norse idiom, Fms. vi. 164, 335, viii. 8, 217, Jb. 268, or in Norse laws as in Gþl. 418. At present it is hardly understood in Icel. and looked upon as a Danism. The phrase—þar er (breiðr) bekkr á milli, there is a beck between, of two persons separated so as to be out of each other's reach—may be a single exception; perhaps the metaphor is taken from some popular belief like that recorded in the Lay of the Last Minstrel, note to 3. 13, and in Burns'Tam o' Shanter—'a running stream they dare na cross;' some hint of a like belief in Icel. might be in Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 356. It is now and then used in poetry, as, yfir um Kedrons breiðan bekk, Pass. 1. 15.  COMPDS: bekkjar-kvern, f. a water-mill, B. K. 45 (Norse).  bekkjar-rás, f. the bed of a beck, Stj. MS. col. 138.

bekk-skrautuðr, m. (cp. bekkjarbót), the pride of the bench, epithet to Bragi, Ls. 15.

bekk-sögn, f., poët. the people seated in a hall, Gísl. (in a verse).

bekk-þili, n. the wainscoted walls of a hall, Em. 1.

BEKRI, a, m. a ram, Lex. Poët.; in prose in the form, brjóta bekkrann, to break the ram's neck, Grett. 149: now also bekra, að, to bleat, Dan. bræge (rare).

belg-bera, u, f. a 'wallet-bearer,' a beggar, wretch, in swearing; vándar belgberur, wretches! Nj. 142, v. l., or a monster, v. the following word.

belg-borinn, part. a monster child, without any trace of face, N. G. L. i. 339.

belgja, ð, [Hel. belgan, irâ inflari], to inflate, puff out, Fms. iii. 201, Anal. 200; b. augun, to goggle, Bárð. 171: to drink as a cow.

BELGR, jar, m. pl. ir, [Lat. follis; Ulf. balgs = ἀσκός; A. S. bälg; Dutch balg; Engl. belly]:—the skin, taken off whole (of a quadruped; hamr is the skin of a bird, hams that of a snake), nauts-belgr, katt-belgr, otrs-belgr, melrakka-belgr, hafr-belgr, Grág. i. 500, 501, Fas. ii. 516 (of a bear), Edda 73 (otter): they were used as bags, in which to carry flour (mjölbelgr), butter (smjörbelgr), liquids (vínbelgr), curds (skyrbelgr), herbs (jafnabelgr), or the like, (bulgos Galli sacculos scorteos appellant, Festus); í laupum eða belgjum, Gþl. 492, cp. Grett. 107, and the funny taunt in Fms. xi. 157—verið get ek hafa nökkura þá er þaðan munu hafa borið raufóttara belginn (i. e. more of scars and wounds) en svá sem þú hefir borit, því at mér þykir sjá bezt til fallinn at geyma í hveitimjöl, the rebuke of a lady to her sweetheart on his having fled out of battle with whole skin fit to keep flour in it, cp. also Nj. 141.  2. bellows (smiðju-belgr), Edda 70, Þiðr. 91.  3. the curved part of a letter of the alphabet, Skálda 177.  II. metaph., letibelgr, a lazy fellow, Fél. 12. 53: belgr also denotes a withered, dry old man (with a skin like parchment), with the notion of wisdom, cp. the proverb, opt ór skörpum belg skilin orð koma, and, a little above, opt er gott þat er gamlir kveða, Hm. 135; böl vantú bróðir er þú þann belg leystir, opt ór þeim (þurrum?) belg böll ráð koma, ... deep schemes often come out of an old skin, Hðm. 27: the proverb, hafa skal ráð þó ór refsbelg komi, take good advice, even if coming from an old fox-skin! Gullþ. ch. 18. People say in Icel. lesa, tala, læra í belg, to read, talk, learn in a bag, to read or talk on foolishly, or to learn by rote; cp. the tale about the orðabelgr, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 479; cp. Asbjörnsen, Norse Tales, New Coll. Chr. 1856.  2. botan. gluma, Hjalt.

beli, a, m. belly, a cognom., Fas. i. 347: botan. legumen.

beli, n. dat. bellowing; með beli ok öskri, Fas. iii. 413.

belja, að, to bellow, Vápn. 21, Hkr. i. 319, Eb. 320.

beljan, f. bellowing, lowing, Grett. 112, Bær. 19.

BELLA, ball, a defect. strong verb [cp. Lat. pello, Gr. πάλλω,], to hit, hurt, tell upon; with dat., ekki má ófeigum bella, i. e. one not fated to die is proof against all shots, Ísl. ii. 305; tólf berserkjum, þeim er þeir ætluðu, at ekki mundi b., Fas. iii. 140, 149; ok ætluðu sér ekki b. mundu, Ver. 10; ball þér nú, Bófi (did it strike thee?) ... Ball víst, sagði hann, ok ball hvergi meir en þú hugðir, Eb. 240; þykir nú sem þeim muni ekki b., Sturl. iii. 237.

bella, d, [A. S. bealdjan; Hel. beldjan], to deal with one in a certain way, esp. of unfair dealing; with dat., hvar viti menn slíku bellt við konungmann, who did ever see a king thus dealt with, Eg. 415; hvat skal ek göra við biskup, er slíku hefir bellt, ... who has dared to deal thus, Orkn. 252; hver ... mun hafa þessu bellt, at brjóta guð várn Bal, Stj. 391. Judges vi. 99; but more freq. in poetry, bella svikum, to deal in treason, Hallfreð; lygi, Þkv. 10; bragði, Am. 55; b. glaumi, gleði, to be in high spirits, Gkv. 2. 29; cp. mod. bralla, að, brellur, f. pl. tricks.

belli-bragð, n. knavish dealing, a trick, Grett. 91, Þorst. hv. 46.

bellinn (mod. brellinn), adj. trickish, Grett. 22 new Ed.

bell-vísi, f. trickishness, Finnb. 294.

BELTI, n. [Lat. balteus; Engl. belt], a belt, esp. a belt of metal (silver) or embroidered, esp. belonging to a woman, Ld. 284, Sturl. iii. 189, Nj. 2, 24: belonging to a man, with a knife fastened to it, Fs. 101, Fms. iv. 27; kníf ok belti ok vóru þat góðir gripir, Gísl. 54, Fms. ix. 25, Fb. ii. 8, Nj. 91.  COMPDS: belta-dráttr, m. a game, two boxers tied together with one girdle, also in use in Sweden: hence a close struggle, Fms. viii. 181.  beltis-púss, m. a belt-pocket, Gullþ. 47, Sturl. l. c., Art. 70.  beltis-staðr, m. the belt-waist, Gísl. 71, Fms. iv. 56. In poetry the sea is called the belt of islands or of the earth.2. Belti, Mare Balticum, is derived from the Lithuanian baltas = albus.3. astron. a zone, himinbelti, hitabelli, kuldabelti.

BEN, jar, f. pl. jar (neut., N. G. L. i. 387; stór ben, acc. pl. n., Gísl. (in a verse), v. bani above.  I. a wound; as a law term, esp. a mortal wound (cp. bani); thus defined, skal sꜵ́r lýsa, en ben ef at bana verðr, Grág. ii. 18, 29, 70; benjar á hinum dauða manni, 28; svá skal nefna vátta at sárum sem at benjum, 30; and in the compds, benja-lysing, f. a sort of coroner's inquest upon a slain man, Grág. ii. 29; benja-váttr, m. a sort of coroner's jury, defined in Grág. ii. 28—þeir eigu at bera, hve margar benjar eru, they have to give a verdict how many mortal wounds there are; en búakviðr (the jury) hverir sannir eru at; benja-vætti, n. the verdict of a benjaváttr, Grág. id.  II. yet commonly 'ben' means a small bleeding wound; þeirri blóðgri ben, er Otkell veitti mér áverka, Nj. 87, Sd. 139, Fs. 144, in the last passage, however, of a mortal wound. It is now medic. the wound produced by letting blood. In old poetry it is used in a great many compds.

bend, f. = ben, N. G. L. i. 159, 166.

benda, u, f. a bundle, Gþl. 492: now metaph. entanglement.2. a bond, tie, v. höfuðbenda: naul. term, a stay.

benda, d, laler t, [Goth. bandvian], to beckon, give a sign with the hands or eyes: wilh dat., hann bendi þeim at fylgja sér, Hom. 113, K. Þ. K. 37, Orkn. 426: metaph. to forebode, betoken, Hom. 137, Skálda 170, Stj. 101: with acc. of the thing, Akv. 8.

benda, d, mod. t, [band], Lat. curvare, to bend; b. sverð um kné sér, Fms. x. 213; benda boga, to bend a bow, Grág. ii. 21, Fas. ii. 88, 330; b. upp, Nj. 107; benda hlífar, Rm. 39; prob. = Lat. flectere, nectere, to join, as in mod. usage, b. tunnu, to hoop a tub: recipr., bendast á um e-t, to strive, contest about, Fms. viii. 391, v. l.: metaph. to give away, Al. 44.

bendi, n. a cord, Fms. iii. 209.

bendill, m., dimin. a small cord, string, Edda 231.  2. a sort of seed, Edda (Gl.)

bending, f., Lat. nutus, a sign, token, Rb. 348, Fms. i. 10; boð ok b., Stj. 36: foreboding, betokening, Fms. vii. 195, Ld. 260.

benja, að, to wound mortally, Fm. 25.

ben-lauss, adj. free from wounds, N. G. L. i. 357.

ben-rögn, n. an ἅπ. λεγ. Nj. 107 (cp. the verse, p. 118), bloody rain, a prodigy, foreboding, slaughter, plague, or like events, cp. Eb. ch. 51, Dl. verse 1.

benzl, n. a bow in a bent state; taka boga af benzlum, to unbend a bow, Str. 44.

BER, n., gen. pl. berja, dat. jum, [Goth. basi; A. S. beria; Germ.beere; cp. also the A. S. basu]:—a berry, almost always in pl., Grág. ii. 347; lesa ber, to gather berries, Jb. 310, Bs. i. 135:—distinguished, vinber, the vine-berry, grape; esp. of Icel. sorts, bláber, the bleaberry, bilberry, whortleberry; aðalbláber, Vaccinium myrtillus; krækiber, empetrum; einirber, juniperus; hrútaber, rubus saxatilis; jarðarber, strawberry; sortuber or mulningr, arbutus, Hjalt.  COMPDS: berja-hrat, n. the stone in a berry.berja-mór, m. baccetum; fara á b., to go. a-blackberrying.

58 BERJAVIN—BERA.

berja-vín, n. berry-wine (cp. Engl. gooseberry-, elderberry-wine), Bs. i. 135.

BERA, u, f.  I. [björn], a she-bear, Lat. ursa; the primitive root 'ber' remains only in this word (cp. berserkr and berfjall), björn (q. v.) being the masc. in use, Landn. 176, Fas. i. 367, Vkv. 9: in many Icel. local names, Beru-fjörðr, -vík, from Polar bears; fem. names, Bera, Hallbera, etc., Landn.  II. a shield, poët., the proverb, baugr er á beru sæmstr, to a shield fits best a baugr (q. v.), Lex. Poët., Edda (Gl.); hence names of poems Beru-drápa, Eg.

bera, að, [berr, nudus], to make bare, Lat. nudare; hon beraði líkam sinn, Bret. 22: impers., berar hálsinn (acc.), the neck became bare, Bs. i. 624.

BERA, bar, báru, borit, pres. berr,—poët. forms with the suffixed negative; 3rd pers. sing. pres. Indic. berrat, Hm. 10; 3rd pers. sing. pret. barat, Vellekla; 1st pers. sing. barkak, Eb. 62 (in a verse); barkat ek, Hs. 8; 2nd pers. sing. bartattu; 3rd pers. pl. bárut, etc., v. Lex. Poët. [Gr. φέρειν Lat. ferre; Ulf. bairan; A. S. beran; Germ. gebären; Engl. bear; Swed. bära; Dan. bære].

A. Lat. ferre, portare:I. prop. with a sense of motion, to bear, carry, by means of the body, of animals, of vehicles, etc., with acc., Egil tók mjöðdrekku eina mikla, ok bar undir hendi sér, Eg. 237; bar hann heim hrís, Rm. 9; konungr lét bera inn kistur tvær, báru tveir menn hverja, Eg. 310; bera farm af skipi, to unload a ship, Ld. 32; bera (farm) á skip, to load a ship, Nj. 182; tóku alla ösku ok báru á á (amnem) út, 623, 36; ok bar þat (carried it) í kerald, 43, K. Þ. K. 92; b. mat á borð, í stofu, to put the meat on table, in the oven; b. mat af borði, to take it off table, Eb. 36, 266, Nj. 75, Fms. ix. 219, etc.  2. Lat. gestare, ferre, denoting to wear clothes, to carry weapons; skikkja dýr er konungr hafði borit, Eg. 318; b. kórónu, to wear the crown, Fms. x. 16; atgeir, Nj. 119; vápn, 209: metaph., b. ægishjálm, to inspire fear and awe; b. merki, to carry the flag in a battle, Nj. 274, Orkn. 28, 30, 38, Fms. v. 64, vi. 413; bera fram merki, to advance, move in a battle, vi. 406.  3. b. e-t á hesti (áburðr), to carry on horseback; Auðunn bar mat á hesti, Grett. 107; ok bar hrís á hesti, 76 new Ed.; þeir báru á sjau hestum, 98 new Ed.  II. without a sense of motion:  1. to give birth to; [the root of barn, bairn; byrja, incipere; burðr, partus; and burr, filius: cp. Lat. parĕre; also Gr. φέρειν Lat. ferre, of child-bearing.] In Icel. prose, old as well as mod., 'ala' and 'fæða' are used of women; but 'bera,' of cows and sheep; hence sauðburðr, casting of lambs, kýrburðr; a cow is snembær, siðbær, Jólabær, calves early, late, at Yule time, etc.; var ekki ván at hon (the cow) mundi b. fyr en um várit, Bs. i. 193, 194; kýr hafði borit kálf, Bjarn. 32; bar hvárrtveggi sauðrinn sinn burð, Stj. 178: the participle borinn is used of men in a great many compds in a general sense, aptrborinn, árborinn, endrborinn, frjálsborinn, goðborinn, höldborinn, hersborinn, konungborinn, óðalborinn, samborinn, sundrborinn, velborinn, úborinn, þrælborinn, etc.; also out of compds, mun ek eigi upp gefa þann sóma, sem ek em til borinn, ... entitled to by inheritance, Ld. 102; hann hafði blindr verit borinn, born blind, Nj. 152, Hdl. 34, 42, Vsp. 2: esp. borinn e-m, born of one, Rm. 39, Hdl. 12, 23, 27, Hðm. 2, Gs. 9, Vþm. 25, Stor. 16, Vkv. 15; borinn frá e-m, Hdl. 24: the other tenses are in theol. Prose used of Christ, hans blezaða son er virðist at láta berast hingað í heim af sinni blezaðri móður, Fms. i. 281; otherwise only in poetry, eina dóttur (acc.) berr álfröðull (viz. the sun, regarded as the mother), Vþm. 47; hann Gjálp um bar, hann Greip um bar ..., Hdl. 36: borit (sup.), Hkv. 1. 1.  β. of trees, flowers; b. ávöxt, blóm ..., to bear fruit, flower ... (freq.); bar aldinviðrinn tvennan blóma, Fms. ix. 265; cp. the phrase, bera sitt barr, v. barr.  2. denoting to load, with acc. of the person and dat. of the thing:  α. in prop. sense; hann hafði borit sik mjök vápnum, he had loaded himself with arms, i. e. wore heavy armour, Sturl. iii. 250.  β. but mostly in a metaph. sense; b. e-n ofrafli, ofrmagni, ofrliði, ofríki, magni, to bear one down, to overcome, oppress one, by odds or superior force, Grág. i. 101, ii. 195, Nj. 80, Hkr. ii. 371, Gþl. 474, Stj. 512, Fms. iii. 175 (in the last passage a dat. pers. badly); b. e-n ráðum, to overrule one, Nj. 198, Ld. 296; b. e-n málum, to bearhim down (wrongfully) in a lawsuit, Nj. 151; b. e-n bjóri, to make drunk, Vkv. 26: medic., borinn verkjum, sótt, Bjarn. 68, Og. 5; bölvi, Gg. 2: borne down, feeling heavy pains; þess er borin ván, no hope, all hope is gone, Ld. 250; borinn sök, charged with a cause, Fms. v. 324, H. E. i. 561; bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise, Fms. iv. 111; b. fé, gull á e-n, to bring one a fee, gold, i. e. to bribe one, Nj. 62; borinn baugum, bribed, Alvm. 5; always in a bad sense, cp. the law phrase, b. fé í dóm, to bribe a court, Grág., Nj. 240.  3. to bear, support, sustain, Lat. sustinere, lolerare, ferre: α. properly, of a ship, horse, vehicle, to bear, be capable of bearing; þeir hlóðu bæði skipin sem borð báru, all that they could carry, Eb. 302;—a ship 'berr' (carries) such and such a weight; but 'tekr' (takes) denotes a measure of fluids.  β. metaph. to sustain, support; dreif þannig svá mikill mannfjöldi at landit fékk eigi borit, Hkr. i. 56; but metaph. to bear up against, endure, support grief, sorrow, etc., sýndist öllum at Guð hefði nær ætlað hvat hann mundi b. mega, Bs. i. 139; biðr hann friðar ok þykist ekki mega b. reiði hans, Fms. iii. 80: the phrase, b. harm sinn í hljóði, to suffer silently; b. svívirðing, x. 333: absol., þótti honum mikit víg Kjartans, en þó bar hann drengilega, he bore it manfully, Ld. 226; er þat úvizka, at b. eigi slíkt, not to bear or put up with, Glúm. 327; b. harm, to grieve, Fms. xi. 425: in the phrases, b. sik, b. af sér, berask, berask vel (illa, lítt), to bear oneself, to bear up against misfortune; Guðrúnu þótti mikit fráfall Þorkels, en þó bar hon sköruliga af sér, she bore her bravely up, Ld. 326-328; lézt hafa spurt at ekkjan bæri vel af sér harmana, Eb. 88; berask af; hversu bersk Auðr af um bróðurdauðann? (how does she bear it?); hón bersk af lítt (she is much borne down) ok þykir mikit, Gísl. 24; niun oss vandara gört en öðrum at vér berim oss vel (Lat. fortiter ferre), Nj. 197; engi maðr hefði þar jamvel borit sik, none bad borne himself so boldly, Sturl. iii. 132; b. sik vel upp, to bear well up against, bear a stout heart, Hrafn. 17; b. sik beiskliga (sorely), Stj. 143; b. sik lítt, to be downcast, Fms. ii. 61; b. sik at göra e-t, to do one's best, try a thing.III. in law terms or modes of procedure:  1. bera járn, the ordeal of bearing hot iron in the hand, cp. járnburðr, skírsla. This custom was introduced into Scandinavia together with Christianity from Germany and England, and superseded the old heathen ordeals 'hólmganga,' and 'ganga undir jarðarmen,' v. this word. In Norway, during the civil wars, it was esp. used in proof of paternity of the various pretenders to the crown, Fms. vii. 164, 200, ix. Hák. S. ch. 14, 41-45, viii. (Sverr. S.) ch. 150, xi. (Jómsv. S.) ch. 11, Grett. ch. 41, cp. N. G. L. i. 145, 389. Trial by ordeal was abolished in Norway A. D. 1247. In Icel. It was very rarely mentioned, vide however Lv. ch. 23 (paternity), twice or thrice in the Sturl. i. 56, 65, 147, and Grág. i. 341, 361; it seems to have been very seldom used there, (the passage in Grett. S. l. c. refers to Norway.)  2. bera út (hence útburðr, q. v.), to expose children; on this heathen custom, vide Grimm R. A. In heathen Icel., as in other parts of heathen Scandinavia, it was a lawful act, but seldom exercised; the chief passages on record are, Gunnl. S. ch. 3 (ok þat var þá siðvandi nokkurr, er land var allt alheiðit, at þeir menn er félitlir vórn, en stóð ómegð mjök til handa létu út bera börn sín, ok þótti þó illa gört ávalt), Fs. Vd. ch. 37, Harð. S. ch. 8, Rd. ch. 7, Landn. v. ch. 6, Finnb. ch. 2, Þorst. Uxaf. ch. 4, Hervar. S. ch. 4, Fas. i. 547 (a romance); cp. Jómsv. S. ch. 1. On the introduction of Christianity into Icel. A. D. 1000, it was resolved that, in regard to eating of horse-flesh and exposure of children, the old laws should remain in force, Íb. ch. 9; as Grimm remarks, the exposure must take place immediately after birth, before the child had tasted food of any kind whatever, and before it was besprinkled with water (ausa vatni) or shown to the father, who had to fix its name; exposure, after any of these acts, was murder, cp. the story of Liafburga told by Grimm R. A.); v. Also a Latin essay at the end of the Gunnl. S. (Ed. 1775). The Christian Jus Eccl. put an end to this heathen barbarism by stating at its very beginning, ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, i. e. all children, if not of monstrous shape, shall be brought up, N. G. L. i. 339, 363.  β. b. út (now more usual, hefja út, Am. 100), to carry out for burial; vera erfðr ok tit borinn, Odd. 20; var hann heygðr, ok út borinn at fornum sið, Fb. i. 123; b. á bál, to place (the body and treasures) upon the pile, the mode of burying in the old heathen time, Fas. i. 487 (in a verse); var hon borin á bálit ok slegit í eldi, Edda 38.

B. Various and metaph. cases.  I. denoting motion:  1. 'bera' is in the Grág. the standing law term for delivery of a verdict by a jury (búar), either 'bera' absol. or adding kvið (verdict); bera á e-n, or b. kvið á e-n, to give a verdict against, declare guilty; bera af e-m, or b. af e-m kviðinn, to give a verdict for; or generally, bera, or b. um e-t, to give a verdict in a case; bera, or b. vitni, vætti, also simply means to testify, to witness, Nj. 111, cp. kviðburðr (delivering of verdict), vitnisburðr (bearing witness), Grág. ii. 28; eigi eigu búar (jurors) enn at b. um þat hvat lög eru á landi hér, the jurors have not to give verdict in (to decide) what is law in the country, cp. the Engl. maxim, that jurors have only to decide the question of evidence, not of law, Grág. (Kb.) ch. 85; eigi eru búar skildir at b. um hvatvetna; um engi mál eigu þeir at skilja, þau er erlendis (abroad) hafa görzt, id.; the form in delivering the verdict—höfum vér (the jurors), orðit á eitt sáttir, berum á kviðburðinn, berum hann sannan at sökinni, Nj. 238, Grág. i. 49, 22, 138, etc.; í annat sinn báru þeir á Flosa kviðinn, id.; b. annattveggja af eðr á; b. undan, to discharge, Nj. 135; b. kvið í hag (for), Grág. i. 55; b. lýsingar vætti, Nj. 87; b. vitni ok vætti, 28, 43, 44; b. ljúgvitni, to bear false witness, Grág. i. 28; b. orð, to bear witness to a speech, 43; bera frændsemi sundr, to prove that they are not relations, N. G. L. i. 147: reflex., berask ór vætti, to prove that oneself is wrongly summoned to bear witness or to give a verdict, 44: berask in a pass. sense, to be proved by evidence, ef vanefni b. þess manns er á hönd var lýst, Grág. i. 257; nema jafnmæli berisk, 229; þótt þér berisk þat faðerni er þú segir, Fms. vii. 164; hann kvaðst ætla, at honum mundi berask, that he would be able to get evidence for, Fs. 46.  β. gener. and not as a law term; b. á, b. á hendr, to charge; b. e-n undan, to discharge, Fs. 95; eigi erum vér þessa valdir er þú berr á oss, Nj. 238, Ld. 206, Fms. iv. 380, xi. 251, Th. 78; b. e-m á brýnn, to throw in one's face, to accuse, Greg. 51; b. af sér, to deny; eigi mun ek af mér b., at... (non diffitebor), Nj. 271;

BERA. 59

b. e-m gott vitni, to give one a good..., 11; b. e-m vel (illa) söguna, to bear favourable (unfavourable) witness of one, 271.  2. to bear by word of mouth, report, tell, Lat. referre; either absol. or adding kveðju, orð, orðsending, eyrindi, boð, sögu, njósn, frétt..., or by adding a prep., b. fram, frá, upp, fyrir; b. kveðju, to bring a greeting, compliment, Eg. 127; b. erindi (sín) fyrir e-n, to plead one's case before one, or to tell one's errand, 472, 473; b. njósn, to apprise, Nj. 131; b. fram, to deliver (a speech), talaði jungherra Magnús hit fyrsta erindi (M. made his first speech in public), ok fanst mönnum mikit um hversu úbernsliga fram var borit, Fms. x. 53; (in mod. usage, b. fram denotes gramm. to pronounce, hence 'framburðr,' pronunciation); mun ek þat nú fram b., I shall now tell, produce it, Ld. 256, Eg. 37; b. frá, to attest, relate with emphasis; má þat frá b., Dropl. 21; b. upp, to produce, mention, tell, þótt slík lygi sé upp borin fyrir hann, though such a lie be told him, Eg. 59; þær (viz. charges) urðu engar upp bornar (produced) við Rút, Nj. 11; berr Sigtryggr þegar upp erindi sín (cp. Germ. ojfenbaren), 271, Ld. 256; b. upp gátu, to give (propound) a riddle, Stj. 411, Fas. i. 464; b. fyrir, to plead as an excuse; b. saman ráð sín, or the like, to consult, Nj. 91; eyddist þat ráð, er þeir báru saman, which they had designed, Post. 656 A. ii; b. til skripta, to confess (eccl.), of auricular confession, Hom. 124, 655 xx.  II. in a metaphorical or circumlocutory sense, and without any sense of motion, to keep, hold, bear, of a title; b. nafn, to bear a name, esp. as honour or distinction; tignar nafn, haulds nafn, jarls nafn, lends manns nafn, konungs nafn, bónda nafn, Fms. i. 17, vi. 278, xi. 44, Gþl. 106: in a more metaph. sense, denoting endowments, luck, disposition, or the like, b. (ekki) gæfu, hamingju, auðnu til e-s, to enjoy (enjoy not) good or bad luck, etc.; at Þórólfr mundi eigi allsendis gæfu til b. um vináttu við Harald, Eg. 75, 112, 473, Fms. iv. 164, i. 218; úhamingju, 219; b. vit, skyn, kunnáttu á (yfir) e-t, to bring wit, knowledge, etc., to bear upon a thing, xi. 438, Band. 7; hence vel (illa) viti borinn, well (ill) endowed with wit, Eg. 51; vel hyggjandi borinn, well endowed with reason, Grág. ii; b. hug, traust, áræði, þor, til e-s, to have courage, confidence ... to do a thing, Gullþ. 47, Fms. ix. 220, Band. 7; b. áhyggju, önn fyrir, to care, be concerned about, Fms. x. 318; b. ást, elsku til e-s, to bear affection, love to one; b. hatr, to hate: b. svört augu, to have dark eyes, poët., Korm. (in a verse); b. snart hjarta, Hom. 5; vant er þat af sjá hvar hvergi berr hjarta sitt, where he keeps his heart, Orkn. 474; b. gott hjarta, to bear a proud heart, Lex. Poët., etc. etc.; b. skyndi at um e-t, to make speed with a thing, Lat. festinare, Fms. viii. 57.  2. with some sense of motion, to bear off or away, carry off, gain, in such phrases as, b. sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry off the victory from or in ...; hann hafði borit sigr af tveim orrustum, er frægstar hafa verit, he had borne off the victory in two battles, Fms. xi. 186; bera banaorð af e-m, to slay one in a fight, to be the victor; Þorr berr banaorð af Miðgarðsormi, Edda 42, Fms. x. 400: it seems properly to mean, to bear off the fame of having killed a man; verðat svá rík sköp, at Regin skyli mitt banorð bera, Fm. 39; b. hærra, lægra hlut, 'to bear off the higher or the lower lot,' i. e. to get the best or the worst of it, or the metaphor is taken from a sortilege, Fms. ii. 268, i. 59, vi. 412; b. efra, hærra skjöld, to carry the highest shield, to get the victory, x. 394, Lex. Poët.; b. hátt (lágt) höfuðit, to bear the head high (low), i. e. to be in high or low spirits, Nj. 91; but also, b. halann bratt (lágt), to cock up or let fall the tail (metaph. from cattle), to be in an exultant or low mood: sundry phrases, as, b. bein, to rest the bones, be buried; far þú til Íslands, þar mun þér auðið verða beinin at b., Grett. 91 A; en þó hygg ek at þú munir hér b. beinin í Norðrálfunni, Orkn. 142; b. fyrir borð, to throw overboard, metaph. to oppress; verðr Þórhalli nú fyrir borð borinn, Th. was defied, set at naught, Fær. 234; b. brjóst fyrir e-m, to be the breast-shield, protection of one, Fms. vii. 263: also, b. hönd fyrir höfuð sér, metaph. to put one's hand before one's head, i. e. to defend oneself; b. ægishjálm yfir e-m, to keep one in awe and submission, Fm. 16, vide A. I. 2.  III. connected with prepp., b. af, and (rarely) yfir (cp. afburðr, yfirburðr), to excel, surpass; eigi sá hvárttveggja féit er af öðrum berr, who gets the best of it, Nj. 15; en þó bar Bolli af, B. surpassed all the rest, Ld. 330; þat mannval bar eigi minnr af öðrum mönnum um fríðleik, afi ok fræknleik, en Ormrinn Langi af öðrum skipum, Fms. ii. 252; at hinn útlendi skal yfir b. (outdo) þann sem Enskir kalla meistara, xi. 431: b. til, to apply, try if it fits; en er þeir báru til (viz. shoes to the hoof of a horse), þá var sem hæfði hestinum, ix. 55; bera til hvern lykil at öðrum at portinu, Thom. 141; b. e-t við, to try it on (hence viðburðr, experiment, effort): b. um, to wind round, as a cable round a pole or the like, Nj. 115; þá bar hann þá festi um sik, made it fast round his body, Fms. ix. 219; 'b. e-t undir e-n' is to consult one, ellipt., b. undir dóm e-s; 'b. e-t fyrir' is to feign, use as excuse: b. á, í, to smear, anoint; b. vatn í augu sér, Rb. 354; b. tjöru í höfuð sér, Nj. 181, Hom. 70, 73, cp. áburðr; b. gull, silfr, á, to ornament with gold or silver, Ld. 114, Finnb. 258: is now also used = to dung, b. á völl; b. vápn á e-n, to attack one with sharp weapons, Eg. 583, Fms. xi. 334: b. eld at, to set fire to, Nj. 122; b. fjötur (bönd) at e-m, to put fetters (bonds) on one, Fms. x. 172, Hm. 150: metaph. reflex., bönd berask at e-m, a law term, the evidence bears against one; b. af sér, to parry off; Gyrðr berr af sér lagit, G. parries the thrust off, Fms. x. 421; cp. A. II. 3. β.  IV. reflex., berask mikit á (cp. áburðr), to bear oneself proudly, or b. lítið á, to bear oneself humbly; hann var hinn kátasti ok barst á mikit, Fms. ii. 68, viii. 219, Eb. 258; b. lítið á, Clem. 35; láta af berask, to die; Óttarr vill skipa til um fjárfar sitt áðr hann láti af b., Fms. ii. 12: berask fyrir, to abide in a place as an asylum, seek shelter; hér munu vit láta fyrir b., Fas. iii. 471; berask e-t fyrir, to design a thing, be busy about, barsk hann þat fyrir at sjá aldregi konur, Greg. 53; at njósna um hvat hann bærist fyrir, to inquire into what he was about, Fms. iv. 184, Vígl. 19.  β. recipr. in the phrase, berask banaspjót eptir, to seek for one another's life, Glúm. 354: b. vápn á, of a mutual attack with sharp weapons, Fms. viii. 53.  γ. pass., sár berask á e-n, of one in the heat of battle beginning to get wounds and give way, Nj.:—berask við, to be prevented, not to do; ok nú lét Almáttugr Guð við berast kirkjubrunnann, stopped, prevented the burning of the church, Fms. v. 144; en mér þætti gott ef við bærist, svá at hón kæmi eigi til þín, vi. 210, vii. 219; ok var þá búit at hann mundi þegar láta hamarinn skjanna honum, en hann lét þat við berask, he bethought himself and did not, Edda 35; því at mönnum þótti sem þannig mundi helzt úhæfa við berask, that mischief would thus be best prevented, Sturl. ii. 6, iii. 80.

C. Impers.:—with a sort of passive sense, both in a loc. and temp. sense, and gener. denotes an involuntary, passive motion, happening suddenly or by chance:I. with acc. it bears or carries one to a place, i. e. one happens to come; the proverb, alla (acc.) berr at sama brunni, all come to the same well (end), Lat. omnes una manet nox; bar hann þá ofan gegnt Özuri, he happened to come in his course just opposite to Ö., Lat. delatus est, Dropl. 25: esp. of ships or sailors; nú berr svá til (happens) herra, at vér komum eigi fram ferðinni, berr oss (acc.) til Íslands eðr annara landa, it bore us to I., i. e. if we drive or drift thither, Fms. iv. 176; þá (acc. pl.) bar suðr í haf, they drifted southwards, Nj. 124.  β. as a cricketing term, in the phrase, berr (bar) út knöttinn, the ball rolls out, Gísl. 26, cp. p. 110 where it is transit.; berr Gísli ok út knöttinn, vide Vígl. ch. 11, Grett. ch. 17, Vd. ch. 37, Hallfr. S. ch. 2.  γ. Skarpheðin (acc.) bar nú at þeim, Sk. came suddenly upon them, Nj. 144; bar at Hróaldi þegar allan skjöldinn, the shield was dashed against H.'s body, 198; ok skyldu sæta honum, ef hann (acc.) bæri þar at, if he should per chance come, shew himself there, Orkn. 406; e-n berr yfir, it bears one, i. e. one is borne onwards, as a bird flying, a man riding; þóttist vita, at hann (acc.) mundi fljótara yfir bera ef hann riði en gengi, that he would get on more fleetly riding than walking, Hrafn. 7; hann (acc.) bar skjótt yfir, he passed quickly, of a flying meteor, Nj. 194; e-n berr undan, escapes.2. also with acc. followed by prepp. við, saman, jafnframt, hjá, of bodies coinciding or covering one another: loc., er jafnframt ber jaðrana tungls ok sólar, if the orb of the moon and sun cover each other, Rb. 34; þat kann vera stundum, at tunglit (acc.) berr jafht á millum vár ok sólar (i. e. in a moon eclipse), 108; ber nokkut jaðar (acc.) þess hjá sólar jaðri, 34; Gunnarr sér at rauðan kyrtil (acc.) bar við glugginn, G. sees that a red kirtle passed before the window, Nj. 114; bar fyrir utan þat skip vápnaburð (acc.) heiðingja (gen. pl.), the missiles of the heathens passed over the ship without hurting them, flew too high, Fms. vii. 232; hvergi bar skugga (acc.) á, nowhere a shadow, all bright, Nj. 118; þangat sem helzt mátti nokkut yfir þá skugga bera af skóginum, where they were shadowed (hidden) by the trees, Fms. x. 239; e-t berr fram (hátt), a body is prominent, Lat. eminet; Ólafr konungr stóð í lyptingunni, bar hann (acc.) hátt mjök, king O. stood out conspicuously, ii. 308; b. yfir, þótti mjök bera hljóð (acc.) þar yfir er Ólafr sat, the sound was heard over there where O. sat, Sturl. i. 21; b. á milli, something comes between; leiti (acc.) bar á milli, a hill hid the prospect, Nj. 263: metaph., e-m berr e-t á milli, they come to dissent, 13, v. l.; b. fyrir augu (hence fyrirburðr, vision), of a vision or the like; mart (acc.) berr nú fyrir augu mér, ek sé ..., many things come now before my eyes, 104; hann mundi allt þat er fyrir hann hafði borit, i. e. all the dream, 195; eina nótt berr fyrir hann í svefni mikla sýn, Fms. i. 137, Rd. 290; veiði (acc.) berr í hendr e-m (a metaphor from hunting), sport falls to one's lot; hér bæri veiði í hendr nú, here would be a game, Nj. 252; e-t berr undan (a metaphor from fishing, hunting term), when one misses one's opportunity; vel væri þá ... at þá veiði (acc.) bæri eigi undan, that this game should not go amiss, 69; en ef þetta (acc.) berr undan, if this breaks down, 63; hon bað hann þá drepa einhvern manna hans, heldr en allt (acc.) bæri undan, rather than that all should go amiss, Eg. 258: absol., þyki mér illa, ef undan berr, if I miss it, Nj. 155; viljum vér ekki at undan beri at..., we will by no means miss it..., Fms. viii. 309, v. l. The passage Bs. i. 416 (en fjárhlutr sá er átt hafði Ari, bar undan Guðmundi) is hardly correct, fjárhlut þann would run better, cp. bera undir, as a law term, below.  II. adding prepp.; b. við, at, til, at hendi, at móti, til handa ..., to befall, happen, Lat. accidere, occurrere, with dat. of the person, (v. atburðr, viðburðr, tilburðr); engi hlut skyldi þann at b., no such thing should happen as..., Fms. xi. 76; svá bar at einn vetr, it befell, x. 201; þat hefir nú víst at hendi borit, er..., Nj. 174; þó þetta vandræði (acc.) hafi nú borit oss (dat.) at hendi, Eg. 7; b. til handa, id., Sks. 327; bar honum svá til, so it befell him, Fms.

60 BERA—BERJA.

425; at honum bæri engan váðaligan hlut til á veginum, that nothing dangerous should befall him on the way, Stj. 212; bæri þat þá svá við, at hann ryfi, it then perchance might happen, that ..., 102; þat bar við at Högni kom, 169, 172, 82; raun (acc.) berr á, it is proved by the fact, event, Fms. ix. 474, x. 185.  2. temp., e-t berr á, it happens to fall on ...; ef þing (acc.) ber á hina helgu viku, if the parliament falls on the holy week (Whitsun), Grág. i. 106; ef Crucis messu (acc.) berr á Drottins dag, Rb. 44; berr hana (viz. Petrs messu, June 29) aldrei svá optarr á öldinni, 78; þat er nú berr oss næst, what has occurred of late, Sturl. iii. 182: b. í móti, to happen exactly at a time; þetta (acc.) bar í móti at þenna sama dag andaðist Brandr biskup, Bs. i. 468; b. saman, id.; bar þat saman, at pá var Gunnarr at segja brennusöguna, just when G. was about telling the story, Nj. 269.  3. metaph. of agreement or separation; en þat (acc.) þykir mjök saman b. ok þessi frásögn, Fms. x. 276: with dat., bar öllum sögum vel saman, all the records agreed well together, Nj. 100, v. l.; berr nú enn í sundr með þeim, Bjarna ok Þorkatli at sinni, B. and Th. missed each other, Vápn. 25.  4. denoting cause; e-t (acc.) berr til ..., causes a thing; ætluðu þat þá allir, at þat mundi til bera, that that was the reason, Nj. 75; at þat beri til skilnaðar okkars, that this will make us to part (divorce), 261; konungr spurði, hvat til bæri úgleði hans, what was the cause of his grief? Fms. vi. 355; þat berr til tunglhlaups, Rb. 32.  β. meiri ván at brátt beri þat (acc.) til bóta, at herviliga steypi hans ríki, i. e. there will soon come help (revenge), Fms. x. 264; fjórir eru þeir hlutir er menn (acc.) berr í ætt á landi hér, there are four cases under which people may be adopted, Grág. i. 361.  γ. e-t berr undir e-n, falls to a person's lot; hon á arf at taka þegar er undir hana berr, in her turn, 179; mikla erfð (acc.) bar undir hana, Mar. (Fr.); berr yfir, of surpassing, Bs. ii. 121, 158; b. frá, id. (fráburðr); herðimikill svá at þat (acc.) bar frá því sem aðrir menn, Eg. 305; er sagt, at þat bæri frá hve vel þeir mæltu, it was extraordinary how well they did speak, Jb. 11; bar þat mest frá hversu illa hann var limaðr, but above all, how..., Ó. H. 74.  5. with adverbial nouns in a dat. form; e-t berr bráðum, happens of a sudden; berr þetta (acc.) nú allbráðum, Fms. xi. 139; cp. vera bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise (above); berr stórum, stærrum, it matters a great deal; ætla ek stærrum b. hin lagabrotin (acc.), they are much more important, matter more, vii. 305; var þat góðr kostr, svá at stórum bar, xi. 50; hefir oss orðit svá mikil vanhyggja, at stóru berr, an enormous blunder, Gísl. 51; svá langa leið, at stóru bar, Fas. i. 116; þat berr stórum, hversu mér þóknast vel þeirra athæfi, it amounts to a great deal, my liking their service, i. e. I do greatly like, Fms. ii. 37; eigi berr þat allsmám hversu vel mér líkar, in no small degree do I like, x. 296.  β. with dat., it is fitting, becoming; svá mikit sem landeiganda (dat.) berr til at hafa eptir lögum, what he is legally entitled to, Dipl. iii. 10; berr til handa, it falls to one's lot, v. above, Grág. i. 93.  III. answering to Lat. oportet, absolutely or with an adverb, vel, illa, with infinit.; e-m berr, it beseems, becomes one; berr þat ekki né stendr þvílíkum höfuðfeðr, at falsa, Stj. 132; berr yðr (dat.) vel, herra, at sjá sannindi á þessu máli, Fms. ix. 326; sagði, at þat bar eigi Kristnum mönnum, at særa Guð, x. 22; þá siðu at mér beri vel, Sks. 353 B: used absol., berr vel, illa, it is beseeming, proper, fit, unbeseeming, unfit, improper; athæfi þat er vel beri fyrir konungs augliti, 282; þat þykir ok eigi illa bera, at maðr hafi svart skinn til hosna, i. e. it suits pretty well, 301: in case of a pers. pron. in acc. or dat. being added, the sentence becomes personal in order to avoid doubling the impers. sentence, e. g. e-m berr skylda (not skyldu) til, one is bound by duty; veit ek eigi hver skylda (nom.) yðr (acc.) ber til þess at láta jarl einn ráða, Fms. i. 52: also leaving the dat. out, skylda berr til at vera forsjámaðr með honum, vii. 280; eigi berr hér til úviska mín, it is not that I am not knowing, Nj. 135.  IV. when the reflex. inflexion is added to the verb, the noun loses its impers. character and is turned from acc. into nom., e. g. þar (þat?) mun hugrinn minn mest hafa fyrir borizt, this is what I suspected, fancied, Lv. 34; cp. hugarburðr, fancy, and e-t berr fyrir e-n (above, C. I. 2); hefir þetta (nom.) vel í móti borizt, a happy coincidence, Nj. 104; ef svá harðliga kann til at berask, if the misfortunes do happen, Gþl. 55; barsk sú úhamingja (nom.) til á Íslandi, that mischief happened (no doubt the passage is thus to be emended), Bs. i. 78, but bar þá úhamingju ...; þat (nom.) barsk at, happened, Fms. x. 253; fundir várir (nom.) hafa at borizt nokkurum sinnum, vii. 256; þat barsk at á einhverju sumri, Eg. 154; bærist at um síðir at allr þingheimrinn berðist, 765, cp. berast við, berask fyrir above (B. V.): berast, absol., means to be shaken, knocked about; var þess ván, at fylkingar mundu berast í hergöngunni, that they would be brought into some confusion, Fms. v. 74; Hrólfr gékk at ramliga, ok barst Atli (was shaken, gave away) fyrir orku sakir, þar til er hann féll. Fas. iii. 253; barst Jökull allr fyrir orku sakir (of two wrestling), Ísl. ii. 467, Fms. iii. 189: vide B. IV.

D. In mod. usage the strong bera—bar is also used in impersonal phrases, denoting to let a thing be seen, shew, but almost always with a negative preceding, e. g. ekki bar (ber) á því, it could (can) not be seen; að á engu bæri, láta ekki á bera (to keep tight), etc. All these phrases are no doubt alterations from the weak verb bera, að, nudare, and never occur in old writers; we have not met with any instance previous to the Reformation; the use is certainly of late date, and affords a rare instance of weak verbs turning into strong; the reverse is more freq. the case.

ber-bakt, n. adj., ríða b., to ride bare-back, i. e. without saddle, Glúm. 362.

ber-beinn, adj. bare-legged, Fms. vii. 63, Harbl. 5.

ber-brynjaðr, part. without coat of mail, Sd. 146, Bs. i. 541.

ber-dreymr, now berdreyminn, adj. [draumr], having 'bare' (i. e. clear, true) dreams as to the future, v. Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 91, Ísl. ii. 91, Fb. iii. 447, Gísl. 41.

berendi, n. = berfé, N. G. L. i. 70, 225.

ber-fé, n. a female animal, opp. to graðfé, Grág. i. 426, Jb. 431.

ber-fjall, n.  1. [ber = björn and fjall, fell = pellis], a bear-skin, Vkv. 10 (2).  2. [berr, nudus, and fjall, fell = mons], a bare fell or rocky hill, (now freq.)

ber-fættr, adj. bare-footed, bare-legged, Bs. i. 83, Hkr. ii. 259, Fms. vii. 63, x. 331.  COMPD: berfættu-bræðr, m. pl. a minorite, bare-footed friar, Ann. 1265.

BERG, n. [Ulf. bairga = ἡ ὀρεινή; A. S. biorh; Germ. berg; Dan. bjærg; Swed. berg; cp. bjarg and borg, in Swed. and Dan. berg means a mountain gener., = Icel. fjall; in Icel. berg is a special name]:—a rock, elevated rocky ground, as in lögberg; vaðberg, a rock on the shore where the angler stands; móberg, a clay soil, saxum terrestri-arenaceum fuscum, Eggert Itin.; þursaberg is a sort of whetstone, cp. Edda 58; and heinberg, hone-stone, id.; silfrberg, silver-ore, Stj.; á bergi, on a rock or rocky platform.β. a rock, boulder; varð b. eitt undir höfði honum, Flov. 31.  γ. a precipice = björg; framan í bergi, Fms. vii. 8l, Eg. 581, Hkr. i. 151; meitilberg.

berg-búi, a, m. a berg-dweller, i. e. a giant, Landn. 271, Barð. 164.

berg-danir, m. pl. the Danes, (inhabitants) of rocks, giants, Hým. 17.

berg-hamarr, m. a rocky projection, Hom. 117.

berg-hlíð, f. the side or slope of a b., Fms. viii. 57, = Icel. fjallshlíð.

berg-högg, n. a quarry, Þjal. 8; cp. berhögg.

bergi-biti, a, m. a bit to taste, Sturl. ii. 132.

bergiligr, adj. inviting to taste, Sks. 528.

berging (bergning, Eluc. 20), f. tasting, taste, Stj. 292, Hom. 53, Magn. 486, Eluc. 54.

bergisamligr, adj. = bergiligr, Sks. 528.

BERGJA, ð, [A. S. beorgan; Lat. gustare], to taste; with dat., Þórgunna vildi öngum mat b., Th. would taste no food, Eb. 262; b. ölvi, Ls. 9; þeir bergðu engu nema snjó, Fms. viii. 52, 303, Stj. 268, Andr. 70; b. Guðs holdi ok blóði, in the holy supper, 655 xviii; b. dauða, to taste death, Post. 656 C, Fb. i. 323; fá margir sjúkir menn heilsu, er b., that drink, Fms. i. 232, iii. 12, Hom. 82; b. á e-u, Stj. 39, Fas. i. 246; b. af, Sks. 106, Blas. 43; cp. bjarga, bjargast við e-t, e. g. Eb. 244, Eg. 204, Clem. 26, Fs. 174.

berg-mál, n. an echo, also called dvergmál.  berg-mála, að, to echo.

berg-rifa, u, f. a fissure in a rock, Symb. 56.

berg-risi, a, m. [ep. berga-troll in the Norse tales], a hill-giant, Hkr. i. 229; hrímþursar ok bergrisar, Edda 10, 15; hon (Gerðr) var b. ættar, 22; mikit fólk hrímþursa ok bergrisar, 38, Gs. 9, 23.

berg-skor, f. pl. ar, [cp. Scot. scaur], a chasm in a rocky hill, Hkv. 2. 20, Fms. vii. 202, Stj. 450. 1 Sam. xiii. 6.

berg-snös, f. [from snös = a projection, Gullþ. 50, ch. 4, not nös, nasus], a rocky projection. Eg. 389, Gullþ. 8, l. c., Fas. i. 156 spelt bergnös, Sæm. 131.

berg-tollr, m. a rock-toll, paid for catching fowl thereon, Sturl. iii. 225.

berg-vörðr, m. a watch, look-out for rocks and cliffs; halda b., Jb. 407.

ber-hendr, adj. bare-handed.

ber-höfði, berhöfða or berhöfðaðr, adj. bare-headed, Stat. 299.

ber-högg, n. [berr, nudus, or rather = berghögg, metaph. for a quarry], in the phrase, ganga á (í) b. við e-n, metaph. to make open fight, deal rudely with, Fms. xi. 248, Ld. 142; Jóann gekk á b. at banna, St. John interdicted openly, 625. 93, in all those passages 'á:' in mod. usage 'í,' so Greg. 80, Sturl. ii. 61, Þorst. Síðu-H. 7.

berill, m. a barrel for fluids (for. word), Stj. 367.

BERJA, barði, pres. berr; sup. bart, barzt, O. H. L. 24, Bret. 48, 64, Fms. viii. 214, 215, xi. 16, and later barit, barizt; part. fem. barið, Am. 84; barðr, fem. börð, Sturl. iii. 154; mod. barinn; either form may now be used: [Lat. ferio. The word is not found in Ulf., and seems to be unknown in Germ. and Engl.; it is lost in mod. Dan.]  I. act. to strike, beat, smite, with acc., Fms. vii. 227, Eg. 582: as a punishment, b. húð af e-m, to scourge one, N. G. L. i. 85: to thrash to death, 341; b. grjóti, to stone, of witches, Am. 84, Ld. 152, Eb. 98, Gísl. 34: to castigate, b. til batnaðar, Hkr. ii. 178; cp. the sayings, einginn verðr óbarinn biskup, and, vera barðr til bækr, Bs. i. 410; b. steinum í andlit e-m, to throw stones in one's face, 623. 31; b. e-u saman vápnum, sverðum, skjöldum, knefum, to dash weapons ... against each other, Fms. vii. 204; b. gull, to beat gold, x. 206; sem barit gull,

BERKJA—BETRI. 61

like beaten gold, Ísl. ii. 206; b. korn, to thresh corn, Magn. 520: metaph. to chide, scold, b. e-n illyrðum, ávítum, Nj. 64, Hom. 35:—with 'á', 'at', to knock, rap, strike, b. á hurð, á dyrr (or at dyrum), to rap, knock at a door, Th. 6; b. sér á brjóst, to smite on one's breast, in repentance, Fms. v. 122; b. at hurðu, Sturl. iii. 153; b. til e-s, á e-m, to give one a thrashing, Dropl. 23; er þú á konum barðir, Hbl. 38; hjartað barði undir síðunni, to beat, of the heart, Str. 6 (but hjartsláttr, throbbing of the heart), in mod. use reflex., hjartað berst, hjartað barðist í brjósti heitt, Pass. 2. 12: in the phrase, b. í brestina, to cry off a bargain, the metaphor is taken from hammering the fissure of a ring or the like, in order to hide the fault, Nj. 32.  II. reflex., berjask, [cp. Fr. se battre; Germ. sich schlagen], to fight, Lat. pugnare, Boll. 360, Rd. 296, Fms. x. 86, Ísl. ii. 267, Fas. i. 255, Íb. 11: of a duel, ok þat með, at vit berimk her á þinginu, Eg. 351; b. við e-n, to fight with, Fms. xi. 86; b. á e-t, Lat. oppugnare, á borgina, i. 103, vii. 93, Stj. (freq.), seems to be a Latinism; b. til e-s, to fight for a thing; at b. til Englands, to invade England, Ísl. ii. 241, v. l.; b. orrostu, Lat. pugnam pugnare, Fms. vii. 79: of the fighting of eagles, Ísl. ii. 195.  III. impers., with dat., it dashes against; skýja grjóti barði í augu þeim, the hailstones dashed in their eyes, Jd. 31; honum barði við ráfit kirkjunnar, he dashed against the roof, Bs. i. 804; þeim barði saman, they dashed against each other, id.

BERKJA, t, to bark, bluster; with dat., b. yfir e-u, AI. 24; er oss hefir lengi í sumar berkt, Hkr. iii. 386; hefir þú stórt berkt við oss, Fms. xi. 87, [cp. barki, digrbarkliga.]

ber-kykvendi, n. a she-beast, Fms. xi. 94.

ber-kyrtlaðr, adj. without cloak, wearing the kyrtill only, Fms. ii. 29.

ber-leggjaðr and berleggr, adj. bare-legged, Fms. vii. 63, x. 415.

ber-ligr, adj. and berliga, adv.  I. [berr, nudus], open, manifest, Hom. 134; adv. openly, Fms. iv. 234, ix. 447, Ísl. ii. 317; compar., Clem. 46.  II. [berr, bacca], fruitful, Stj. 15.

berlings-áss, m. [from Swed. bärling, a pole, bar], a pole; b. þrettán álna langr, Fms. iii. 227, ἅπ. λεγ., l. c., [cp. berling, in Engl. carpentry, the cross rafter of a roof.]

ber-málugr and bermáll, adj. bare-spoken, outspoken, Fms. x. 420.

ber-mælgi, f. bare-speech, freedom of speech, Fms. vi. 178.

ber-mæli, n. pl. = bermælgi, Fms. ix. 333, Hkr. iii. 77.

ber-mæltr, part. = bermálugr, Fms. xi. 53, Hkr. iii. 97.

bernska, u, f. [barn], childhood, childishness; proverb, bráðgeð er bernskan, Fms. vi. 220; vera í b., Nj. 30, Fms. vii. 199, Sks. 596.  COMPDS: bernsku-bragð, n. a boyish trick, Grett. 92, Sturl. iii. 124.  bernsku-maðr, m. a youth, childish person, Hkr. ii. 156.

bernskligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), childish, Fms. v. 245, Sks. 553, 153, Magn. 434.

bernskr, adj. [Ulf. barnisks], childish, Fms. i. 22, vii. 237, ix. 249, Hom. 50.

ber-orðr, adj. = bermáll.

BERR, adj. [A. S. bär; Engl. bare; Germ. bar; Slav. bos; Litt. bosus; the Goth word is not on record, but was prob. sounded basus; the radical form is b-s, not b-r, and it is consequently different from Lat. -perio (in aperio), or bera, ferre, v. Grimm s. v.]:—Lat. nudus, bare, naked; albrynjaðr svá at ekki var bert nema augun, Fms. vii. 45; beran vápnastað, Nj. 9; undir berum himni, under the bare sky, in open air, sub dio, Karl. 544; á beru svæði, in open field; ber sverð, naked swords, Fms. i. 266; ríða berum hestum = berbakt, Dl. ii.  2. metaph. naked, unprotected, Grág. ii. 8; berr er hverr á baki nema sér bróður eigi (a proverb), Nj. 265.  β. uncovered, open, clear, manifest; segja með berum orðum, in clear words, Stj. 447; verða berr at e-u, to be convicted of a thing, 656 A, 25; berar jartegnir, Fms. ii. 221; góran sik beran at e-u, to shew openly, mostly in a bad sense, xi. 55; vóru berastir í því Þrændir, the Th. were most undisguised in it, Hkr. ii. 57; göra bert, to make known, lay bare, Fms. i. 32, vii. 195.

ber-serkr, s, m., pl. ir: [the etymology of this word has been much contested; some—upon the authority of Snorri, hans menn fóru 'bryn-julausir,' Hkr. i. 11—derive it from 'berr' (bare) and 'serkr' [cp. sark, Scot. for shirt]; but this etymology is inadmissible, because 'serkr' is a subst. not an adj.: others derive it from 'berr' (Germ. bär = ursus), which is greatly to be preferred, for in olden ages athletes and champions used to wear hides of bears, wolves, and reindeer (as skins of lions in the south), hence the names Bjálfi, Bjarnhéðinn, Úlfhéðinn, (héðinn, pellis,)—'pellibus aut parvis rhenonum tegimentis utuntur, 'Caes. Bell. Gall. vi. 22: even the old poets understood the name so, as may be seen in the poem of Hornklofi (beginning of 10th century), a dialogue between a Valkyrja and a raven, where the Valkyrja says, at berserkja reiðu vil ek þik spyrja, to which the raven replies, Úlfhéðnar heita, they are called Wolfcoats, cp. the Vd. ch. 9; þeir berserkir er Úlfhéðnar vóru kallaðir, þeir höfðu vargstakka (coats of wild beasts) fyrir brynjur, Fs. 17:—a 'bear-sark,' 'bear-coat,' i. e. a wild warrior or champion of the heathen age; twelve berserkers are mentioned as the chief followers of several kings of antiquity, e. g. of the Dan. king Rolf Krake, Edda 82; a Swed. king, Gautr. S. Fas. iii. 36; king Adils, Hrólf. Kr. S. ch. 16 sqq.; Harald Hárfagri, Eg. ch. 9, Grett. ch. 2, Vd. l. c. (Hornklofi, v. above); the twelve sons of Arngrim, Hervar. S. ch. 3-5, Hdl. 22, 23; the two berserkers sent as a present by king Eric at Upsala to earl Hakon of Norway, and by him presented to an Icel. nobleman, Eb. ch. 25. In battle the berserkers were subject to fits of frenzy, called berserks-gangr (furor bersercicus, cp. the phrase, ganga berserksgang), when they howled like wild beasts, foamed at the mouth and gnawed the iron rim of their shields; during these fits they were, according to popular belief, proof against steel and fire, and made great havoc in the ranks of the enemy; but when the fever abated they were weak and tame. A graphical description of the 'furor bersercicus' is found in the Sagas, Yngl. S. ch. 6, Hervar. S. l. c., Eg. ch. 27, 67, Grett. ch. 42, Eb. ch. 25, Nj. ch. 104, Kristni S. ch. 2, 8 (Vd. ch. 46); cp. also a passage in the poem of Hornklofi | grenjuðu berserkir, | guðr var þeim á sinnum, | emjaðu Úlfhéðnar | ok ísarn gniiðu—which lines recall to the mind Roman descriptions of the Cimbric war-cry. In the Icel. Jus Eccles. the berserksgangr, as connected with the heathen age, is liable to the lesser outlawry, K. Þ. K. 78; it is mentioned as a sort of possession in Vd. ch. 37, and as healed by a vow to God. In the Dropl. S. Major (in MS.) it is medically described as a disease (v. the whole extract in the essay 'De furore Bersercico,' Kristni S. old Ed. in cake); but this Saga is modern, probably of the first part of the 17th century. The description of these champions has a rather mythical character. A somewhat different sort of berserker is also recorded in Norway as existing in gangs of professional bullies, roaming about from house to house, challenging husbandmen to 'holmgang' (duel), extorting ransom (leysa sik af hólmi), and, in case of victory, carrying off wives, sisters, or daughters; but in most cases the damsel is happily rescued by some travelling Icelander, who fights and kills the berserker. The most curious passages are Glúm, ch. 4, 6, Gísl. ch. 1 (cp. Sir Edm. Head's and Mr. Dasent's remarks in the prefaces), Grett. ch. 21, 42, Eg. ch. 67, Flóam. S. ch. 15, 17; according to Grett. ch. 21, these banditti were made outlaws by earl Eric, A. D. 1012. It is worth noticing that no berserker is described as a native of Icel.; the historians are anxious to state that those who appeared in Icel. (Nj., Eb., Kr. S. l. c.) were born Norse (or Swedes), and they were looked upon with fear and execration. That men of the heathen age were taken with fits of the 'furor athleticus' is recorded in the case of Thorir in the Vd., the old Kveldulf in Eg., and proved by the fact that the law set a penalty upon it. Berserkr now and then occurs as a nickname, Glúm. 378. The author of the Yngl. S. attributes the berserksgangr to Odin and his followers, but this is a sheer misinterpretation, or perhaps the whole passage is a rude paraphrase of Hm. 149 sqq. In the old Hbl. 37 berserkr and giant are used synonymously. The berserkers are the representatives of mere brute force, and it therefore sounds almost blasphemous, when the Norse Barl. S. speaks of Guðs berserkr (a'bear-coat' or champion of God), (Jesus Kristr gleymdi eigi hólmgöngu sins berserks), 54, 197. With the introduction of Christianity this championship disappeared altogether.

bersi, a, m. a bear, Grett. 101 A, Fas. ii. 517, Sd. 165, Finnb. 246: the phrase, at taka sér bersa-leyfi, to take bear's leave, i. e. to ask nobody (cp. 'to take French leave'): freq. as a nom. pr., and hence in Icel. local names.

ber-skjaldaðr, adj. bare of shield, i. e. without a shield, Nj. 97.

ber-svæði, n. an open field.

ber-syndugr, adj. (theol.), a sinner, publicans and 'sinners,' Greg. 33, Post. 656, H. E. i. 585.

ber-sögli, f. [bersogull, adj.], a free, frank speech; hence ber-söglis-vísur, f. pl., name of a poem by Sighvat, Fms. vi. 38 sq.

ber-yrði, n. pl. plain-speaking, Fms. vii. 161.

BETR, adv., compar. to vel; and BEZT, elder form bazt, superl., better, best:1. compar., er betr er, luckily, happily, Fms. ix. 409, Ld. 22; b. þætti mér, I would rather, Nj. 17; vánu betr, Lat. spe melius, Fms. ii. 101; b. úgört, better not to do, Ld. 59; hafa b., to get the better of it, Fb. i. 174: adding gen., þess b., er ..., so much the better ..., Sks. 426: denoting quantity, more, leggit fram b. hit mikla skipit, advance it farther, better on, Fms. ii. 307; engi maðr tók b. en í öxl honum, v. 67; b. en tuttugu menn, ix. 339; þrjú hundruð ok þrír tigir ok sex b., to boot, Rb. 88; ekki máttu sumir menn b. en fá staðist, i. e. they could do no more, were just able to keep up against him, Fms. xi. 136; ef hann orkar b., if he can do more, Grág. (Kb.) ch. 128; nú má hann b., but if he is able to do more..., id.  2. superl., bazt búið, best equipped, Fas. ii. 523; with a gen., bezt allra manna, Eg. 34; manna bezt, Nj. 147; kvenna bezt hærð, Landn. 151; bazt at báðir væri, cp. Germ. am besten, am liebsten, soonest, Eg. 256.

betra, að, to better, improve, Ld. 106; betrask, to become better, Fms. iii. 160: impers., ef eigi betraðist um, Rd. 277; þeir sögðu, at konungi betraðist mjök, that the king was much better, Fms. ix. 215.

betran, f. a bettering, improving, esp. in theol., Fms. vi. 217, Stj. 158: alliter., böt ok betran.

betr-feðrungr, m. a man better than his father, Fms. vi. 286.

BETRI, betra, compar., and BEZTR, baztr, batztr, the superl.

62 BEYGJA—BINDA.

to 'góðr,' which serves as the posit.:—in the compar. the primitive a becomes e; thus old poets of the beginning of the 11th century, as Sighvat, rhyme betri—setrs; the old form batri however occurs, 655 xx. 4: in the superl. the a was kept till the end of the 12th century. Sighvat rhymes, last—bazti; old vellum MSS. now and then still spell with a (bazt, baztr ...), Glúm. 371, Heið. S. Ísl. ii. 324, Grág. ii. 165, 252, Fms. xi. 214, 220, Hm. 13, 26, 47, Hkv. Hjörv. 39, Lb. 12, Pd. 11, Ýt. 27, 625. 42, Fms. x. (Ágrip) 418; baþztra (baztra), gen. pl., 398, 401 (but betþt, 385); bazta (acc.), Eluc. 36: sing. fem. and neut. pl. bözt, with a changed vowel, bözt heill, n. pl., Skv. 2. 19; böztu (böþtu), pl., Fms. x. 401, 403, 415: it is spelt with z, tz (in Ágrip even þt), or zt, in mod. spelling often s, as in mod. Engl., and pronounced at present as an s, [Goth. batizo, superl. batisto; A. S. batra and betsta, besta; Engl. better and best; Germ. besser and beste]:—better, best; meira ok betra, Nj. 45, 193; betri, Dipl. v. 18; beztr kostr, Nj. 1, Eg. 25; beztr bóndi, Ld. 22.  β. kind, friendly towards one; with dat., er honum hafði baztr verit, 625. 42; er mér hefir beztr verit, Fms. vii. 274: er þér fyrir því bezt ..., it is best for thee, thou doest best to accept it, Nj. 225; því at þinn hlutr má eigi verða betri en góðr, 256; betra byr ok blíðara, 625. 4: with gen., meðan bezt er sumars, during the best part of the summer, Sks. 29, etc. etc., v. góðr.

beygja, ð, [baugr], to bend, bow, Fms. ii. 108, iii. 210, x. 174: metaph., b. e-m krók, to make it crooked for one, the metaphor taken from a game or from wrestling, Ld. 40.

beygla, u, f. to dint, of plate, metal, etc., Sturl. ii. 221.

BEYKI, n. beech-wood; beykir, m. a cooper, v. buðkr.

beyla, u, f. a hump, Lat. gibbus, swelling, Björn, cp. Snót 98.

beyrsta and beysta, t, [old Dan. börste; Swed. bösta], to bruise, beat; b. korn, to thresh, Fms. xi. 272; the alliterated phrases, berja ok b., to flog, Hom. 119; b. ok bíta, Grág. ii. 118; b. bakföllum, to pull hard, beat the waves with the oars, Am. 35.

beysti, n. [Swed. böste], a ham, gammon of bacon, Þiðr. 222.

beytill, m., v. góibeytill, equisetum hiemale, a cognom., Landn.

beztr, baztr, bezt, bazt, v. betri and betr.

BIBLIA, and old form BIBLA, u, f. the Bible, Am. (Hb.) 10.

BIÐ, n. pl. [A. S. bid], a biding, waiting, delay; skömm bið, Al. 118: patience, mikit megu biðin (a proverb), 119, 623. 60; vera góðr í biðum, to be patient and forbearing, Bs. i. 141; liggja á bið (biðum?), to bide the events, Fms. x. 407: in mod. usage fem. sing., lífið manns hart fram hleypr, hefir það enga bið, Hallgr.

biða, að, to bide a bit, Stj. 298, Bs. ii. 123: with gen. (= bíða), ok biðuðu þeirra, Fagrsk. 138, Nj. (Lat.) 110 note k, 135 note o.

biðan, f. = bið, H. E. ii. 80.

bið-angr and biðvangr, m. a biding, delay, Fms. ix. 259, v. l.

biðill, m., dat. biðli, pl. biðlar, a wooer, suitor, Fms. ii. 8.

BIÐJA, bað, báðu, beðit; pres. bið; imperat. bið and biddu; poët. forms with suff. neg. 1st pers. pres. biðkat ek, Gísl. (in a verse): [Ulf. bidian = ἀιτεῖν, ἐρωτᾶν; A. S. biddian; Old Engl. bid, bede (in bedes-man), and 'to bid one's beads;' Germ. bitten, beten; cp. Lat. petere]:—to beg; with gen. of the thing, dat. of the person; or in old writers with infin. without the particle 'at;' or 'at' with a subj.:  α. with infin., Jarl bað þá drepa hann, ... bað hann gefa Hallfreði grið, Fms. iii. 25; hann bað alla bíða, Nj. 196; bað þá heila hittast, Eg. 22, Fms. vii. 351; Skapti bað Gizur (acc.) sitja, Nj. 226; Flosi bað alla menn koma, Nj. 196, Hdl. 2; inn bið þú hann ganga, Skm. 16, Ls. 16; b. e-n vera heilan, valere jubere, Gm. 3, Hkv. 1, 2: still so in the Ór. 65 (biðr ek Ólaf bjarga mér) of the end of the 14th century; mod. usage prefers to add the 'at,' yet Hallgrímr uses both, e. g. hann bað Pétr með hryggri lund, hjá sér vaka um eina stund, Pass. 4. 6; but, Guð bið eg nú að gefa mér náð, id.  β. with 'at' and a subj., b. viljum vér þik, at þú sér, Nj. 226, Jb. 17: without 'at,' Pass. 6. 13, 3. 12.  γ. with gen., b. matar, Grág. i. 261; er þér þess ekki biðjanda. Eg. 423; b. liðs, liðveizlu, föruneytis, brautargengis, Nj. 226, 223, Ísl. ii. 322; bænar, Fms. iv. 12; b. e-m lífs, griða, góðs, böls, to beg for the life ... of one, Háv. 39, Fms. iii. 25, Edda 38, Hm. 127; b. fyrir e-m, to beg, pray for one, Nj. 55; b. e-n til e-s, to request one to do a thing, Grág. i. 450, Fms. v. 34: spec. to court (a lady), propose, with gen. as object of the thing and person here coincide, b. konu, b. sér konu, Eg. 5, Nj. 2, Rm. 37.  2. to pray (to God), absol., hann bað á þessa lund, Blas. 41; b. til Guðs, Sks. 308, Fms. iii. 48; b. bæn sinni (dat.), to pray one's prayer, 655 xvi, Hom. 114; b. bæn sína, id., Blas. 50.  β. reflex., biðjask fyrir, to say one's prayers, Nj. 196; er svá baðst fyrir at krossi, Landn. 45, 623. 34, Orkn. 51; biðjast undan, to excuse oneself, beg pardon, Fms. vii. 351: the reflex. may resume the infin. sign 'at,' and even an active may do so, if used as a substitute for a reflex., e. g. biðr Þórólfr at fara norðr á Hálogaland, Th. asked for furlough to go to H., Eg. 35.

bið-lund (and biðlyndi, Hom. 26. transl. of Lat. longanimitas), f. forbearance, patience, Hom. 97, Stj. 52, Pass. 8. 13, 15, 15. 13.  COMPDS: biðlundar-góðr, adj. forbearing, Fb. ii. 261.  biðlundar-mál, n. a thing that can bide, as to which there is no hurry, Grett. 150.

bið-stund, f. (biðstóll, Bs. i. 292 is prob. a false reading), biding a bit, Bs. i. 292, 704, Fms. viii. 151, Thom. 104.

BIFAST, ð, mod. að, dep. [Gr. φεβ-, φόβος, cp. Lat. paveo, febris; A. S. beofan; Germ. beben], to shake, to tremble:1. in old writers only dep., bifðisk, Þkv. 13, Hkv. 23, Þd. 17; bifaðist, Gísl. 60, Grett. 114: to fear, en þó bifast aldri hjartað, Al. 80.  2. in mod. usage also act. to move, of something very heavy, with dat., e. g. eg gat ekki bifað því, I could not move it.

bifr, m., in the compd úbifr, m. dislike, in the phrase, e-m er ú. að e-u, one feels a dislike to.COMPD: bifr-staup, n. a cup, Eb. (in a verse).

bifra, u, f. [A. S. beber, befer], a beaver (?), a cognom., Fms.

bif-röst, f., the poët. mythical name of the rainbow, Edda 8, (via tremula); but Gm. 44 and Fm. 15 read bilröst.

bifu-kolla (byðuk-, Safn i. 95), u, f. leontodon taraxacum, Hjalt. 254.

BIK, n. [Lat. pix; Gr. πίσσα; A. S. pic; Engl. pitch; Germ. pech; a for. word], pitch, Stj. 46; svartr sem. b., Nj. 195, Orkn. 350, Rb. 352.  COMPD: bik-svartr, adj. black as pitch.

bika, að, to pitch, Stj. 58, Ver. 8.

BIKARR, m. [Hel. bicere; Engl. beaker; Scot. bicker; Germ. becher; Dan. bæger, cp. Gr. βίκος; Ital. bicchiere], a beaker, large drinking cup, Dipl. v. 18: botan. perianthium, Hjalt.

BIKKJA, u, f. a bitch; þann graut gaf hann blauðum hundum ok mælti, þat er makligt at bikkjur eti Þór, Fms. ii. 163: as an abusive term, Fs. 54, Fas. i. 39; so in mod. Icel. a bad horse is called.  COMPDS: bikkju-hvelpr, m. a bitch's whelp, Fms. ix. 513.  bikkju-sonr, m. son of a b., Fas. iii. 607.  bikkju-stakkr, m. the skin of a b., Fas. iii. 417: all of these used as terms of abuse.

bikkja, ð, t, [bikka, to roll, Ivar Aasen], to plunge into water; hann bikði í sjóinn, he plunged overboard, Fms. x. 329; bikti sér út af borðinu, ii. 183; cp. Lapp. puokljet = to plunge.

BIL, n., temp. a moment, twinkling of an eye; í því bili, Nj. 115; þat bil, that very moment, Stj. 149, 157, Fms. i. 45.  β. loc., Lat. intervallum, an open space left; b. er þarna, Fas. ii. 67; orðin standa eiga þétt (namely in writing), en þó bil á milli, an Icel. rhyme.  γ. the poetical compds such as biltrauðr, bilstyggr, bilgrönduðr ..., (all of them epithets of a hero, fearless, dauntless,) point to an obsolete sense of the word, failure, fear, giving way, or the like; cp. bilbugr, bilgjarn, and the verb bila; cp. also tímabil, a period; millibil, distance; dagmálabil, hádegisbil, nónbil, etc., nine o'clock, full day-time, noon-time, etc.  II. fem. pr. name of a goddess, Lex. Poët.

bila, að, pres. bil (instead of bilar), Fas. ii. 76 (in a verse), to fail; Þórr vill fyrir engan mun bila at koma til einvígis, Th. will not fail to meet, Edda 57; Þorsteinn kvað pat eigi mundu at bila, Th. said that it should not fail, he should not fail in doing so, Lv. 33: with dat., flestum bilar áræðit, a proverb, Fms. ii. 31 (Ld. 170), Rd. 260.  2. impers., e-n bilar (acc.), Finnb. 338 (in mod. usage impers. throughout), to break, crack, þá er skipit hljóp af stokkunum, þá bilaði í skarir nokkurar, Fms. viii. 196; reiði b., Grág. ii. 295; b. at e-u, id., Gþl. 369; bil sterka arma, my strong arms fail, Fas. ii. l. c.

bil-bugr (bilsbugr, Fas. iii. 150), m. failing of heart; in the phrase, láta engan bilbug á sér sjá (finna), to stand firm, shew no sign of fear, Fms. viii. 412, Grett. 124, Fas. iii. 150, Karl. 233; fá b. á e-m, to throw one back, Karl. 80.

bil-eygr, adj. a nickname of Odin, of unsteady eyes, Edda (Gl.)

bil-gjarn, adj., occurs only in the compd úbilgjarn, overbearing.

bil-röst, f. via tremula, the rainbow, v. bifröst.

bil-skirnir, m. the heavenly abode of Thor, from the flashing of light, Edda.

bilt, prob. an old n. part. from bila; only used in the phrase, e-m verðr bilt, to be amazed, astonished; en þá er sagt, at Þór (dat.) varð bilt einu sinni at slá hann, the first time that Thor's heart failed him, Edda 29; varð þeim bilt, Korm. 40, Nj. 169.

bimbult (now proncd. bumbult), n. adj., only in the phrase, e-m verðr b., to feel uneasy, Gísl. 33, of a witch (freq., but regarded as a slang word), mér er hálf bumbult ...

BINDA, batt, 2nd pers. bazt, pl. bundu, bundit; pres. bind; 3rd pers. reflex. bizt; imperat. bind, bind þú; 2nd pers. bittú, bitt þú, Fm. 40: [Goth., A. S., Hel. bindan; Engl. bind; Germ. binden; Swed. binda, 2nd pers. bandt; in Icel. by assimilation batt; bant, however, Hb. 20, 32 (1865)]:—to bind:  I. prop. to bind in fetters, (cp. bönd, vincula; bandingi, prisoner), Hom. 119, Fms. xi. 146, Gþl. 179:  1. to tie, fasten, tie up, b. hest, Nj. 83; naut, Ld. 98, Bs. i. 171; b. hund, Grág. ii. 119; b. við e-t, to fasten to; b. stein við háls e-m, 655 xxviii; b. blæju við stöng, Fms. ix. 358; b. skó, þvengi, to tie the shoes, Nj. 143, Þorst. St. 53, Orkn. 430: to bind in parcels, to pack up, b. varning, Fms. iii. 91, ix. 241 (a pun); b. hey, to truss hay for carting, Nj. 74; klyf, Grett. 123; b. at, til, to bind round a sack, parcel, Fms. i. 10; to bind a book, (band, bindi, volume, are mod. phrases), Dipl. i. 5, 9, ii. 13.  β. medic. to bind wounds, to bind up, b. sár, Eg. 33, Bs. i. 639, Fms. i. 46 (cp. Germ. verbinden); b. um, of fomentation, Str. 4. 72: metaph. phrase, eiga um sárt at b., to have a sore wound to bind up, one feeling sore; hefir margr hlotið um sárt at b. fyrir mér, i. e. I have inflicted deep

BINDANDI—BITI. 63

wounds on many, Nj. 54: the proverb, bezt er um heilt at b., or eiga um heilt at b., to bind a sound limb, i. e. to be safe and sound; þykir mér bezt um heilt at b., I think to keep my limbs unhurt, to run no risk, Fms. vii. 263.  2. with a notion of impediment; b. skjöld sinn, to entangle the shield: metaph., bundin (closed, shut) skjaldborg, Sks. 385.  II. metaph. to bind, make obligatory; leysa ok b., of the pope, Fms. x. 11: to make, contract a league, friendship, affinity, wedding, fellowship, oath, or the like; b. ráð, to resolve, Ld. 4, Eg. 30; samfélag, lag, vináttu, eið, tengdir, hjúskap, Fms. i. 53, iv. 15, 20, 108, 210, ix. 52, Stj. 633, K. Á. 110: absol. with a following infin., binda (fix) þeir Þórir at hittast í ákveðnum stað, Ísl. ii. 147.  III. reflex. to bind, engage oneself, enter a league; leikmenn höfðu saman bundizt at setjast á kirkjueignir, Bs. i. 733; bindask (b. sik) í e-u, to engage in a thing; þótt hann væri bundinn í slíkum hlutum, 655; at b. sik í veraldligu starfi, id.; hann bazt í því, at sýslumenn yðrir skyldu eigi koma á mörkina, Eg. 71; em ek þó eigi þessa búinn, nema fleiri bindist, unless more people bind themselves, enter the league, Fær. 25, Valla L. 216; bindast í banns atkvæði, H. E. i. 465; binda sik undir e-t, with a following infin. to bind oneself to do, Vm. 25; b. sik við e-t, id., N. G. L. i. 89; bindask e-m á hendi, to bind oneself to serve another, esp. of the service of great personages; b. á hendi konungum, Fms. xi. 203, x. 215, Bs. i. 681, Orkn. 422; bindast fyrir e-u, to place oneself at the head of an undertaking, to head, Hkr. iii. 40; Öngull vildi b. fyrir um atför við Gretti, Grett. 147 A.  2. with gen., bindask e-s, to refrain from a thing; eigi bazt harm ferligra orða, i. e. he did not refrain from bad language, 655. 12; b. tára (only negative), to refrain from bursting into tears, Fms. ii. 32; hlátrs, Sks. 118; b. við e-t, id., El. 21; b. af e-u, Stj. 56.

bindandi and bindendi, f. (now neut., Thom. 68), abstinence, Stj. 147, 625. 186, Fms. i. 226, Hom. 17.  COMPDS: bindendis-tími, a, m. a time of abstinence.bindandis-líf, n. a life of b., Stj. 147, 655 xiii.  bindandis-maðr, m. an ascetic, Bs. ii. 146; mod. a teetotaler.

bindi, n. a sheaf, = bundin, N. G. L. i. 330; mod. a volume, (cp. Germ. band.)

BINGR, m. a bed, bolster, Korm. (in a verse), prop. a heap of corn or the like, (Scot. bing,) Nj. 153; vide Lex. Poët.

birgðir, f. pl. stores, provisions, Sturl. ii. 225, Fær. 53, Fas. ii. 423.

birgiligr, adj. well provided, Bs. i. 355.

BIRGJA, ð, to furnish, provide; skal ek víst b. hann at nökkuru, Nj. 73; segir Sigurðr, at hann mun b. þá með nökkuru móti, Fær. 237; hann birgði þá ok um búfé, Ld. 144; nú vil ek b. bú þitt at málnytu í sumar, Hrafn. 9. [In the Edd. sometimes wrongly spelt with y, as it is quite different from byrgja, to enclose.]

birgr, adj. [O. H. G. birig, fertilis; unbirig, sterilis: sometimes in Edd. wrongly spelt byrgr: this form however occurs Bs. i. 868, MS. the end of the 15th century]:—provided, well furnished; b. at kosti, Grett. 127 A, Sd. 170; viltú selja mér augun? Þá er ek verr b. eptir, Fas. iii. 384.

BIRKI, n. collect. = björk, birch, in COMPDS: birki-raptr, m. a rafter of birch-wood, Ísl. ii. 153.  birki-viðr, m. birch-wood, Grág. ii. 355.

birkja, t, to bark, strip; b. við, Jb. 235, Stj. 177; cp. Gkv. 2. 12, birkinn viðr (= birki viðr?), Fms. viii. 33; b. hest, to flay a horse.

BIRNA, u, f. a she-bear, Stj. 530, Fs. 26, Magn. 476: astron., Rb. 468; b. er vér köllum vagn, 1812. 16.  birnu-gætir, m. the name of one of the constellations, 1812. 18.

BIRTA, t, [Ulf. bairhtian], to illuminate, brighten, Stj. 15; b. sýn, 655 xxx; b. blinda, id.  2. impers., þokunni birtir af, the fog lifted, Hrafn. 6: to brighten with gilding or colouring, a ship, þá var birt allt hlýrit, cp. hlýrbjartr and hlýrbirt skip, Fms. iv. 277.  3. metaph. to enlighten; birta hjörtu vár, Hom. 67, Rb. 390: to make illustrious, Skálda 204.  β. to reveal, manifest, Fms. iv. 132, viii. 101: with dat., birti hann ꜵ́st sinni, x. 418.  γ. reflex. to appear; birtist þá skaði þeirra, Fms. vii. 189, v. 344, Stj. 198, Ann. 1243; b. e-m, Fms. i. 142.

birti, f. and mod. birta, u, f. [Goth. bairhti], brightness, light, the old form birti is used Luke ii. 9, in the N. T. of 1540, and the Bible of 1584, and still kept in the 11th Ed. of Vidal. (1829); otherwise birta, Pass. 8. 19, 41. 10; birta also occurs Stj. 81, Fb. i. 122; but otherwise birti in old writers; birti ok fegrð, Fms. v. 344, x. 347; birti ægis, the gold, Edda 69; tunglsins birti, Stj. 26, Fms. i. 77.

birting, f. brightness, Sks. 26, 656 A: metaph. manifestation, revelation, Th. 76, Stj. 378, Barl. 199: vision, 655 xxxii.  2. day-break.COMPD: birtingar-tíð, f. time of revelation, Hom. 63.

birtingr, m. a fish, trutta albicolor, Edda (Gl.): a nickname, Fms. vii. 157: pl. illustrious men, Eg. (in a verse).

BISKUP, m., in very old MSS. spelt with y and o (byskop), but commonly in the MSS. contracted 'bp̄,' so that the spelling is doubtful; but biscop (with i) occurs Bs. i. 356, byscop in the old fragm. i. 391-394; biskup is the common form in the Edd. and at present, vide Bs. i. ii, Sturl. S., Íb. [Gr. ἐπίσκοπος; A. S. biscop; Engl. bishop; Germ. bischof]:—a bishop. Icel. had two sees, one at Skalholt, erected A. D. 1056; the other at Hólar, in the North, erected A. D. 1106. They were united at the end of the last century, and the see removed to Reykjavik. Biographies of ten of the bishops of the 11th to the 14th century are contained in the Bs., published 1858, and of the later bishops in the Biskupa Annálar (from A. D. 1606), published in Safn til Sögu Íslands, vol. i. and Bs. ii, and cp. farther the Biskupaæfi, by the Icel. historian Jón Halldórsson (died A. D. 1736), and the Hist. Eccl. (H. E.). by Finn Jonsson (Finnus Johannæus, son of the above-mentioned Jón Halldórsson). During two hundred years of the commonwealth till the middle of the 13th century, the bishops of Skalholt and Hólar were elected by the people or by the magnates, usually (at least the bishops of Skalholt) in parliament and in the lögrétta (the legislative council), vide the Hungrv. ch. 2 (valinn til b. af allri alþýðu á Íslandi), ch. 5, 7, 13, 16, Sturl. 2, ch. 26, Kristni S. ch. 12, Íb. ch. 10, Þorl. S. ch. 9, Páls. S. ch. 2, Guðm. S. ch. 40, Jóns S. ch. 7 (þá kaus Gizurr biskup Jón prest Ögmundarson með samþykki allra lærðra manna ok úlærðra í Norðlendinga fjórðungi). Magnús Gizurarson (died A. D. 1237) was the last popularly elected bishop of Skalholt; bishop Gudmund (died A. D. 1237) the last of Hólar; after that time bishops were imposed by the king of Norway or the archbishop.  COMPDS: biskupa-búningr, m. episcopal apparel, Sturl. i. 221.  biskupa-fundr, m. a synod of bishops, Fms. x. 7.  biskupa-þáttr, m. the section in the Icel. Jus Eccl. referring to the bishops, K. Þ. K. 60.  biskupa-þing, n. a council of bishops, Bs. i. 713, H. E. i. 456.  biskups-brunnr, m. a well consecrated by bishop Gudmund, else called Gvendarbrunnar, Bs.  biskups-búr, n. a 'bishop's-bower,' chamber for a bishop, Sturl. ii. 66.  biskups-dómr, m. a diocese, Fms. vii. 173, xi. 229, Íb. 16, Pr. 107: episcopate, Fms. i. 118.  biskups-dóttir, f. a bishop's daughter, Sturl. i. 207.  biskups-dæmi, n. an episcopal see, Sturl. i. 204, iii. 124: the episcopal office, 23, Bs. i. 66, etc.  biskups-efni, n. bishop-elect, Bs. i, cp. ii. 339.  biskups-frændi, m. a relative of a bishop, Sturl. ii. 222.  biskups-garðr, m. a bishop's manor, Fms. ix. 47.  biskups-gisting, f. the duty of entertaining the bishop on his visitation, Vm. 23.  biskups-kjör, n. pl. the election of a bishop, Bs. i. 476.  biskups-kosning, f. id., Sturl. i. 33, Fms. viii. 118, v. l.  biskups-lauss, adj. without a bishop, Fb. iii. 445, Ann. 1210.  biskups-maðr, m. one in the service of a bishop, Fms. ix. 317.  biskups-mark, n. the sign of a bishop; þá gerði Sabinus b. yfir dúkinum ok drakk svá öröggr (a false reading = kross-mark?), Greg. 50.  biskups-mágr, m. a brother-in-law of a bishop, Fms. ix. 312, v. l.  biskups-messa, u, f. a mass celebrated by a bishop, Bs. i. 131.  biskups-mítr, n. a bishop's mitre, Sturl. ii. 32.  biskups-nafn, n. the title of a bishop, Fms. x. 11.  biskups-ríki, n. a bishopric, diocese, Ann. (Hb.) 19, Fms. xi. 229, Sturl. ii. 15.  biskups-sekt, f. a fine to be paid by a bishop, N. G. L. i. 350.  biskups-skattr, m. a duty to be paid to the bishop in Norway, D. N. (Fr.)  biskups-skip, a bishop's ship: the bishops had a special licence for trading; about this matter, vide the Arna b. S. Laur. S. in Bs. and some of the deeds in D. I.; the two sees in Icel. had each of them a ship engaged in trade, Fms. ix. 309, v. l.; vide a treatise by Maurer written in Icel., Ný Fél. xxii. 105 sqq.  biskups-skrúði, a, m. an episcopal ornament, Fms. ix. 38.  biskups-sonr, m. the son of a bishop, Sturl. i. 123, Fms. x. 17.  biskups-stafr, m. a bishop's staff, Bs. i. 143.  biskups-stofa, u, f. a bishop's study, Dipl. ii. 11.  biskups-stóll, m. an episcopal seat, bishopric, Jb. 16, K. Á. 96, Fms. x. 409.  biskups-sýsla, u, f. a diocese, episcopate, Fms. vii. 172.  biskups-tign, f. episcopal dignity, Bs. i. 62, 655 iii, Sks. 802, Sturl. i. 45.  biskups-tíund, f. the tithe to be paid to the bishop in Iceland, v. the statute of A. D. 1096, D. I. i, Íb., K. Þ. K. 150 (ch. 39), K. Á. 96.  biskupstíundar-mál, n. a lawsuit relating to the bishop, H. E. ii. 185.  biskups-vatn, n. water consecrated by bishop Gudmund, Bs. i. 535.  biskups-veldi, n. episcopal power, Pr. 106.  biskups-vígsla, u, f. the consecration of a bishop, Fms. viii. 297, Bs. i. 61.

biskupa, að, to confirm, Hom. 99; biskup er skyldr at b. börn, K. Þ. K. 62; Guðmundr biskup biskupaði hann tvævetran, Sturl. iii. 122; tók Glúmr skírn ok var biskupaðr í banasótt af Kol biskupi, Glúm. 397: now in Icel. called að ferma or staðfesta or even kristna börn.

biskupan, f. confirmation; ferming er sumir kalla b., K. Á. 20, ch. 3.

biskupligr, adj. episcopal; b. embaetti, Stj. 556, Sks. 781, 655 xxxii. (not fit for a bishop.)

BISMARI, a, m. [for. word; Germ. besem, besen; Dan. bismer; v. Grimm s. v.], a steelyard, Gþl. 526, Dipl. iii. 4.  COMPD: bismara-pund, n. a sort of pound, N. G. L. iii. 166.

bissa, u, f., Lat. byssus, a stuff, Bær. 21.

bistr, adj. [Swed. bister], angry, knitting one's brows, Sturl. iv. 82, v. l., cp. Bs. i. 750, Pass. 21. 1.

BIT, n. bite, Lat. morsus; at tönnunum er bitsins ván, Skálda 163: of cutting instruments, sax vænligt til bits, Fs. 6: of insects, mýbit, bite of gnats, Rd. 295; bit flugdýra, 655 xxx; dýrbit, a fox killing lambs, Bs. ii. 137.  β. pasture = beit, N. G. L. i. 246.

bita, að, to divide (a ship) with cross-beams (biti); skip þrennum bitum út bitað, Sturl. iii. 61.  β. to cut food, meat into bits.

bit-bein, n., cp. Engl. bone of contention; hafa ríki þessi lengi at öfund orðit ok bitbeinum, Fær. 230.

biti, a, m.  1. a bit, mouthful (cp. munnbiti); konungr át nökkura bita af hrosslifr, Fms. i. 37, Játv. 26, Rd. 283: in the phrase, biðja

64 BITILL—BJARGA.

bitum, to go begging, Grág. i. 278.  2. an eye-tooth = jaxl, q. v., [Swed. betar]; eru vér ok svá gamlir, ok svá bitar upp komnir, i. e. we are no longer babies, have got our eye-teeth, Fms. viii. 325.  3. a crossbeam, girder in a house, Ld. 316, Gþl. 346: in a ship, Lat. transtrum, Fms. ix. 44, Sturl. iii. 61.

bitill and bitull, m., dat. bitli, the bit of a bridle, Stj. 84, 397, Hkr. i. 27, Hkv. 2. 34, Akv. 30, Fms. iv. 75, Hkr. ii. 31.

bitlingr, m. a bit, morsel; the proverb, víða koma Hallgerði bitlingar, cp. Nj. ch. 48; stela bitlingum, to steal trifles, Sturl. i. 61, v. l.; bera bitlinga frá borði, as a beggar, Fas. ii. (in a verse).

bitr, rs, adj. biting, sharp, Korm. 80, Eg. 465, Fms. ii. 255.

bitra, u, f. bitterness, a cognom., Landn.

bitrligr, adj. sharp, Korm. 80, Fbr. 58: metaph., Ísl. ii. (in a verse).

bit-sótt, f. contagious disease, poët., Ýt. 17.

bit-yrði and bitryrði, n. pl. taunts, N. G. L. i. 223.

bí, bí, and bíum, bíum, interj. lullaby!

BÍÐA, beið, biðu, beðit; pres. bíð; imperat. bíð, 2nd pers. bíðþú, bíddu, [Ulf. beidan; A. S. bidan; Engl. bide; O. H. G. bitan]:—to bide.I. to bide, wait for: with gen., b. e-s, to wait for one, Eg. 274; skal slíkra manna at vísu vel b., such men are worth waiting for, i. e. they are not to be had at once, Fms. ii. 34; the phrase, bíða sinnar stundar, to bide one's time: with héðan, þaðan, to wait, stand waiting, bíð þú héðan, unz ek kem, 656 C. 35; þaðan beið þengill, Hkv. 1. 22: also, b. e-s ór stað, Lex. Poët. The old writers constantly use a notion 'a loco,' þaðan, héðan, or stað, where the mod. usage is hér, þar, 'in loco:' absol., Fms. x. 37, Nj. 3.  II. to abide, suffer, undergo, Lat. pati; with acc., b. harm, Nj. 250; skaða, Grág. i. 459, 656 C; ámæli, to be blamed, Nj. 133; bana, dauða, hel, to abide death ..., to die, Hm. 19, Fms. vi. 114; ósigr, to abide defeat, be defeated; svá skal böl bæta at bíða annat meira (a proverb), Fb. ii. 336, Al. 57: sometimes in a good sense, bíða elli, to last to a great age, 656 A; b. enga ró, to feel no peace, be uneasy, Eg. 403; b. ekki (seint) bætr e-s, of an irreparable loss, Ísl. ii. 172.  III. impers., e-t (acc.) bíðr, there abides, i. e. exists, is to be had, with a preceding negative; hvárki bíðr þar báru né vindsblæ, there is felt neither wave nor blast, Stj. 78; beið engan þann er ráða kynni, there was none that could make it out, 22; varla beið brauð eðr fæðu, was not to be had, 212; slægastr af öllum þeím kvikendum er til bíðr á jarðríki, 34. Gen. iii. 1.  IV. part. pl. bíðendr, v. andróði.

bíðandi, f. a biding, waiting, delay, Fms. ii. 216.

bí-fala, að, [Germ. befehlen], to recommend, command, Bs. i. 145 note 7, from paper MS., v. Introd. p. 48.

bíldr, m., and bílda, u, f. an axe, Edda (Gl.); an instrument for bleeding: bíld-spor, n. a scar as from a b., Bs. i. 367.  2. a sheep witb spotted cheeks: bíld-óttr, adj. (sheep) spotted on the cheeks, Rd. 240.

bíld-ör, f. a blunt arrow, a bolt, Fms. ii. 320, x. 362.

bí-lífl, n. [A. S. biliofa], luxury, Al. 17, 34, 45.

bí-standa, stóð, [Goth. bistandan; Germ. beistehen], (for. word), to assist, Stj. MS. 227, col. 102.

bísundr, m. (for. word), a besant (Byzantius), a coin, El. 2.

BÍTA, beit, bitu, bitið; pres. bít; imperat. bít, 2nd pers. bittú; poët. forms with the negative, beitat, Eg. (in a verse); subj. bítia, Hkv. 2. 31, [Ulf. beitan; Engl. bite; Germ. beizen]:—to bite, Lat. mordere:I. properly,  1. with the teeth, Eg. 508, N. G. L. i. 351; b. menn (of a dog), Grág. ii. 119; b. skarð ór, Eg. 605: of a horse, N. G. L. i. 392: foxes killing sheep, Bs. ii. 138, N. G. L. ii. 34 (wolf):—to sting, of wasps, gnats, Landn. 146.  2. of grazing animals; b. gras, lauf, skóg, Grág. ii. 229, (hence beit, pasture); hvar hestar þínir bitu gras, Fs. 57: absol. to graze, Karl. 71.  3. of sharp instruments, weapons (vápnbitinn); engir vóru ósárir nema þeir er eigi bitu járn, except those whom iron could not bite, Eg. 33; sverðit beit ekki, did not cut, Nj. 45, Edda 7; ljárnir bíta, 48; fótrinn brotnaði en eigi beit, the sword did not cut but broke the leg, Bjarn. 66.  β. e-m bítr, one's weapon (scythe) cuts well, bites; allt bitu honum annan veg vápnin, Eg. 93.  4. of a ship, to cruise; hér er skip ... er vér köllum bíta (bite the wind) allra skipa bezt, the best sail, Fs. 27: impers., beit þeim eigi fyrir Reykjanes, they could not clear cape R., Landn. 30.  5. in fishing, to bite, take the bait; bítr vel á um daginn, the fishes did bite, Ld. 40; bíta mætti beitfiskr, q. v.  6. bíta á vörrinni, to bite the lip as a token of pain or emotion, Nj. 68; hann hafði bitið á kampinum, had bitten the beard, 209.  II. metaph.:  α. of frost, cold, sickness, and the like.  β. to bite, sting, hurt; hvat mun oss heldr b. orð hans, why should his speech sting us any more? Grett. 95 A; eigi veit ek prestr, nema orðin þín hafi bitið, thy words have bit, Fms. vii. 39.  γ. as a law term; sekt, sök bítr, the guilt strikes the convict, when brought home to him, hence sakbitinn, guilty; pá menn er hvártveggja hafa bitið, lög, réttindi ok svá dómar, convicted in the face of law and justice, Sks. 655 B; um þau mál sem sekt bítr, i. e. unlawful cases, liable to punishment, K. Á. 148; um þat er sekt bítr, Grett. 133 A (new Ed. 1853), Sks. 655.  δ. b. á e-n, to cut deep, affect, make an impression upon; the phrase, láta ekki á sig b., to stand proof against all; þetta lét Kjartan á sik b., K. felt pain from it, Ld. 204; láttu þetta ekki á þik b., do not mind it, id.; rennr þat öðrum opt mjök í brjóst, er á suma bítr ekki (of the conscience), 655 xi.  ε. e-t bítr fyrir, something 'bites off,' i. e. is decisive, makes a thing impossible or out of question; þat annat (the other reason) er þó bítr skjótara, which is still more decided against it, Fms. ii. 266; þeir kváðust þenna kost eigi vilja, ok kváðu þat tvennt til vera er fyrir beit, two decided obstacles, reasons against it, Sturl. iii. 47; þú ert miklu œri maðr at aldri, en svá at vér hafim her lögtekna í Jómsborg, ok bítr þat fyrir, that puts it out of question, makes it impossible, Fms. x. 93; Þorgilsi þykir nú þetta ráð mega fyrir bíta, Th. thought this would be quite sufficient,—fyrir hlíta would here be better,—Ld. 264; þeir höfðu jafnan minna hlut ór málum, þó þetta bití nú fyrir, they always got the worst of it, though this was a thorough beating, Fas. i. 144; (þat er) lögmanni ok lögréttumönnum þykir fyrir b., seems a decisive proof, cuts the case off at once, N. G. L. ii. 21; b. e-m at fullu, to prove fatal to, tell fully upon; hafa mik nú at fullu bitið hans ráð, Fs. 8; Njáls bíta ráðin, a proverb quoted by Arngrim in Brevis Comment., written A. D. 1593, denoting the sagacity of Njal's schemes; beit þetta ráð, it was effective, Fs. 153; e-m bítr við at horfa, Band. 7 C, is no doubt a false reading, = býðr, which is the reading l. c. of the vellum MS. 2845, vide bjóða.  III. recipr. of horse fight, Rd. 298.

bí-tala, be-tala, að, to pay, (mod.); cp. Germ. bezahlen.

bja, interj. fie! bía, to defile.

bjagaðr, part. wry, deformed, cp. bagr.  bjag-leitr, adj. ugly, deformed, Fas. ii. 149.

bjalla, u, f. a bell, certainly an Engl. word imported into Icel. along with Christianity; bjöllu gætir, the keeper of the bell, is a nickname given by the heathen Icel. to a missionary, A. D. 998, Kristni S. (in a verse): hann vígði klukkur ok bjöllur, Bs. i. 65, Fms. i. 233: bjalla is now esp. used of small bells, e. g. on the horns of sheep, but klukka of a church bell; cp. dynbjalla, Grett.

bjannak, n. an ἅπ. λεγ.; þat var háttr hans ef hann (viz. Odin) sendi menn sína til orrostu eðr aðrar sendifarar, at hann lagði áðr hendr í höfuð þeim ok gaf þeim bjannak, trúðu þeir at þá mundi vel farast, Ýngl. S. ch. 11; it is commonly interpreted as benedictio, but it is no doubt the Scot. bannock, from Gael, banagh, an oat-cake; cp. Lat. panis. The whole passage in the Hkr. points to Christian rites and ideas brought into the pagan North, but which are here attributed to Odin, (cp. the breaking of bread and the Eucharist.)

BJARG, n. [Ulf. bairgahei = ἡ ὀρεινή; A. S. beorg; Germ. berg; lost in Engl.], rocks, precipices:1. neut. pl. björg, precipices (in a collect. sense), esp. on the sea-side, cp. flugabjörg, sjófarbjörg, hamrabjörg; precipices covered with gulls and sea fowls are called bjarg, e. g. Látrabjarg, Þórisbjörg, mostly in pl., Bs. ii. 111, Fms. 275, Orkn. 312.  2. sing. rock; bjargit hafði nýliga sprungit frá einum hellismunna, Fms. i. 230; vatn ór bjargi, water out of a rock, 655 xii, Nj. 264, Fas. ii. 29.  β. in sing. it chiefly means an immense stone (cp. heljarbjarg), a boulder; hann hefir fært þat bjarg í hellisdyrnar, at ekki má í hellinn komast, Fms. iii. 223; einn stein svá mikinn sem bjarg væri, Gísl. 31; hve stór björg (pl.) at sá hestr dró, Edda 26; at svá ungr maðr skyldi hefja svá stórt bjarg, Grett. 93.

BJARGA, barg, burgu, borgit; pres. bergr, pl. björgum; imperat. bjarg; pret. subj. byrga: in mod. use after the Reformation this verb is constantly used weak, bjarga, að, pres. bjargar, pret. bjargat; the only remnant of the old is the sup. borgit, etc. In Norway this weak form occurs very early, e. g. bjargar, servat, Hom. 17; in Icel. the weak seldom occurs before the 15th century; bjargaðist, Fs. 143, and bjargat (sup.) = borgit, Lv. 11, are probably due to these passages being left in paper MSS.; the weak bjargaði, however, occurs in a vellum MS. of the 15th century, Þorf. Karl. 388; 1st pers. pres. bjarga, Fms. xi. 150 (MS. 13th century) seems to be a Norse idiom, [Goth. bairgan; Hel. bergan; A. S. beargan; cp. birgr]:—to save, help; with dat., bergr hverjum sem eigi er feigr (a proverb), Sturl. iii. 220; sá er öldum bergr, who saves mankind, viz. against the giants, i. e. Thor, Hým. 22; nema Þorgeirr byrgi honum, Rd. 295: absol., Guð barg (by God's grace) er konungrinn varð eigi sárr, Fms. v. 268: in theol. sense, vildu þeir eigi snúast til mín at ek byrga þeim, 656 C. 23, Hom. l. c.: impers., e-m er borgit, is saved, comes safe and sound out of danger, Fær. 178, Hkv. Hjörv. 29.  2. a law term; b. sök, máli, to find a point of defence; hann bergr þeim kosti sökinni, at ..., Grág. i. 40; bergsk hann við bjargkviðinn, he is free by virtue of the verdict, 36; borgit mun nú verða at lögum, i. e. there will be some means of putting it right, Lv. 11, Nj. 36.  3. special phrases; b. skipshöfn, to pick up the shipwrecked, Þorf. Karl. l. c., Fms. xi. 412; skipi, to haul a ship out of the reach of tides and waves, Grág. ii. 385; hval, to drag a dead whale ashore, Gþl. 461: to help labouring women (v. bjargrúnar), Sdm. 9; b. nám (v. nábjargir), to render the last service to a dead body, 33; b. kúm, to attend cows casting calf, Bjarn. 32; b. búfé, to milk ewes, N. G. L. i. 10; b. brókum, cacare, Fms. xi. 150.  II. recipr. of mutual help; bjargast at allir saman, to be saved all in common, Hkr. ii. 347.  III. reflex., bjargask vel, to behave well, keep the heart up, esp. in cold or hunger; Oddr bargst vel á fjallinu (in snow storm), Sturl. iii.

BJARGAURAR—BJÓÐA. 65

215, Orkn. 324, of one shipwrecked; b. úti, of cattle, to graze, N. G. L. i. 25; b. sjálfr, to gain one's bread, Grág. i. 294; b. á sínar hendr (spýtur), to support oneself with one's own hands, Fms. ii. 159: of food or drink, cp. bergja; Snorri goði fann, at nafni hans bargst lítt við ostinn, that he got on slowly eating the cheese, Eb. 244; hann spurði, hví hann byrgist svá lítt (v. l. mataðist svá seint), ... why he ate so slowly, id.; verði þér nú at bjargast við slíkt sem til er, you must put up with what you can get, Germ. für lieb nehmen, Eg. 204; hon bað fyrir þær matar ok burgust þær við þat, Clem. 26; hon bjargaðist (= bargst) lítt við þá fæðu er til var, she could hardly eat the food they had (v. l. hjúkaðist), Fs. 174. Part. borginn, used as adj. and even in compar.; impers., erat héra (héri = hegri = duck) at borgnara þótt hæna beri skjöld, the drake is none the better off though a hen shield him, metaph. of a craven, Fs. 174, Fms. vii. 116: [Early Engl. to borrow = to save, 'who borrowed Susanna out of wo,' Sir Guy of Warwick.]

bjarg-aurar, m. pl. = bjargálnir, Mag. 160.

bjarg-álnir, f. pl. means enough for support.bjargálna-maðr, m. a well-to-do man.

bjarg-festr, f. a rope or cord used to save men, Vm. 44.

bjarg-hagr, adj. a dexterous carpenter or smith for household work, Glúm. 355; cp. Sturl. ii. 195.

bjarg-högg, n. = berghögg, hewing rocks to make a road, Bárð. 166.

bjarg-kviðr, m. a law term, a verdict of acquittal given by five neighbours for the defendant, proving an alibi or the like, and produced during the trial; the b. seems to be, in its strict sense, synonymous with heimiliskviðr or heimiskviðr, q. v., cp. Grág, i. 60, 61, where it is defined; fimm búar skulu skilja um bjargkviðu alla, heimilis-búar þess manns er sóttr er, nema ..., vide also 48, 49, 53, 55, 56, etc.

bjarg-leysi, n. starvation, destitution, Grág. i. 238, Gþl. 272, Band. 43.

bjarg-ráð, n. pl. a law term, help or shelter given to an outlaw, in the phrase, úalandi, úráðandi öllum bjargráðum, Grág. ii. 162, etc., Nj. 40.

bjarg-rifa, u, f. a rift in a rock, Eg. 390, Stj. 450.

bjarg-rúnar, f. pl. runes for helping women in labour, Sdm. 9.

bjarg-rýgr, jar, f. pl. ir, a Norse law term, a female witness in a case of paternity, defined, N. G. L. i. 358.

bjarg-ræði, n. and bjargræðisvegir, m. pl. means for support.

bjarg-skora, u, f. a scaur or scar on a hill, Anal. 177, Ann. 1403, Hkr. iii. 323.

bjargs-maðr, m. a hard-working man, Bs. i. 309.

bjarg-snös, f. = bergsnös, a crag. Fas. i. 324, Eg. 389, v. l.

bjarg-vel, adv. well enough, Fms. viii. 68, 126, v. l.

bjarg-vættr, f. (in mod. usage m.), [bjarg, mons, or bjarga, servare], a helping friendly sprite, a good genius, answering to the Christian good angel; according to the heathen belief, the country, esp. hills and mountains, were inhabited by such beings; in the northern creed the bjargvætter are generally a kind of giant of the gentler kind: in mod. usage, a supporter, helper in need; muntu verða mér hinn mesti (masc.) b., Fas. ii. 438, vellum MS. of 15th century; en mesta (fem.) b., Bárð. 168, new Ed. 12.

bjarg-þrota, adj. destitute of means to live.

BJARKAN, n. the Runic letter B, Skálda, v. Introduction.

BJARKEY-, in the word bjarkeyjar-réttr, m. town-law, used as opposed to landslög or landsréttr, county-law, Sks. 22; sökin veit til landslaga en eigi til bjarkeyjarréttar, Fms. vii. 130; vide N. G. L. i. 303-336. It is an illustration of this curious word, that the Danes at present call a justice 'birkedommer,' and the district 'birk;' cp. local names, as in Sweden,—in Birchâ civitate regiâ, Johann. Magnus 542 (Ed. 1554); civitas Birchensis, 556; in Birchâ civitate tum maxima, 541; in Norway, Bjarkey is one of the northern islands, whence the famous Norse family Bjarkeyingar took their name; v. Munch, the pref. to Norge's Beskrivelse. Etym. uncertain; hedged in with birch (?).

BJARMI, a, m. the beaming or radiance of light, not the light itself; sólar-bjarmi, dags-bjarmi; very freq. in mod. usage; no instances from old writers are on record; akin to brími, bjartr, etc.  II. pl. Bjarmar (and Bjarmaland n., bjarmskr adj.), name of a people or tribe of the Russian empire, the Perms of the present day; vide K. Alfred's Orosius i. 1, 14 sq., Ó. H. ch. 122, Fas. ii. 511 sqq.

bjarnar-, v. björn.

bjarn-báss, m. a pit for catching bears, Gþl. 457; used proverb., Hkr. i. 235.

bjarn-dýri, and mod. bjarndýr, n. a bear, Fms. vi. 298, Nj. 35, Fs. 27, 148, 182.

bjarn-eggjan, f. the egging a bear on to fight, a Norse law term, of a brutal provocation, N. G. L. i. 74.

bjarn-feldr, m. a bear's fell, bear-skin cloak, Vm. 91, Pm. 120, Jm. 28.

bjarn-fell, n. id., Vm. 22, Ám. 81.

bjarn-gjöld, n. pl. 'bear-gild,' reward for killing a bear, Fs. 150.

bjarn-húnn, m. a young bear, Þórð. 17 (Ed. 1860).

bjarn-ígull, m. echinus terrestris urseus, Rb. 348, Hb. 29 (Ed. 1865).

bjarn-ólpa, u, f. an outer jacket of bear-skin, Korm. 114.

bjarn-skinn, n. a bear-skin, B. K. 83, Ld. 114, Korm. 112.

bjarn-staka, u, f. a bear-skin, Edda (pref.) 151.

bjarn-sviða, u, f. a large knife for killing bears, Eb. 298, Fas. iii. 546.

bjarn-veiðar, f. pl. bear-hunting. N. G. L. i. 46.

bjarn-ylr, s, m. bear's warmth, the vital warmth of an ice-bear; it was believed in Icel. (vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 610) that a child born on the hide of an ice-bear would be proof against frost and cold; people hardy against cold are therefore said 'to have bear's warmth' (bjarnyl), vide Háv. 39.

bjart-eygr and -eygðr, adj. bright-eyed, Fms. iv. 38, Bs. i. 66, Hkr. iii. 184, Ó. H. 245.

bjart-haddaðr, adj. a fair-haired lady, Lex. Poët.

bjart-leikr, m. brightness, Hom. 60, Rb. 336, Fms. i. 228, Magn. 468.

bjart-leitr, adj. of bright countenance, bright-looking, Fms. v. 319.

bjart-liga, adv. (and -ligr, adj.), clearly, Stj. 26.

bjart-litaðr, adj. = bjartleitr, Hkv. Hjörv. 27.

BJARTR, adj. [Ulf. bairts = δῆλος; A. S. beorht; Engl. bright; Hel. berht; in Icel. per metath. bjartr; cp. birti, etc.], bright; Lat. clarus is rendered by bjartr, Clar. 128; bjart ljós, Fms. i. 96; bjart tunglskin, Nj. 118; sólskin, Fms. ii. 300; veðr, i. 128: of hue, complexion, b. líkami, Hkr. iii. 179, Nj. 208; hönd, Bb. 3. 20.  2. metaph. illustrious; með b. sigri, Fms. x. 253; in a moral sense, Stj. 141.

bjart-viðri, n. bright weather, Bárð. 175.

BJÁLFI, bjálbi, a, m. a fur, skin, Fms. v. 207, 236; esp. in the compds hrein-bjálfi, geit-bjálbi, flug-bjiálbi, Haustl. 12. Etym. uncertain, perh. a Slav. word.  2. used as a pr. name, Landn.

BJÁLKI, a, m. [Hel. balco; Swed. and Dan. bjelke; Germ. balke; prob. akin to bálkr], a balk, beam,